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Encyclopedia > Chanson de geste
Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste.
Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste.

The chansons de geste, Old French for "songs of heroic deeds [or lineages]", are the epic poems that appear at the dawn of French literature. The earliest known examples date from the late eleventh and early twelfth centuries, nearly a hundred years before the emergence of the lyric poetry of the trouvères (troubadours) and the earliest verse romances. The French chanson gave rise to the Old Spanish tradition of the cantar de gesta. Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne. ... This article is about the legendary figure. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ... For other uses, see Charlemagne (disambiguation). ... Old French was the Romance dialect continuum spoken in territories corresponding roughly to the northern half of modern France and parts of modern Belgium and Switzerland from around 1000 to 1300. ... For other uses, see Hero (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of epic, see Epic. ... French literature is, generally speaking, literature written in the French language, particularly by citizens of France; it may also refer to literature written by people living in France who speak other traditional non-French languages. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... // Lyric poetry refers to either poetry that has the form and musical quality of a song, or a usually short poem that expresses personal feelings, which may or may not be set to music. ... Trouvère is the Northern French (langue doïl) version of troubador (langue doc), and refers to poet-composers who were roughly contemporary with and influenced by the troubadors but who composed their works in the northern dialects of France. ... For other uses, see Troubadour (disambiguation). ... As a literary genre, romance or chivalric romance refers to a style of heroic prose and verse narrative current in Europe from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance. ... At first just one of many dialects of Iberian Romance spoken in Iberia, the dialect of Castile eventually became identified as the Spanish language (called español or castellano in Spanish). ... A cantar de gesta is the Spanish version of the Old French chanson de geste. ...

Contents

Subjects

Composed in Old French and apparently intended for oral performance by jongleurs, the chansons de geste narrate legendary incidents (sometimes based on real events) in the history of France during the eighth and ninth centuries, the age of Charles Martel, Charlemagne and Louis the Pious, with emphasis on their conflicts with the Moors and Saracens. To these historical legends, fantasy is gradually added; giants, magic, and monsters increasingly appear among the foes along with Muslims. There is also an increasing dose of Eastern adventure, drawing on contemporary experiences in the Crusades; in addition, one series of chansons retells the events of the First Crusade and the first years of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Finally, in chansons of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, the historical and military aspects wane, and the fantastic elements in the stories dominate. Old French was the Romance dialect continuum spoken in territories corresponding roughly to the northern half of modern France and parts of modern Belgium and Switzerland from around 1000 to 1300. ... For the 18th century American form of music and performance known as minstrelsy, see minstrel show. ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... Charles Martel (or, in modern English, Charles the Hammer) (23 August 686 – 22 October 741) was proclaimed Mayor of the Palace, ruling the Franks in the name of a titular King, and proclaimed himself Duke of the Franks (the last four years of his reign he did not even bother... For other uses, see Charlemagne (disambiguation). ... Louis the Pious, contemporary depiction from 826 as a miles Christi (soldier of Christ), with a poem of Rabanus Maurus overlaid. ... For other uses, see moor. ... Saracens was a term used in the Middle Ages for those who professed the religion of Islam. ... For other uses, see Fantasy (disambiguation). ... Jack the Giant-Killer by Arthur Rackham. ... The Sorceress by John William Waterhouse Magic, sometimes known as sorcery, is a conceptual system that asserts human ability to control the natural world (including events, objects, people, and physical phenomena) through mystical, paranormal or supernatural means. ... This article is about the legendary creature. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Belligerents Christendom: Holy Roman Empire Genoa Lower Lorraine Provence Kingdom of France Blois Boulogne Flanders Le Puy-en-Velay Vermandois Kingdom of England Normandy Duchy of Apulia Taranto Byzantine Empire Kingdom of Cilicia Saracen: Great Seljuq Empire Danishmends Fatimids Almoravids Abbasids Commanders Guglielmo Embriaco Godfrey of Bouillon Raymond IV Stephen... The kingdom of Jerusalem and the other Crusader states (in shades of green) in the context of the Near East in 1135. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ...


The traditional subject matter of the chansons de geste became known as the Matter of France. This distinguished them from romances concerned with the Matter of Britain, that is, King Arthur and his knights; and with the so-called Matter of Rome, covering the Trojan War, the conquests of Alexander the Great, the life of Julius Cæsar and some of his Imperial successors, who were given medieval makeovers as exemplars of chivalry.[1] The Matter of France, also known as the Carolingian cycle is a body of legendary history that springs from the Old French medieval literature of the chansons de geste. ... As a literary genre, romance or chivalric romance refers to a style of heroic prose and verse narrative current in Europe from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance. ... ‹ The template below is being considered for deletion. ... For other uses, see King Arthur (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Knight (disambiguation) or Knights (disambiguation). ... According to the mediæval poet Jean Bodel, the Matter of Rome was the literary cycle made up of Greek and Roman mythology, together with episodes from the history of classical antiquity, focusing on military heroes like Alexander the Great and Julius Caesar. ... The fall of Troy, by Johann Georg Trautmann (1713–1769). ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Chivalry (disambiguation). ...


