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Encyclopedia > Channel Tunnel
Channel Tunnel
Le tunnel sous la Manche
Map of the Channel Tunnel
Info
Location Beneath the English Channel
(Strait of Dover)
Coordinates Folkestone: 51°5′49.5″N 1°9′21″E / 51.097083, 1.15583 (Folkestone end of tunnel), Coquelles: 50°55′22″N 1°46′50.16″E / 50.92278, 1.7806 (Coquelles end of tunnel)
Status Active
Start Folkestone, Kent, England
End Coquelles, Pas-de-Calais, France
Operation
Opened 6 May 1994
Owner Eurotunnel
Operator(s) Shuttle, Eurostar, EWS, SNCF
Character Through-rail passenger and freight. Vehicle shuttle.
Technical
Line length 50.450 kilometres (31.348 mi)
No. of tracks 2 Single track tunnels
Gauge standard: 1,435 mm (4 ft 8½ in)
Electrified Yes

The Channel Tunnel (French: Le tunnel sous la Manche), also known as Chunnel or Eurotunnel, is a 50.5-kilometre (31.4 mi) undersea rail tunnel linking the United Kingdom and France, running beneath the English Channel at the Strait of Dover, connecting Folkestone, Kent in England to Coquelles near Calais in northern France. It is the second longest undersea tunnel in the world (after Japan's Seikan Tunnel). Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For the Thoroughbred racehorse of the same name, see English Channel (horse). ... Satellite image of the Strait of Dover The Strait of Dover (French: Pas de Calais, i. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Folkestone is a coastal resort town in the Shepway district of Kent, England. ... For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... , Coquelles is a village and commune of the Pas-de-Calais département, located near Calais in northern France. ... Pas-de-Calais is a département in northern France named after the strait which it borders. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Eurotunnel logo Eurotunnel plc (in the UK) and Eurotunnel SA (in France) make up the Eurotunnel Group, founded in August 1986, which manages and operates the Channel Tunnel between the UK and France. ... Interior of a Eurotunnel Shuttle passenger vehicle train Interior of single deck train with carriage doors open Interior of single deck train with carriage doors closed Eurotunnel Shuttle (previously known as Le Shuttle) is a shuttle service between Calais/Coquelles in France and Folkestone in the UK. It conveys road... This article is about high-speed trains between London and Brussels / Paris. ... English, Welsh and Scottish Railway Ltd (EWS) is the largest British rail freight company. ... SNCF (Société Nationale des Chemins de fer Français) (French National Railway Company) is a French public enterprise. ... “km” redirects here. ... “Miles” redirects here. ... A single track railway A single track railway is one where traffic in both directions shares the same track. ... “km” redirects here. ... “Miles” redirects here. ... railroads redirects here. ... For the Thoroughbred racehorse of the same name, see English Channel (horse). ... Satellite image of the Strait of Dover The Strait of Dover (French: Pas de Calais, i. ... Folkestone is a coastal resort town in the Shepway district of Kent, England. ... For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ... , Coquelles is a village and commune of the Pas-de-Calais département, located near Calais in northern France. ... Calais (Kales in Dutch) is a town in northern France, located at 50°57N 1°52E. It is in the département of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... The Seikan Tunnel (青函トンネル Seikan Tonneru or 青函隧道 Seikan Zuidō) is a 53. ...


Ideas for a cross-Channel fixed link existed as early as 1802 but the eventual successful project, organised by Eurotunnel, began construction in 1988. By 1994 the tunnel commenced operating its through-rail passenger services, linking London to Paris and Brussels, through-rail freight services and vehicle shuttle services. The project's cost overran predictions by 80%, and concessionaire Eurotunnel overestimated tunnel traffic and has met financial difficulty. In 1996 a fire disrupted operation of the tunnel. Illegal immigrants and asylum seekers had been known in the past to use the tunnel to enter Britain, causing a minor diplomatic row over the siting of the Sangatte refugee camp which was eventually closed in 2002. Eurotunnel logo Eurotunnel plc (in the UK) and Eurotunnel SA (in France) make up the Eurotunnel Group, founded in August 1986, which manages and operates the Channel Tunnel between the UK and France. ...


Eleven tunnel boring machines working from both the UK and France cut through chalk marl to construct two rail tunnels and a service tunnel. Rolling stock using the tunnel includes Eurostar passenger trains based on the French TGV and vehicle shuttle wagons that are the largest in the world; the tunnel has its own fleet of service vehicles. The vehicle shuttle terminals are located at Cheriton and Coquelles, and are connected to the British and French motorways. In 1996 the American Society of Civil Engineers identified the tunnel as one of the Seven Wonders of the Modern World. A tunnel boring machine that was used at Yucca Mountain. ... Marls are calcium carbonate or lime rich muds or mudstones which contain variable amounts of clays and calcite or aragonite. ... For the group of heart conditions referred to as TGV, see Transposition of the great vessels. ... Cheriton is a district of Folkestone, Kent, England, best known as the site of the Channel Tunnel terminal. ... “ASCE” redirects here. ...

Contents

History

Proposals for a fixed-link to cross the English Channel go back to Albert Mathieu's 1802 plan involving horse-drawn carts and a constructed mid-Channel island. For over 150 years British political and press pressure over compromised national security stalled attempts to construct a tunnel. In 1974, French and UK government funded construction commenced on both sides of the Channel but the project was cancelled by the UK government due to financial concerns. In 1985 the UK and French governments invited submissions for a fixed link. Eurotunnel, a group of ten construction companies and five banks, was awarded the project, a triple-bore railway tunnel based on the 1974 attempt. Tunnelling commenced in 1988 and the tunnel began operating in 1994. In 1985 prices, the total construction cost was £4650 million (£10,153 million inflation-adjusted to 2007), an 80% cost overrun. At the peak of construction 15,000 people were employed with daily expenditure over £3 million.[1] Ten workers died during construction.[2][3] GBP redirects here. ...