The poems contain a small and unvarying assortment of character types; the repertoire of valiant hero, brave traitor, shifty or cowardly traitor, Saracen giant, beautiful Saracen princess, and so forth is one that is easily exhausted. As the genre matured, fantasy elements were introduced. Some of the characters that were devised by the poets in this manner include the fairy Oberon, who made his literary debut in Huon de Bordeaux; and the magic horse Bayard, who first appears in Renaud de Montauban. Quite soon an element of self-parody appears; even the august Charlemagne was not above gentle mockery in the Pèlerinage de Charlemagne. A fictional character is any person, persona, identity, or entity that is created from ones imagination or from an adaption of an existing entity. ... Saracens was a term used in the Middle Ages for those who professed the religion of Islam. ... by Sophie Anderson For other uses, see Fairy (disambiguation). ... Oberon, also Auberon, King of the Fairies, is most well-known as a character in William Shakespeares play, A Midsummer Nights Dream, written in the mid-1590s. ... Huon of Bordeaux is the title character of a 13th century French romance (chanson de geste). ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... In the legends derived from the chansons de geste Bayard was a magic bay horse, renowned for his spirit, and who possessed the supernatural ability to adjust his size to his riders. ... Renaud de Montauban, also known as Rinaldo di Montalbano, was a fictional hero who was introduced to literature in a twelfth century Old French chanson de geste. ... A parody (pronounced ), in contemporary usage, is a work created to mock, comment on, or poke fun at an original work, its subject, or author, by means of humorous or satiric imitation. ... Le Pèlerinage de Charlemagne or Voyage de Charlemagne à Jérusalem et à Constantinople (Pilgrimage of Charlemagne or Charlemagnes Voyage to Jerusalem and Constantinople) is an Old French chanson de geste (epic poem) dealing with a fictional expedition by Charlemagne and his knights. ...


Origins

The origin of the chanson de geste as a form is much debated. The nineteenth century medievalist Gaston Paris, recognising that they drew on an oral epic tradition, identified this with narrative songs (sometimes called cantilenae) that are occasionally mentioned by contemporary authors in other genres. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Bruno Paulin Gaston Paris (August 9, 1839 - March 6, 1903), was a French scholar, the son of Alexis Paulin Paris. ... Il Cantilena is the oldest known literary text in the Maltese language. ...


Such songs about important events were sometimes being sung very soon after the military events described. As a first example, a contemporary historian records that the names of those who fell at the very minor ambush at Roncesvalles were on everyone's lips sixty years after the event, indicating the growth of a legend quite out of proportion to the original incident -- a legend that would result, long afterwards, in the various versions of the Song of Roland that are now known.[2] As a second example, there are references to contemporary songs on the subject of the First Crusade in two historical sources on that Crusade,[3] supporting the statement by Graindor of Brie, composer of the surviving Chanson d'Antioche, that he had drawn on the original work of the jongleur and participant Richard le Pèlerin. The Spanish Cantar de Mio Cid shows that a comparable narrative tradition existed in Spain at the same period. Combatants Franks Basques Commanders Charlemagne Roland†, Eginhard, Anselmus Unknown (speculated: Duke Lop of Vasconia) Strength Major army Unknown (guerrilla party) Casualties Massacre of the Frankish rearguard but safety for the main force Unknown The Roncevaux Pass (French and English spelling, Roncesvalles in Spanish, Orreaga in Basque) is the site of... The Song of Roland (La Chanson de Roland) is an 11th century Old French epic poem about the Battle of Roncevaux Pass (or Roncesvalles) fought by Roland of the Brittany Marches and his fellow paladins. ... Belligerents Christendom: Holy Roman Empire Genoa Lower Lorraine Provence Kingdom of France Blois Boulogne Flanders Le Puy-en-Velay Vermandois Kingdom of England Normandy Duchy of Apulia Taranto Byzantine Empire Kingdom of Cilicia Saracen: Great Seljuq Empire Danishmends Fatimids Almoravids Abbasids Commanders Guglielmo Embriaco Godfrey of Bouillon Raymond IV Stephen... The Chanson dAntioche is a chanson de geste in 9000 lines of poetry in stanzas called laisses, composed about 1180 for a courtly French audience. ... A page from the original codex, starting from line 1922 El Cantar del Mio Cid is the oldest preserved Spanish cantar de gesta. ...


Gaston Paris also believed that the early singers followed the courts of kings and military leaders, as did Norse skalds (lyric poets) and some Celtic bards, but the evidence on this is less conclusive. For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... The skald was a member of a group of courtly poets, whose poetry is associated with the courts of Scandinavian and Icelandic leaders during the Viking age, who composed and performed renditions of aspects of what we now characterise as Old Norse poetry. ... This article is about the European people. ... The Bard (ca. ...


Another school of thought, championed by Joseph Bédier, holds that the poems were the invention of the poets who wrote them. Bédier further suggests that some of the stories were first invented by monks, who used them to advertise pilgrimage sites by connecting them not only with saints but also by legendary heroes of folklore. Magical relics frequently appear in the tales. This point of view has fewer proponents since the development of Oral theory; it is additionally problematic because monks were specifically forbidden to dabble in the literature of the jongleurs. Joseph Bédier (1864–1938) was a 20th century French writer. ... For other uses, see Monk (disambiguation). ... This article is about the religious or spiritual journey. ... Saints redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Relic (disambiguation). ... Homeric scholarship is the study of Homeric epic, especially the two large surviving epics the Iliad and Odyssey. ...


Versification

Early chansons de geste are composed in ten-syllable lines grouped in assonanced stanzas (meaning that the last stressed vowel is the same in each line throughout the stanza, but the last consonant differs from line to line). These stanzas are typically called laisses. Stanzas are of variable length. An example from the Chanson de Roland illustrates the technique. The assonance in this stanza is on e: Assonance is the repetition of vowel sounds in non-rhyming words, for example Do you like blue?. Here the oo sound is repeated within the sentence. ... In poetry, a stanza is a unit within a larger poem. ... A laisse is a type of stanza, of varying length, found in medieval French literature. ... The Song of Roland (La Chanson de Roland) is an 11th century Old French epic poem about the Battle of Roncevaux Pass (or Roncesvalles) fought by Roland of the Brittany Marches and his fellow paladins. ...

Desuz un pin, delez un eglanter
Un faldestoed i unt, fait tout d'or mer:
La siet li reis ki dulce France tient.
Blanche ad la barbe et tut flurit le chef,
Gent ad le cors et le cuntenant fier.
S'est kil demandet, ne l'estoet enseigner.
Under a pine tree, by a rosebush,
there is a throne made entirely of gold.
There sits the king who rules sweet France;
his beard is white, with a full head of hair.
He is noble in carriage, and proud of bearing.
If anyone is looking for the King, he doesn't need to be pointed out.

Later chansons are composed in monorhyme stanzas, in which the last syllable of each line rhymes fully throughout the stanza. A second change is that each line now contains twelve syllables instead of ten. The following example is from the opening lines of Les Chétifs, a chanson in the Crusade cycle. The rhyme is on ie: The Crusade cycle is an Old French cycle of chansons de geste concerning the First Crusade and its aftermath. ...

Or s'en fuit Corbarans tos les plains de Surie,
N'enmaine que .ii. rois ens en sa conpaignie.
S'enporte Brohadas, fis Soudan de Persie;
En l'estor l'avoit mort a l'espee forbie
Li bons dus Godefrois a le chiere hardie
Tres devant Anthioce ens en la prairie.
So Corbaran escaped across the plains of Syria;
He took only two kings in his company.
He carried away Brohadas, son of the Sultan of Persia,
Who had been killed in the battle by the clean sword
Of the brave-spirited good duke Godfrey
Right in front of Antioch, down in the meadow.

Performance

The songs were recited (sometimes to casual audiences, sometimes possibly in a more formal setting) by jongleurs, who would sometimes accompany themselves, or be accompanied, on the vielle, a mediæval fiddle played with a bow. Several manuscript texts include lines in which the jongleur demands attention, threatens to stop singing, promises to continue the next day, and asks for money or gifts. Since paper was extremely expensive and not all poets could read, it seems likely that even after the chansons had begun to be written down, many performances continued to depend on oral transmission. As an indication of the role played by orality in the tradition of the chanson de geste, lines and sometimes whole stanzas (especially in the earlier examples) are noticeably formulaic in nature, making it possible both for the poet to construct a poem in performance and for the audience to grasp a new theme with ease. Man playing the vielle. ... “Fiddler” redirects here. ... Oral poetry is a form of poetry that is transmitted orally and memorized rather than written down. ...