Three services use the tunnel: Eurotunnel Shuttle (formerly Le Shuttle) – a roll-on roll-off shuttle service for road vehicles including freight lorries, Eurostar – through rail services for passengers, and through rail freight services. Eurotunnel's traffic predictions for the tunnel were overestimates and the group has been challenged financially. In 1996 a heavy goods vehicle shuttle wagon fire caused damage and restricted use of the tunnel, although nobody was seriously hurt in the incident. Five years after the opening of the tunnel there were few and small impacts on the wider economy, and it was difficult to identify major developments associated with the tunnel.[4] In 1996 the American Society of Civil Engineers, with Popular Mechanics, selected the tunnel as one of the Seven Wonders of the Modern World.[5] Interior of a Eurotunnel Shuttle passenger vehicle train Interior of single deck train with carriage doors open Interior of single deck train with carriage doors closed Eurotunnel Shuttle (previously known as Le Shuttle) is a shuttle service between Calais/Coquelles in France and Folkestone in the UK. It conveys road... This article is about high-speed trains between London and Brussels / Paris. ... The adolescent Internet. ...


Proposals and attempts

Thomé de Gamond's 1856 plan for a cross-Channel link, with a port/airshaft on the Varne sandbank mid-Channel.
Thomé de Gamond's 1856 plan for a cross-Channel link, with a port/airshaft on the Varne sandbank mid-Channel.

In 1802 French mining engineer Albert Mathieu put forward a proposal to tunnel under the English Channel, with illumination from oil lamps, horsedrawn coaches, and an artificial island mid-Channel for changing horses.[6] In the 1830s Frenchman Aimé Thomé de Gamond performed the first geological and hydrographical surveys on the Channel, between Calais and Dover. Thomé de Gamond explored several schemes, and in 1856 he presented a proposal to Napoleon III for a mined railway tunnel from Cap Gris-Nez to Eastwater Point with a port/airshaft on the Varne sandbank[7] at a cost of 170 million francs, or less than 7 million pounds sterling.[8] Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (April 20, 1808 - January 9, 1873) was the son of King Louis Bonaparte and Queen Hortense de Beauharnais; both monarchs of the French puppet state, the Kingdom of Holland. ... GBP redirects here. ...


After 1867 British men William Low and Sir John Clarke Hawkshaw promoted ideas but none were executed. An official Anglo-French protocol was established in 1876 for a cross-Channel railway tunnel. In 1881 British railway entrepreneur Sir William Watkin and French Suez Canal contractor Alexandre Lavalley were in the Anglo-French Submarine Railway Company that conducted exploratory work on both sides of the Channel. On the English side a 2.13-metre (6.99 ft) diameter Beumont-English boring machine dug a 1,893-metre (6,211 ft) pilot tunnel from Shakespeare Cliff. On the French side a similar machine dug 1,669 metres (5,476 ft) from Sangatte. The project was abandoned in May 1882 due to British political and press campaigns arguing that a tunnel would compromise Britain's national defences.[9] Sir Edward Watkin (1819 - 1901) was a Victorian railway baron and a Liberal Member of Parliament for the constituencies of Stockport and later Hythe in Kent. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ...


In 1955 defence arguments were accepted to be irrelevant due to the dominance of air power. The British and French governments supported technical and geological surveys. Construction work commenced on both sides of the Channel in 1974, a government-funded project using twin tunnels on either side of a service tunnel, with capability for car shuttle wagons. In January 1975, to the dismay of the French partners, the British government cancelled the project. The government had changed to the Labour Party and there was uncertainty about EC membership, cost estimates had ballooned to 200% and the national economy was troubled. By this time the British Priestly TBM was ready and the Ministry of Transport was able to do a 300 m experimental drive.[9] The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ...


In 1979 "The Mousehole Project" was suggested when conservatives came to power in Britain. The concept was a single rail tunnel with a service tunnel, but without shuttle terminals. The British government took no interest in funding the project but Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher said she had no objection to a privately funded project. In 1981 British and French leaders Margaret Thatcher and François Mitterrand agreed to set up a working group to look into a privately funded project, and in April 1985 promoters were formally invited to submit scheme proposals. Four submissions were shortlisted: Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (née Roberts; born 13 October 1925) served as British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 until 1990, being the first and only woman to hold either post. ...   IPA: (October 26, 1916 – January 8, 1996) served as President of France from 1981 to 1995, elected as representative of the Socialist Party (PS). ...

  • a rail proposal based on the 1975 scheme presented by Channel Tunnel Group/France–Manche (CTG/F–M),
  • Eurobridge – a 4.5 km span suspension bridge with roadway in an enclosed tube
  • Euroroute – a 21 km tunnel between artificial islands approached by bridges, and
  • Channel Expressway – large diameter road tunnels with mid-channel ventilation towers.[9]

The cross-Channel ferry industry protested under the name "Flexilink". In 1975 there was no campaign protesting a fixed link, with one of the largest ferry operators (Sealink) being state owned. Flexilink continued rousing opposition throughout 1986 and 1987.[9] Public opinion strongly favoured a drive-through tunnel, but ventilation issues, concerns about accident management, and fear of driver mesmerisation led to the only rail submission shortlisted, CTG/F-M, being awarded the project.[9]


Organization

A flow chart describing the organisation structure used on the project. Eurotunnel is the central organisation for construction and operation (via a concession) of the tunnel.
A flow chart describing the organisation structure used on the project. Eurotunnel is the central organisation for construction and operation (via a concession) of the tunnel.

The Channel Tunnel Group consisted of two banks and five construction companies and the French equivalent, France–Manche, consisted of three banks and five construction companies. The role of the banks was to advise on financing and secure loan commitments. On 2 July 1985 the groups formed Channel Tunnel Group/France–Manche (CTG/F–M). Their submission to the British and French governments was drawn from the 1975 project, including 11 volumes and a substantial environmental impact statement.[9] is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ...