The poems themselves

Approximately eighty chansons de geste survive, in manuscripts that date from the 12th to the 15th century. Several popular chansons were written down more than once in varying forms. The earliest chansons are all (more or less) anonymous; many later ones have named authors. Christ Pantocrator seated in a capital U in an illuminated manuscript from the Badische Landesbibliothek, Germany. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ...


About 1215 Bertrand de Bar-sur-Aube, in the introductory lines to his Girart de Vienne, subdivided the Matter of France, the usual subject area of the chansons de geste, into three cycles, which revolved around three main characters (see quotation at Matter of France). There are several other less formal lists of chansons, or of the legends they incorporate. One can be found in the fabliau entitled Des Deux Bordeors Ribauz, a humorous tale of the second half of the 13th century, in which a jongleur lists the stories he knows.[4] Another is included by the Catalan troubadour Guiraut de Cabrera in his humorous poem Ensenhamen, better known from its first words as "Cabra juglar": this is addressed to a juglar (jongleur) and purports to instruct him on the poems he ought to know but doesn't.[5] Literary cycles are groups of stories grouped around common figures, based on mythical figures or loosely on historic ones. ... The Matter of France, also known as the Carolingian cycle is a body of legendary history that springs from the Old French medieval literature of the chansons de geste. ... The fabliau (plural fabliaux or fablieaux) is a comic, usually anonymous tale written by jongleurs in northeast France circa the 13th Century. ... Ensenhame personified as a king in the 14th-century Breviari damor of Bernart Amoros. ...


The listing below is arranged according to Bertrand de Bar-sur-Aube's cycles, extended with two additional groupings and with a final list of chansons that fit into no cycle. There are numerous differences of opinion about the categorization of individual chansons.


Geste du roi

The chief character is usually Charlemagne or one of his immediate successors. A pervasive theme is the King's role as champion of Christianity. This cycle contains the first of the chansons to be written down, the Chanson de Roland or "Song of Roland". The Song of Roland (La Chanson de Roland) is an 11th century Old French epic poem about the Battle of Roncevaux Pass (or Roncesvalles) fought by Roland of the Brittany Marches and his fellow paladins. ...

  • Chanson de Roland (c. 1100 for the Oxford text, the earliest written version); several other versions exist, including the Occitan Ronsasvals[6], the Middle High German Ruolandsliet and the Latin Carmen de Prodicione Guenonis.
  • Entrée d'Espagne[7]
  • Galiens li Restorés known from a single manuscript of about 1490[8]
  • Anseïs de Carthage (c. 1200)
  • Pèlerinage de Charlemagne or Voyage de Charlemagne à Jérusalem et à Constantinople dealing with a fictional expedition by Charlemagne and his knights (c. 1140; two 15th century reworkings)
  • Fierabras (c. 1170)[9]
  • Aspremont (c. 1190); a later version formed the basis of Aspramonte by Andrea da Barberino
  • Aiquin or Acquin[10]
  • Chanson de Saisnes or "Song of the Saxons", by Jean Bodel (c. 1200)
  • Otuel or Otinel
  • Berthe aux Grands Pieds by Adenet le Roi (c. 1275), and a later Franco-Italian reworking
  • Mainet
  • Basin
  • Les Enfances Ogier by Adenet le Roi (c. 1275)
  • Ogier le Danois by Raimbert de Paris[11]
  • Jehan de Lanson (before 1239)[12]
  • Gui de Bourgogne[13]
  • Gaydon (c. 1230)[14]
  • Macaire or La Chanson de la Reine Sebile
  • Huon de Bordeaux originally c. 1215-1240, known from slightly later manuscripts. A "prequel" and four sequels were later added:
    • Auberon
    • Chanson d'Esclarmonde
    • Clarisse et Florent
    • Yde et Olive
    • Godin
  • Hugues Capet (c. 1360)
  • Huon d'Auvergne, a lost chanson known from a 16th century retelling. The hero is mentioned among epic heroes in the Ensenhamen of Guiraut de Cabrera, and figures as a character in Mainet

The Song of Roland (La Chanson de Roland) is an 11th century Old French epic poem about the Battle of Roncevaux Pass (or Roncesvalles) fought by Roland of the Brittany Marches and his fellow paladins. ... Occitan (IPA AmE: ), known also as Lenga dòc or Langue doc (native name: occitan [1], lenga dòc [2]; native nickname: la lenga nòstra [3] i. ... Middle High German (MHG, German Mittelhochdeutsch) is the term used for the period in the history of the German language between 1050 and 1350. ... Carmen de Prodicione Guenonis is an anonymous poem in medieval Latin, written in the first half of the 12th century. ... Le Pèlerinage de Charlemagne or Voyage de Charlemagne à Jérusalem et à Constantinople (Pilgrimage of Charlemagne or Charlemagnes Voyage to Jerusalem and Constantinople) is an Old French chanson de geste (epic poem) dealing with a fictional expedition by Charlemagne and his knights. ... Fierabras (from French a bras fier, on brave arm) or Ferumbras is a Saracen knight appearing in several chansons de geste and other material relating to the Matter of France. ... Aspremont is the name of 2 communes in France: Aspremont, Hautes-Alpes, in the Hautes-Alpes department Aspremont, Alpes-Maritimes, in the Alpes-Maritimes department Categories: ... Jean Bodel, who lived in the late twelfth century, was an Old French poet who wrote a number of chansons de geste. ... Tarim Basin, located in Xinjiang, China and is one of the largest drainage basins in the world. ... H.P. Pedersen-Dans statue of Holger Danske at Kronborg castle, Denmark This article is about the mythical character Holger Danske. ... H.P. Pedersen-Dans statue of Holger Danske at Kronborg castle, Denmark Ogier the Dane (Holger Danske) is a fictional Danish hero who first appears in the Old French chanson de geste. ... Pope Callixtus II (or Calistus II) (died December 13, 1124), born Guido of Vienne, the son of William I, Count of Burgundy (1057–87), was elected Pope on February 2, 1119, after the death of Pope Gelasius II (1118–19). ... Gaydon is a village in Warwickshire, England, close to Leamington Spa. ... Macaire is a common name for a 12th century French chanson de geste, named for one of its main characters. ... Huon of Bordeaux is the title character of a 13th century French romance (chanson de geste). ... Auberon is a name that can refer to a number of people: Auberon Herbert Auberon Waugh Auberon Herbert, 9th Baron Lucas Auberon Herbert (landowner) Auberon, the King of Faerie in the DC comic series The Sandman and The Books of Magic. ... Huon of Bordeaux is the title character of a 13th century French epic (chanson de geste). ... Huon of Bordeaux is the title character of a 13th century French epic (chanson de geste). ... Yde et Olive is an Old French chanson de geste. ... Jean-Baptiste André Godin (1817-1888) was an industrial. ...

Geste de Garin de Monglane

The central character is not Garin de Monglane but his supposed great-grandson, Guillaume d'Orange. These chansons deal with knights who were typically younger sons, not heirs, who seek land and glory through combat with the Infidel (in practice, Muslim) enemy. La Geste de Garin de Monglane is the second cycle of the three great cycles of chansons de geste created in the early days of the genre. ... Garin de Monglane, or Montglane, is a fictional aristocrat who gives his name to the second cycle of Old French chansons de geste. ... Saint William of Gellone (755-traditionally May 28, c. ... For other uses, see inheritance (disambiguation). ...

  • Chanson de Guillaume (c. 1100)
  • Couronnement de Louis (c. 1130)
  • Le Charroi de Nîmes (c. 1140)
  • La Prise d'Orange (c. 1150), reworking of a lost version from before 1122
  • Aliscans (c. 1180), with several later versions
  • La Bataille Loquifer by Graindor de Brie (fl. 1170)
  • Le Moniage Rainouart by Graindor de Brie (fl. 1170)
  • Foulques de Candie, by Herbert le Duc of Dammartin (fl. 1170)
  • Simon de Pouille or "Simon of Apulia", fictional eastern adventures; the hero is said to be a grandson of Garin de Monglane[15]
  • Aymeri de Narbonne by Bertrand de Bar-sur-Aube (1190-1217)
  • Girart de Vienne by Bertrand de Bar-sur-Aube (1190-1217); also found in a later shorter version alongside Hernaut de Beaulande and Renier de Gennes[16]
  • Les Enfances Garin de Monglane (15th century)
  • Garin de Monglane (13th century)
  • Hernaut de Beaulande; a fragment of the 14th century and a later version[17]
  • Renier de Gennes[18]
  • Les Enfances Guillaume (before 1250)
  • Les Narbonnais (c. 1205), in two parts, known as Le département des enfants Aymeri, Le siège de Narbonne
  • Les Enfances Vivien (c. 1205)[19]
  • Le Covenant Vivien or La Chevalerie Vivien
  • Le Siège de Barbastre (c. 1180)
  • Bovon de Commarchis (c. 1275), reworking by Adenet le Roi of the Siege de Barbastre
  • Guibert d'Andrenas (13th century)
  • La Prise de Cordres (13th century)
  • La Mort Aymeri de Narbonne (c. 1180)
  • Les Enfances Renier
  • Le Moniage Guillaume (1160-1180)[20]

Charlemagne and the coronation of Louis the Pious, in the Grandes Chroniques de France Li coronemenz Looïs or Le coronement Looïs is an anonymous twelfth-century Old French chanson de geste. ... Aliscans is a chanson de geste of the late twelfth century. ... Garin de Monglane, or Montglane, is a fictional aristocrat who gives his name to the second cycle of Old French chansons de geste. ...