The design and construction was done by the ten construction companies in the CTG/F-M group. The French terminal and boring from Sangatte was undertaken by the five French construction companies in the joint venture group GIE Transmanche Construction. The English Terminal and boring from Shakespeare Cliff was undertaken by five English construction companies in the Trankslink Joint Venture. The two partnerships were linked by TransManche Link (TML), a binational project organisation.[9] The Maitre d'Oeuvre was a supervisory engineering body employed by Eurotunnel under the terms of the concession that monitored project activity and reported back to the governments and banks.[10] TransManche Link (Cross Channel Link) or TML was an Anglo French construction consortium responsible for building the Channel Tunnel under the English Channel between Cheriton in Kent, England and Sangatte in northern France. ...


In France, with its long tradition of infrastructure investment, the project garnered widespread approval and in April 1987 the French National Assembly gave unanimous support and after a public inquiry the Senate gave unanimous support in June 1987. In Britain, select committees examined the proposal, making history by holding hearings outside of Westminster, in Kent. In February 1987 the third reading of the Channel Tunnel Bill occurred in the House of Commons, carried 94 votes to 22. The Channel Tunnel Act passed into British law in July.[9]


The Channel Tunnel is a build-own-operate-transfer (BOOT) project with a concession.[11] TML would design and build the tunnel, but financing was through a separate legal entity: Eurotunnel. Eurotunnel absorbed CTG/F-M and signed a construction contract with TML, however, the British and French governments controlled final engineering and safety decisions. The British and French governments gave Eurotunnel a 55- (later 65)-year operating concession to repay loans and pay dividends. A Railway Usage Agreement was signed between Eurotunnel, British Rail and the Société Nationale des Chemins de fer Français guaranteeing future revenue in exchange for the railways obtaining half of the tunnel's capacity. For other senses of this word, see boot (disambiguation). ... This article is about the defunct entity British Railways, which later traded as British Rail. The History of rail transport in Great Britain is covered in its own article. ... SNCF (Société Nationale des Chemins de fer Français) (French National Railway Company) is a major French public enterprise. ...


Private funding for such a complex infrastructure project was of unprecedented scale. An initial equity of £45 million was raised by CTG/F-M, increased by £206 million private institutional placement, £770 million was raised in a public share offer that included press and television advertisements, a syndicated bank load and letter of credit arranged £5 billion.[9] Privately financed, the total investment costs at 1985 prices were £2600 million. At the 1994 completion actual costs were, in 1985 prices, £4650 million: an 80% cost overrun.[12] The cost overrun was partly due to enhanced safety, security, and environmental demands.[11] Financing costs were 140% higher than forecast.[13]


Progress

The Channel Tunnel was opened in Calais on 6 May 1994 by Queen Elizabeth II and French President François Mitterrand.
The Channel Tunnel was opened in Calais on 6 May 1994 by Queen Elizabeth II and French President François Mitterrand.

A small two inch diameter pilot hole allowed the service tunnel to break through without ceremony on 30 October 1990.[14] On 1 December 1990 Englishman Graham Fagg and Frenchman Phillipe Cozette broke through the service tunnel with the media watching.[15] Eurotunnel completed the tunnel on time,[11] and the tunnel was officially opened by Queen Elizabeth II and French President François Mitterrand in a ceremony held in Calais on 6 May 1994. The Queen travelled through the tunnel to Calais on a Eurostar train which stopped nose to nose with the train which carried President Mitterrand from Paris.[16] Following the ceremony President Mitterrand and the Queen travelled on Le Shuttle to a similar ceremony in Folkestone.[16] Inauguration of the Channel Tunnel by President François Mitterrand and Queen Elizabeth II, in the presence of Prime Ministers John Major and Édouard Balladur, at the Coquelles terminal in France, 6 May 1994. ... Inauguration of the Channel Tunnel by President François Mitterrand and Queen Elizabeth II, in the presence of Prime Ministers John Major and Édouard Balladur, at the Coquelles terminal in France, 6 May 1994. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ...   IPA: (October 26, 1916 – January 8, 1996) served as President of France from 1981 to 1995, elected as representative of the Socialist Party (PS). ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ...   IPA: (October 26, 1916 – January 8, 1996) served as President of France from 1981 to 1995, elected as representative of the Socialist Party (PS). ... Calais (Kales in Dutch) is a town in northern France, located at 50°57N 1°52E. It is in the département of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... This article is about high-speed trains between London and Brussels / Paris. ... Interior of a Eurotunnel Shuttle passenger vehicle train Interior of single deck train with carriage doors open Interior of single deck train with carriage doors closed Eurotunnel Shuttle (previously known as Le Shuttle) is a shuttle service between Calais/Coquelles in France and Folkestone in the UK. It conveys road... , Folkestone (IPA: ) is a resort town on the south coast of Kent, England, traditionally known as The Garden Coast. Situated at the foot of the North Downs, the town has stunning views of the surrounding countryside as well as the coast of France. ...


The Channel Tunnel Rail Link (CTRL), now called High Speed 1, runs 69 miles (111 km) from St Pancras station in London to the Channel Tunnel portal at Folkestone in Kent. It cost £5.8 billion. On September 16, 2003 UK Prime Minister Tony Blair opened the first section of High Speed 1, from Folkestone to north Kent. On 6 November 2007 the Queen officially opened High Speed 1 and St Pancras International station.[17] On the completed High Speed 1, trains travel at 300 km/h (186 mph). The Eurostar journey from London to Paris takes 2 hours 15 minutes and London to Brussels takes 1 hour 51 minutes.[18] is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... St Pancras railway station, now officially known as St Pancras International, is a major station located in the St Pancras area of central London, between the new British Library building to the west and Kings Cross station to the east. ...


Usage and operation

A Channel Tunnel traffic graph showing the number of passengers and tonnes of freight. Freight vehicle shuttle numbers dropped in 1996/7 due to closure of the service after the November 1996 fire.
A Channel Tunnel traffic graph showing the number of passengers and tonnes of freight. Freight vehicle shuttle numbers dropped in 1996/7 due to closure of the service after the November 1996 fire.
The British terminal at Cheriton in west Folkestone. The terminal services shuttle trains that carry vehicles, and is linked to the M20 motorway.
The British terminal at Cheriton in west Folkestone. The terminal services shuttle trains that carry vehicles, and is linked to the M20 motorway.

Services offered by the tunnel include: A tonne (also called metric ton) is a non-SI unit of mass, accepted for use with SI, defined as: 1 tonne = 103 kg (= 106 g). ... The Channel Tunnel terminal at Cheriton near Folkestone in Kent, from the Pilgrims Way on the escarpment on the southern edge of Cheriton Hill, part of the North Downs. ... The Channel Tunnel terminal at Cheriton near Folkestone in Kent, from the Pilgrims Way on the escarpment on the southern edge of Cheriton Hill, part of the North Downs. ...

  • Eurotunnel Shuttle – a roll-on roll-off shuttle service for road vehicles, for cars, coaches/caravans and freight lorries.
  • Eurostar – through rail services for passengers.
  • Through rail freight services.[19]

Both the freight and passenger traffic forecasts that led to the construction of the tunnel were largely and universally overestimated. Particularly, Eurotunnel's commissioned forecasts were over-predictions.[20] Although the captured share of Channel crossings (competing with air and sea) was forecast correctly, high competition and reduced tariffs has led to low revenue. Overall cross-Channel traffic was overestimated – a cost benefit analysis of the Channel Tunnel indicated that the British economy would have been better off if the Tunnel had never been constructed.[21] Interior of a Eurotunnel Shuttle passenger vehicle train Interior of single deck train with carriage doors open Interior of single deck train with carriage doors closed Eurotunnel Shuttle (previously known as Le Shuttle) is a shuttle service between Calais/Coquelles in France and Folkestone in the UK. It conveys road... This article is about high-speed trains between London and Brussels / Paris. ...


Channel Tunnel passenger volumes were overestimated, peaking at 18.4 million in 1998, and down to 14.7 million in 2003. At the time of deciding to build the tunnel 15.9 million passengers were predicted for Eurostar trains in the opening year. In 1995, the opening year, actual numbers were 2.9 million. Passenger numbers in 2001 were 6.9 million.[20] Tunnel freight traffic volumes have been erratic, with a decrease during 1997 due to a closure caused by a fire in a freight shuttle. The total freight crossings increased over the period, indicating the substitutability of the tunnel by sea crossings. The tunnel has achieved a cross-Channel freight traffic market share close or above Eurotunnel's 1980s predictions but Eurotunnel's 1990 and 1994 predictions were overestimates. The first year freight prediction was 7.2 million gross tonnes, however, the 1995 figure was 1.3 million gross tonnes, in 2001 this had increased to 2.4 million tonnes.[20] Freight traffic growth has occurred since opening, with 18.4 million tonnes recorded in 2003.[21]


Shares in Eurotunnel were issued at £3.50 per share on 9 December 1987. By mid-1989 the price rose to £11.00. Delays and cost overruns led to the share price dropping; during demonstration runs in October 1994 the share price reached an all-time low value. Eurotunnel suspended payment on its debt in September 1995 to avoid bankruptcy. In December 1997 the British and French governments extended Eurotunnel's operating concession by 34 years to 2086. Financial restructuring of Eurotunnel occurred in mid-1998, reducing debt and financial charges. Despite the restructuring The Economist reported in 1998 that to break even Eurotunnel would have to increase fares, traffic and marketshare for sustainability.[22] is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year 1987. ... The Economist is an English-language weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London. ...


Under the terms of the Concession Eurotunnel was obliged to investigate a cross-Channel road tunnel. In December 1999 road and rail tunnel proposals were presented to the British and French governments, but it was stressed that there was not enough demand for a second tunnel.[23] A detailed three-way treaty between the United Kingdom, France, and Belgium governs border controls, with the establishment of control zones wherein the officers of the other nation may exercise limited customs and law enforcement powers. For most purposes these are at either end of the tunnel, with the French border controls on the UK side of the tunnel and vice versa. For certain city-to-city trains the train itself represents a control zone.[24] A binational emergency plan coordinates UK and French emergency activities.[25]


Eurotunnel's freight subsidiary is Europorte 2.[26] In September 2006 EWS, the UK's largest rail freight operator, announced that due to cessation of UK-French government subsidies of £52 million per annum to cover the Channel Tunnel "Minimum User Charge" (a subsidy of around £13,000 per train, at a traffic level of 4,000 trains per annum), that freight trains post 30 November would presently stop running.[27] Europorte 2 is a rail freight service operator owned by Eurotunnel, which operates rail freight services between France and the United Kingdom through the Channel Tunnel. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Fire

Key dates
1802 Albert Mathieu put forward a cross-Channel tunnel proposal.
January 1974 A UK–France government backed scheme that started in 1974 was cancelled.
February 1986 The Treaty of Canterbury was signed allowing the project to proceed.
June 1988 First tunnelling commenced in France.
December 1988 UK TBM commenced operation.
December 1990 The service tunnel broke through under the Channel.
May 1994 The tunnel was formally opened by the Queen and President Mitterand.
Mid 1994 Freight and passenger services commenced operation.
November 1996 A fire in a lorry shuttle severely damaged the tunnel
November 2007 High Speed 1, linking London to the tunnel, was opened.
Main article: Channel Tunnel fire