Geste de Doon de Mayence

Main article: Doon de Mayence

This cycle concerns traitors and rebels against royal authority. In each case the revolt ends with the defeat of the rebels and their eventual repentance. Doon de Mayence was a fictional hero of the Old French chansons de geste, who gives his name to the third cycle of the Charlemagne romances, those dealing with the feudal revolts. ... In law, treason is the crime of disloyalty to ones nation. ...

  • Girart de Roussillon (1160-1170). The hero Girart de Roussillon also figures in Girart de Vienne, in which he is identified as a son of Garin de Monglane. There is a later sequel:
    • Auberi le Bourgoing
  • Renaud de Montauban or Les Quatre Fils Aymon (end of the 12th century)
  • Raoul de Cambrai, apparently begun by Bertholais; existing version from end of 12th century
  • Doön de Mayence (mid 13th century)
  • Gaufrey
  • Doon de Nanteuil current in the second half of the 12th century, now known only in fragments which derive from a 13th century version.[21] To this several sequels were attached:
    • Aye d'Avignon, probably composed between 1195 and 1205. The fictional heroine is first married to Garnier de Nanteuil, who is son of Doon de Nanteuil and grandson of Doon de Mayence. After Garnier’s death she marries the Saracen Ganor
    • Gui de Nanteuil, evidently popular around 1207 when the troubadour Raimbaut de Vaqueiras mentions the story. The fictional hero is son of the heroine of Aye d'Avignon (to which Gui de Nanteuil forms a sequel)
    • Tristan de Nanteuil. The fictional hero is son of the hero of Gui de Nanteuil
    • Parise la Duchesse. The fictional heroine is daughter of the heroine of Aye d'Avignon. Exiled from France, she gives birth to a son, Hugues, who becomes king of Hungary[22]
  • Maugis d'Aigremont
  • Vivien l'Amachour de Monbranc

Girart de Roussillon is an epic figure of in a cycle of Carolingian romances, collectively known as the Matter of France. ... Renaud de Montauban, also known as Rinaldo di Montalbano, was a fictional hero who was introduced to literature in a twelfth century Old French chanson de geste. ... Raoul de Cambrai is a French chanson de geste. ... Doon de Mayence was a fictional hero of the Old French chansons de geste, who gives his name to the third cycle of the Charlemagne romances, those dealing with the feudal revolts. ... Raimbaut de Vaqueiras (floruit 1180-1205) was a Provençal troubadour and warrior. ...

Lorraine cycle

Main article: Garin le Loherain

This local cycle of epics of Lorraine traditional history, in the late form in which it is now known, includes details evidently drawn from Huon de Bordeaux and Ogier le Danois. The 12th century chanson de geste of Garin le Loherain is one of the fiercest and most sanguinary narratives left by the trouvères. ...

  • Garin le Loherain
  • Hervis de Metz
  • Gerbert de Metz
  • Anseïs fils de Girbert

The 12th century chanson de geste of Garin le Loherain is one of the fiercest and most sanguinary narratives left by the trouvères. ...

Crusade cycle

Main article: Crusade cycle

Not listed by Bertrand de Bar-sur-Aube, this cycle deals with the First Crusade and its immediate aftermath. The Crusade cycle is an Old French cycle of chansons de geste concerning the First Crusade and its aftermath. ... Belligerents Christendom: Holy Roman Empire Genoa Lower Lorraine Provence Kingdom of France Blois Boulogne Flanders Le Puy-en-Velay Vermandois Kingdom of England Normandy Duchy of Apulia Taranto Byzantine Empire Kingdom of Cilicia Saracen: Great Seljuq Empire Danishmends Fatimids Almoravids Abbasids Commanders Guglielmo Embriaco Godfrey of Bouillon Raymond IV Stephen...