On 18 November 1996 a fire broke out on a heavy goods vehicle shuttle wagon within the tunnel but nobody was seriously hurt in the incident. The exact cause is unknown, although it was not a Eurotunnel equipment or rolling stock problem; it may have been due to arson of a heavy goods vehicle. It is estimated that the heart of the fire reached 1,000 °C (1,800 °F), with the tunnel severely damaged over 46 metres (151 ft), with some 500 metres (1,640 ft) affected to some extent. Full operation was recommenced six months after the fire.[28] A less severe incident occurred on 21 August 2006, when a lorry aboard a shuttle train caught fire.[29] A tunnel boring machine that was used at Yucca Mountain. ... 0 km London St Pancras Temple Mills Eurostar Depot 9 km Stratford International 10 km 21 km 27 km 30 km 32 km 37 km Ebbsfleet International 39 km 50 km 54 km 88 km 89 km 90 km Ashford International 91 km 106 km Dollands Moor Freight terminal 108... The Channel Tunnel fire of 18 November 1996 occurred on a train carrying heavy goods vehicles (HGVs) and their drivers through the Channel Tunnel from France to Britain. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Truck (disambiguation). ...


Regional impact

A 1996 report from the European Commission predicted that Kent and Nord-Pas de Calais had to face increased traffic volumes due to general growth of cross-Channel traffic and traffic attracted by the tunnel. In Kent, a high-speed rail line to London would transfer traffic from road to rail.[30] Kent's regional development would benefit from the tunnel, but being so close to London restricts the benefits. Gains are in the traditional industries and are largely dependent on the development of the Ashford international passenger station, without which Kent would be totally dependent on London's expansion. Nord-Pas-de-Calais enjoys a strong internal symbolic effect of the Tunnel which results in significant gains in manufacturing.[31] Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ... (Region flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Regional President Departments Nord Pas-de-Calais Arrondissements 13 Cantons 156 Communes 1,546 Statistics Land area1 12,414 km² Population (Ranked 4th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ...


The removal of a bottleneck like the Channel Tunnel does not necessarily induce economic gains in all adjacent regions, the image of a region being connected to the European high-speed transport and active political response are more important for regional economic development. Tunnel induced regional development is small compared to general economic growth.[32] The South East of England is likely to benefit developmentally and socially from faster and lower cost transport to continental Europe, but they are unlikely to be equally distributed throughout the region. The overall environmental impact is almost certainly negative.[33]


Five years after the opening of the tunnel there were few and small impacts on the wider economy, and it was difficult to identify major developments associated with the tunnel.[4]


Asylum and immigration

Illegal immigrants and would-be asylum seekers have been known to use the tunnel to attempt to enter Britain. By 1997, the problem had already attracted international press attention, and the French Red Cross opened a refugee centre at Sangatte in 1999, using a warehouse once used for tunnel construction; by 2002 it housed up to 1500 persons at a time, most of them trying to get to the UK.[34] At one point, large numbers came from Afghanistan, Iraq and Iran, but African and Eastern European countries are also represented.[35] Most migrants who got into Britain found some way to ride a freight train, but others used Eurostar. Though the facilities were fenced, airtight security was deemed impossible; refugees would even jump from bridges onto moving trains. In several incidents people were injured during the crossing; others tampered with railway equipment, causing delays and requiring repairs.[36] Eurotunnel said it was losing £5m per month due to the problem.[37] A dozen refugees have died in crossing attempts.[34] Immigrants have also arrived as legitimate Eurostar passengers without proper entry papers.[38] Illegal immigration is the act of moving to or settling in another country or region, temporarily or permanently, in violation of the law or without documents permitting an immigrant to settle in that country. ... Power lines leading to a trash dump hover just overhead in El Carpio, a Nicaraguan refugee camp in Costa Rica Under international law, a refugee is a person who is outside his/her country of nationality or habitual residence; has a well-founded fear of persecution because of his/her... The Anarchist Black Cross was originally called the Anarchist Red Cross. The band Redd Kross was originally called Red Cross. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Sangatte is a small (4,046 inhabitants at the 1999 census) harbour town and commune of the Pas-de-Calais département, on the northern coast of France, bordering the English Channel. ... Old warehouses in Amsterdam Inside Green Logistics Co. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Statistical regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked red):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current borders: Russia (dark orange), other countries formerly part of the USSR...


Local authorities in both France and the UK called for the closure of Sangatte, and Eurotunnel twice sought an injunction against the centre.[34] In 2002, after the European Commission told France that it was in breach of European Union rules on the free transfer of goods, due to the delays and closures as a result of its poor security, a double fence was built at a cost of £5 million, reducing the numbers of refugees detected each week reaching Britain on goods trains from 250 to almost none.[39] Other measures included CCTV cameras and increased police patrols.[40] At the end of 2002, the Sangatte centre was closed after the UK and France agreed to take shares of the refugees.[41] Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... This article refers to a surveillance system. ...


Engineering

The Channel Tunnel exhibit at the National Railway Museum in York, England. The exhibit shows the circular cross section of the tunnel with the catenary (overhead) wires powering a Eurostar train. Also visible is the segmented tunnel lining.
The Channel Tunnel exhibit at the National Railway Museum in York, England. The exhibit shows the circular cross section of the tunnel with the catenary (overhead) wires powering a Eurostar train. Also visible is the segmented tunnel lining.

Surveying undertaken in the 20 years before tunnel construction confirmed earlier suspicions that a tunnel route could be bored through a chalk marl stratum. The chalk marl was conducive to tunnelling, with impermeability, ease of excavation and strength. While on the English side the chalk marl ran along the entire length of the tunnel, on the French side a length of 5 kilometres (3 mi) had variable and difficult geology. The Channel Tunnel consists of three bores: two 7.6-metre (25 ft) diameter rail tunnels, 30 metres (98 ft) apart, 50 kilometres (31 mi) in length with a 4.8-metre (16 ft) diameter service tunnel in between. There are also cross-passages and piston relief ducts. The service tunnel was used as a pilot tunnel, boring ahead of the main tunnels to determine the conditions. English access was provided at Shakespeare Cliff, while French access came from a shaft at Sangatte. The French side used five tunnel boring machines (TBMs), the English side used six. The service tunnel uses Service Tunnel Transport System (STTS) and Light Service Tunnel Vehicles (LADOGS). Fire safety was a critical design issue. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2448x3264, 2200 KB) Summary Source: Keir Gravil Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2448x3264, 2200 KB) Summary Source: Keir Gravil Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Locomotives arranged around the turntable in the Great Hall. ... For other uses, see York (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For the railroad term see Overhead lines For its use in ring theory, see Catenary ring. ... This article is about high-speed trains between London and Brussels / Paris. ... A tunnel boring machine that was used at Yucca Mountain. ...