  • Chanson d'Antioche, apparently begun by Richard le Pèlerin c. 1100; earliest surviving text by Graindor de Douai c. 1180; expanded version 14th century
  • Les Chétifs telling the adventures (mostly fictional) of the poor crusaders led by Peter the Hermit; the hero is Harpin de Bourges. The episode was eventually incorporated, c. 1180, by Graindor de Douai in his reworking of the Chanson d'Antioche
  • Matabrune tells the story of old Matabrune and of the great-grandfather of Godefroi de Bouillon
  • Le Chevalier au Cigne tells the story of Elias, grandfather of Godefroi de Bouillon. Originally composed around 1192, it was afterwards extended and divided into several branches
  • Les Enfances Godefroi or "Childhood exploits of Godefroi" tells the story of the youth of Godefroi de Bouillon and his three brothers
  • Chanson de Jérusalem
  • La Mort de Godefroi de Bouillon, quite unhistorical, narrates Godefroi’s poisoning by the Patriarch of Jerusalem
  • Baudouin de Sebourg (early 14th century)
  • Le Bâtard de Bouillon (early 14th century)

The Chanson dAntioche is a chanson de geste in 9000 lines of poetry in stanzas called laisses, composed about 1180 for a courtly French audience. ... Peter the Hermit shows the crusaders the way to Jerusalem. ...

Others

  • Gormont et Isembart[23]
  • Ami et Amile, followed by a sequel:
    • Jourdain de Blaye
  • Beuve de Hanstonne, and a related poem:
    • Daurel et Beton, whose putative Old French version is lost; the story is known from an Occitan version of c. 1200
  • Aigar et Maurin
  • Aïmer le Chétif, a lost chanson[24]
  • Aiol (13th century)[25]
  • Théséus de Cologne, possibly a romance

Amis et Amiles is an old French romance based on a widespread legend of friendship and sacrifice. ... Occitan (IPA AmE: ), known also as Lenga dòc or Langue doc (native name: occitan [1], lenga dòc [2]; native nickname: la lenga nòstra [3] i. ...

Legacy and adaptations

The chansons de geste created a body of mythology that lived on well after the creative force of the genre itself was spent. The Italian epics of Torquato Tasso (Rinaldo), Orlando innamorato (1495) by Matteo Boiardo, and Orlando furioso by Ludovico Ariosto are all founded on the legends of the paladins of Charlemagne that first appeared in the chansons de geste. As such, their incidents and plot devices later became central to works of English literature such as Edmund Spenser's The Faerie Queene; Spenser attempted to adapt the form devised to tell the tale of the triumph of Christianity over Islam to tell instead of the triumph of Protestantism over Roman Catholicism. The German poet Wolfram von Eschenbach based his (incomplete) 13th century epic Willehalm, consisting of seventy-eight manuscripts, on the life of William of Orange. The chansons were also recorded in the Icelandic saga, Karlamagnús . For other uses, see Mythology (disambiguation). ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... Orlando Innamorato is an epic poem written by the Italian Renaissance author Matteo Maria Boiardo. ... Matteo Maria Boiardo (c. ... Ruggiero Rescuing Angelica by Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres. ... Statue of the poet in Reggio Emilia. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Una and the Lion by Briton Rivière The Faerie Queene is an English epic poem by Edmund Spenser, published first in three books in 1590, and later in six books in 1596. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Portrait of Wolfram from the Codex Manesse. ... Saint William of Gellone (755-traditionally May 28, c. ...


Indeed, until the 19th century, the tales of Roland and Charlemagne were as important as the tales of King Arthur and the Holy Grail, and the Italian epics on these themes were still accounted major works of literature. It is only in the later nineteenth and twentieth century that the Matter of France was finally eclipsed by the Matter of Britain. For other uses, see Holy Grail (disambiguation). ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s The 20th century lasted from 1901 to 2000 in the Gregorian calendar (often from (1900 to 1999 in common usage). ...


Narrative structure

The narrative structure of the chanson de geste has been compared to the one in the Nibelungenlied and in creole legends by Henri Wittmann[26] on the basis of common narreme structure as first developed in the work of Eugene Dorfman[27] and Jean-Pierre Tusseau[28] Narrative structure is generally described as the structural framework that underlies the order and manner in which a narrative is presented to a reader, listener, or viewer. ... The Nibelungenlied, translated as The Song of the Nibelungs, is an epic poem in Middle High German. ... A creole language, or simply a creole, is a stable language that originates seemingly as a nativized pidgin. ... For other uses, see Legend (disambiguation). ... Photo of Henri Wittmann in 2002. ... Narreme is the basic unit of narrative structure. ...