Between the portals at Beussingue and Castle Hill the tunnel is 50.5 kilometres (31 mi) long, with 3.3 kilometres (2 mi) underland on the French side, 9.3 kilometres (6 mi) underland on the UK side and 37.9 kilometres (24 mi) undersea.[42] This makes the Channel Tunnel the second longest rail tunnel in the world behind the Seikan Tunnel in Japan, but with the longest undersea section in the world.[43] The average depth is 45 metres (148 ft) below the seabed.[44] On the UK side, of the expected 5 million of spoil approximately 1 million m³ was used for fill at the terminal site, and the remainder was deposited at Lower Shakespeare Cliff behind a seawall, reclaiming 74 acres (30 ha)[1] of land.[45] This land was then made into the Samphire Hoe Country Park. Environmental impact assessment did not identify any major risks for the project, and further studies into safety, noise, and air pollution were overall positive. However, environmental objections were raised over a high-speed link to London.[46] Castle Hill from Round Hill. ... The Seikan Tunnel (青函トンネル Seikan Tonneru or 青函隧道 Seikan Zuidō) is a 53. ... The cubic meter (symbol m³) is the SI derived unit of volume. ...


Surveying

Marine soundings and samplings by Thomé de Gamond were carried out during 1833–67, establishing the seabed depth at a maximum of 55 m and the continuity of geological strata (layers). Surveying continued over many years, with 166 marine and 70 land-deep boreholes being drilled and over 4000 line kilometres of marine geophysical survey completed.[47] Surveys were undertaken in 1958–59, 1964–65, 1972–74 and 1986–88.


The surveying in 1958–59 catered for immersed tube and bridge designs as well as a bored tunnel, and thus a wide area was investigated. At this time marine geophysics surveying for engineering projects was in its infancy, with poor positioning and resolution from seismic profiling. The 1964-65 surveys concentrated on a northerly route that left the English coast at Dover harbour, using 70 boreholes an area of deeply weathered rock with high permeability was located just south of Dover harbour.[47]


Given the previous survey results and access constraints a more southerly route was investigated in the 1972–73 survey and the route was confirmed to be feasible. Information for the tunnelling project also came from work before the 1975 cancellation. On the French side at Sangatte a deep shaft with adits was made. On the English side at Shakespeare Cliff the government allowed 250 metres (820 ft) of 4.5 metres (15 ft) diameter tunnel to be driven. The actual tunnel alignment, method of excavation and support were essentially the same as the 1975 attempt. In the 1986–97 survey, previous findings were reinforced and the nature of the gault clay and tunnelling medium, chalk marl that made up 85% of the route, were investigated. Geophysical techniques from the oil industry were employed.[47] Gated entrance of an abandoned adit An adit is a type of entrance to an underground mining operation in which the entrance shaft is horizontal or nearly horizontal. ...


Geology

Geological profile along the tunnel as constructed. For the majority of its length the tunnel bores through a chalk marl stratum (layer).

Successful tunnelling under the channel required a sound understanding of the topography and geology and the selection of the best rock strata to tunnel through. The geology generally consists of northeasterly dipping Cretaceous strata, part of the northern limb of the Wealden-Boulonnais dome. Characteristics include:

  • as observed by Verstegan in 1698, the chalk of the cliffs on either side of the Channel is continuous, and contains no major faulting
  • the cliffs consist of four geological stratum, marine sediments laid down 90–100 million years ago; pervious upper and middle chalk above slightly pervious lower chalk and finally impermeable Gault Clay. A sandy stratum, glauconitic marl (tortia), is in between the chalk marl and gault clay
  • a 25–30 metre (82–98 ft) layer of chalk marl (French: craie bleue)[48] in the lower third of the lower chalk appeared to present the best tunnelling medium. The chalk has a clay content of 30–40% providing impermeability to groundwater yet relatively easy excavation with strength allowing minimal support. Ideally the tunnel would be bored in the bottom 15 m of the chalk marl, allowing water inflow from fractures and joints to be minimised, but above the gault clay that would increase stress on the tunnel lining and swell and soften when wet.

On the English side of the channel the strata dip less than 5°, however on the French side this increases to 20°. Jointing and faulting is present on both the English and French sides. On the English side only minor faults of displacement less than 2 metres (7 ft) exist. On the French side displacements of up to 15 metres (49 ft) are present due to the Quenocs anticlinal fold. The faults are of limited width, filled with calcite, pyrite and remoulded clay. The increased dip and faulting restricted the selection of route on the French side. To avoid confusion microfossil assemblages were used to classify the chalk marl. On the French side, particularly near the coast, the chalk was harder and more brittle and fractured than on the English side. This led to the adoption of different tunnelling techniques on the French and English sides.[49] Richard Rowlands (before 1560- after 1620), Anglo-Dutch antiquary, whose real name was Verstegen, was the son of a cooper whose father, Theodore Roland Verstegen, a Dutch emigrant, came from the Seventeen Provinces to the Kingdom of England c. ... For other uses, see strata (novel) and strata title. ... The Gault Clay is a formation of stiff blue clay deposited in a calm, fairly deep water marine environment during the Lower Cretaceous Period (Upper and Middle Albian). ... Strike and dip refer to the orientation or attitude of a geologic feature. ... Anticline with syncline visible at far right- USGS In structural geology, an anticline is a Fold (geology) that is convex to the youngest beds—youngest sediments are on back of hand, older under the palm. ... Very tight folds. ...


No major geological hazards were identified, however the Quaternary undersea valley Fosse Dangaered, and Castle Hill landslip located at the English portal were concerning. Identified by the 1964–65 geophysical survey the Fosse Dangaered is an infilled valley system extending 80 metres (262 ft) below the seabed, 500 metres (1,640 ft) south of the tunnel route, located mid-channel. A 1986 survey showed that a tributary crossed the path of the tunnel and so the tunnel route was made as far north and deep as possible. The English terminal had to be located in the Castle Hill landslip, which consists of displaced and tipping blocks of lower chalk, glauconitic marl and gault debris. Thus the area was stabilised by buttressing and inserting drainage adits.[49] The service tunnels were pilot tunnels preceding the main tunnels so that the geology, areas of crushed rock and zones of high water inflow could be predicted. Exploratory probing took place in the service tunnels in the form of extensive forward probing, vertical downward probes and sideways probing.[49] Castle Hill from Round Hill. ...


Tunnelling

Typical tunnel cross section, with a service tunnel in between twin rail tunnels. Shown linking the rail tunnels is a piston relief duct, necessary to manage pressure changes due to the movement of trains.
Typical tunnel cross section, with a service tunnel in between twin rail tunnels. Shown linking the rail tunnels is a piston relief duct, necessary to manage pressure changes due to the movement of trains.

Tunnelling between England and France was a major engineering challenge with the only precedent being the undersea Seikan Tunnel in Japan. The major risk with underwater tunnels is major water inflow due to the water pressure from the sea above under weak ground conditions. The Channel Tunnel also had the challenge of time - being privately funded, early financial return was paramount. The Seikan Tunnel (青函トンネル Seikan Tonneru or 青函隧道 Seikan Zuidō) is a 53. ...


The objective was to construct: two 7.6-metre (25 ft) diameter rail tunnels, 30 metres (98 ft) apart, 50 kilometres (31 mi) in length; a 4.8-metre (16 ft) diameter service tunnel between the two main tunnels; pairs of 3.3-metre (11 ft) diameter cross-passages linking the rail tunnels to the service tunnel at 375-metre (1,230 ft) spacing; piston relief ducts 2-metre (7 ft) diameter connecting the rail tunnels at 250-metre (820 ft) spacing; two undersea crossover caverns to connect the rail tunnels.[50] The service tunnel always preceded the main tunnels by at least 1 kilometre (0.6 mi) to ascertain the ground conditions, experience with tunnelling through chalk had occurred in the mining industry. The undersea crossover caverns were a complex engineering problem. The French cavern was based on the Mount Baker Ridge freeway tunnel in the USA. The UK cavern was dug from the service tunnel ahead of the main tunnels to avoid delay. The Mount Baker Tunnel carries Interstate 90 under the Mount Baker neighborhood of Seattle, Washington. ...


Precast segmental linings in the main TBM drives were used, but different solutions were used on the English and French sides. On the French side neoprene and grout sealed bolted linings made of cast iron or high strength reinforced concrete were used. On the English side the main requirement was for speed, bolting of cast iron lining segments was only carried out in areas of poor geology. In the UK rail tunnels eight lining segments plus a key segment were used, on the French side five segments plus a key segment were used.[51] On the French side a 55-metre (180 ft) diameter 75-metre (246 ft) deep grout-curtained shaft at Sangatte was used for access. On the English side a marshalling area was located 140 metres (459 ft) below the top of Shakespeare Cliff, the New Austrian Tunnelling method (NATM) was first applied in the chalk marl here. On the English side the land tunnels were driven not from Folkestone but from the same place as the marine tunnels, Shakespeare Cliff. The platform at the base of the cliff was not large enough for all of the drives, and despite environmental objections tunnel spoil was placed behind a reinforced concrete sea wall at Shakespeare Cliff, under the condition of placing the chalk in an enclosed lagoon to avoid wide dispersal of chalk fines. Due to limited space the precast lining factory was located at the Isle of Grain in the Thames estuary.[50] The New Austrian Tunneling method (NATM) was developed between 1957 and 1965 in Austria. ...


On the French side, due to the greater permeability of water earth pressure balance TBMs with open and closed modes were used. The TBMs were of a closed nature during the initial 5 kilometres (3 mi) but then operated as open, once boring through the chalk marl stratum.[50] This minimised the impact to the ground and allowed high water pressures to be withstood, it also alleviated the need to grout ahead of the tunnel. The French effort required five TBMs: two main marine tunnel machines, one main land tunnel machine (the short land drives of 3 km allowed one TBM to complete the first drive then reverse direction and complete the other), and two service tunnel machines. On the English side the simpler geology allowed faster open-faced TBMs.[52] Six machines where used, all commencing digging from Shakespeare Cliff, three marine bound and three for the land tunnels.[50] Towards the completion of the undersea drives the UK TBMs were driven steeply downwards and buried clear of the tunnel. The French TBMs then completed the tunnel and were dismantled.[53] A 900 mm gauge railway was used on the English side during construction.[54]


Railway design and rolling stock

Interior of Eurotunnel Shuttle, a vehicle shuttle train. The largest railway wagons in the world, the shuttle trains transport vehicles from terminals either side of the tunnel.
Interior of Eurotunnel Shuttle, a vehicle shuttle train. The largest railway wagons in the world,[1] the shuttle trains transport vehicles from terminals either side of the tunnel.