Notes

  1. ^ This three-way classification of mythology is set out by the twelfth century poet Jean Bodel in the Chanson de Saisnes: for details see Matter of France.
  2. ^ For this and other early evidence of the growth of a Roland tradition see Song of Roland.
  3. ^ William of Tyre, Historia Transmarina (Old French version) 10.20; Guibert of Nogent, Gesta Dei per Francos.
  4. ^ Recueil général et complet des fabliaux ed. A. de Montaiglon (1872) vol. 1 p. 3
  5. ^ Martín de Riquer, Los cantares de gesta franceses (1952) pp. 390-404
  6. ^ Le Roland occitan ed. and tr. Gérard Gouiran, Robert Lafont (1991)
  7. ^ Ed. A. Thomas. Paris: Société des Anciens Textes Français, 1913.
  8. ^ Galiens li Restorés ed. Edmund Stengel (1890); Le Galien de Cheltenham ed. D. M. Dougherty, E. B. Barnes. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 1981.
  9. ^ La geste de Fierabras, le jeu du réel et de l'invraissemblable ed. André de Mandach. Geneva, 1987.
  10. ^ Aiquin ou la conquête de la Bretagne par le roi Charlemagne ed. F. Jacques. Aix-en-Provence: Publications du CUER MA, 1977.
  11. ^ Raimbert de Paris, La Chevalerie Ogier de Danemarche ed. J. Barrois (1842)
  12. ^ Jehan de Lanson, chanson de geste of the 13th Century ed. J. Vernon Myers. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1965.
  13. ^ Ed. François Guessard, Henri Michelant. Paris, 1859.
  14. ^ Ed. F. Guessard, S. Luce. Paris: Vieweg, 1862.
  15. ^ Simon de Pouille ed. Jeanne Baroin (1968)
  16. ^ La geste de Beaulande ed. David M. Dougherty, E. B. Barnes (1966)
  17. ^ La geste de Beaulande ed. David M. Dougherty, E. B. Barnes (1966)
  18. ^ La geste de Beaulande ed. David M. Dougherty, E. B. Barnes (1966)
  19. ^ Ed. C. Wahlund, H. von Feilitzen. Upsala and Paris, 1895.
  20. ^ Ed. W. Cloetta. Paris, 1906-13.
  21. ^ "La chanson de Doon de Nanteuil: fragments inédits" ed. Paul Meyer in Romania vol. 13 (1884)
  22. ^ Parise la Duchesse ed. G. F. de Martonne (1836); Parise la Duchesse ed. F. Guessard, L. Larchey (1860)
  23. ^ Gormont et Isembart ed. Alphonse Bayot (1931)
  24. ^ R. Weeks, "Aïmer le chétif" in PMLA vol. 17 (1902) pp. 411-434.
  25. ^ Ed. Jacques Normand and Gaston Raynaud. Paris, 1877.
  26. ^ Wittmann, Henri. 1995. "La structure de base de la syntaxe narrative dans les contes et légendes du créole haïtien." Poétiques et imaginaires: francopolyphonie littéraire des Amériques. Edited by Pierre Laurette & Hans-George Ruprecht. Paris: L'Harmattan, pp. 207-218.[1]
  27. ^ Dorfman, Eugène. 1969. The narreme in the medieval romance epic: An introduction to narrative structures. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
  28. ^ *Tusseau, Jean-Pierre & Henri Wittmann. 1975. "Règles de narration dans les chansons de geste et le roman courtois". Folia linguistica 7.401-12.[2]

For other uses, see Mythology (disambiguation). ... Jean Bodel, who lived in the late twelfth century, was an Old French poet who wrote a number of chansons de geste. ... The Matter of France, also known as the Carolingian cycle is a body of legendary history that springs from the Old French medieval literature of the chansons de geste. ... The Song of Roland (La Chanson de Roland) is an 11th century Old French epic poem about the Battle of Roncevaux Pass (or Roncesvalles) fought by Roland of the Brittany Marches and his fellow paladins. ... William of Tyre (c. ... An angel blows a trumpet into Guiberts ear, declaring moral truths. ...

External links

  • La Chanson de Geste, with useful references (French)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Comparative Arts: A CyberEd Course: Part 4: Medieval Music: P.3 (834 words)
The simple repetitive melodies of the chansons de geste, together with the assonated verses and insistent rhythms of the poetry, had much in common With the litany -though, of course, the subject matter differed radically.
In the manuscript of the Chanson de Roland the enigmatic letters AOI appear after each of the 321 strophes, while in the songs of troubadours and minnesingers the letters are EUOUAE or some variant.
The single authentic example of a chanson de geste melody that survives is found in a little pastoral play from the 13th century by Adam de la Halle, where it is quoted humorously by one of the characters.
Chanson de geste (94 words)
The poems (of which about 100 survive) date from the 11th to the 14th centuries, and were sung to short musical phrases, probably involving repetition, by trouvères (see minstrel).
The most famous, La Chanson de Roland (early 12th century), recounts the death of Roland, one of Charlemagne's knights, with remarkable grandeur and pathos.
The chansons de geste were predecessors of the verse romances written by Chrétien de Troyes.
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