Three communication systems exist for the tunnel: concession radio (CR) for mobile vehicles and personnel within Eurotunnel's Concession (terminals, tunnels, coastal shafts); Track-to-train radio (TTR for secure speech and data between trains and the railway control centre); Shuttle internal radio (SIR) for communication between shuttle crew and communication to passengers over car radios.[55] All tunnel services run on electricity, shared equally from both English and French sources. Power is delivered to the locomotives via an overhead catenary system.[56] A cab signalling system is used that gives information directly to train drivers on a display. There is automatic train protection (ATP) that stops the train if the speed differs from that indicated on the in-cab display. TVM430, as used on TGV Nord, is used in the tunnel. [57] The American Sonneville International Corporation track system was used in the tunnel, ballasted track was ruled out due to maintenance constraints and a need for geometric stability. The Sonneville system has UIC60 rails on 900A grade resting on microcellular EVA pads, bolted into concrete. [58] Description: Le Shuttle Source: taken 7 March 2004 Photograf : Bleiglass Material: Nikon D1, 24-120mm (24mm/F3. ... Description: Le Shuttle Source: taken 7 March 2004 Photograf : Bleiglass Material: Nikon D1, 24-120mm (24mm/F3. ... Interior of a Eurotunnel Shuttle passenger vehicle train Interior of single deck train with carriage doors open Interior of single deck train with carriage doors closed Eurotunnel Shuttle (previously known as Le Shuttle) is a shuttle service between Calais/Coquelles in France and Folkestone in the UK. It conveys road...


Initially 38 Le Shuttle locomotives were commissioned as they always work in pairs with one at each end of a shuttle train. The shuttles themselves have two separate halves: single and double deck. Each half has two loading/unloading wagons and 12 carrier wagons. Eurotunnel's original order was for 9 shuttles. 46 Class 92 locomotives for hauling freight and overnight passenger trains were commissioned, that can run on both overhead AC and third-rail DC power. Freight shuttles also have two halves, with each half containing one loading wagon, one unloading wagon and 14 carrier wagons. There is a club car behind the leading locomotive. Eurotunnel originally ordered 6 freight shuttles. 31 Eurostar trains, based on the French TGV with many modifications for safety within the tunnel, were initially commissioned, with split ownership between British Rail, French National Railway Company and National Railway Company of Belgium. British Rail ordered 7 more for services north of London.[59] 92027 George Eliot at Stafford in August 2005 with an intermodal train. ... SNCF (Société Nationale des Chemins de fer Français) (French National Railway Company) is a French public enterprise. ... NMBS/SNCB trains in Antwerp-Central The NMBS (Dutch: Nationale Maatschappij der Belgische Spoorwegen) or SNCB (French: Société Nationale des Chemins de fer Belges, not to be confused with Frances SNCF) is the Belgian national railway operator. ...


Services

The service tunnel is used for access to technical equipment in cross-passages and equipment rooms, to provide fresh-air ventilation, and for emergency evacuation. The Service Tunnel Transport System (STTS) allow fast access to all areas of the tunnel. The service vehicles are rubber-tyred with a buried guidance wire system. 24 STTS vehicles were made, they are used mainly for maintenance but also firefighting and in emergencies. "Pods" with different purposes, up to a payload of 2.5–5 tonnes are inserted into the side of the vehicles. The STTS vehicles cannot turn around within the tunnel, they are driven from either end. The maximum speed is 80 km/h (50 mph) when the steering is locked. A smaller fleet of 15 Light Service Tunnel Vehicles (LADOGS) were introduced to supplement the STTSs. The LADOGS have a short wheelbase with a 3.4 m turning circle allowing two-point turns within the service tunnel. Steering cannot be locked like the STTS vehicles, maximum speed is 50 km/h (31 mph). Pods up to 1 tonne can be loaded onto the rear of the vehicles. Drivers in the tunnel sit on the right, and the vehicles drive on the left. Due to the risk of French personnel driving on their native right side of the road, sensors in the road vehicles alert the driver if the vehicle strays to the right side of the tunnel.[60]


The three tunnels contain 6000 tonnes of air that needs to be conditioned for comfort and safety. Air is supplied from ventilation buildings at Shakespeare Cliff and Sangatte, with each building capable of full duty providing 100% standby capacity. Supplementary ventilation also exists on either side of the tunnel. In the event of a fire, ventilation is used to keep smoke out of the service tunnel and move smoke in one direction in the main tunnel to give passengers clean air. The Channel Tunnel was the first mainline railway tunnel to have special cooling equipment. Heat is generated from traction equipment and drag. The design limit was set at 30 °C (90 °F), using a mechanical cooling system with refrigeration plants on both the English and French sides that run chilled water circulating in pipes within the tunnel.[61] Return inlet (left)Supply outlet (right). ...


Trains travelling at high-speed create piston-effect pressure changes that can affect passenger comfort, ventilation systems, tunnel doors, fans and the structure of the trains, and drag on the trains.[61] Piston relief ducts of 2-metre (7 ft) diameter were chosen to solve the problem, with 4 ducts per kilometre to give close to optimum results. Unfortunately this design led to unacceptable lateral forces on the trains so a reduction in train speed was required and restrictors were installed in the ducts.[62] A round galvanized steel duct connecting to a typical diffuser Fire-resistance rated mechanical shaft with HVAC sheet metal ducting and copper piping, as well as HOW (Head-Of-Wall) joint between top of concrete block wall and underside of concrete slab, firestopped with ceramic fibre-based firestop caulking on...


The safety issue of a fire on a passenger-vehicle shuttle garnered much attention, with Eurotunnel itself noting that fire was the risk gathering the most attention a 1994 Safety Case due to three reasons: ferry companies opposed to passengers being allowed to remain with their cars; Home Office statistics indicating that car fires had doubled in ten years; and the long length of the tunnel. Eurotunnel commissioned the UK Fire Research Station to give reports of vehicles fires, as well liaising with Kent Fire Brigade to gather vehicle fire statistics over one year. Fire tests took place at the French Mines Research Establishment with a mock wagon used to investigate how cars burned.[63] The wagon door systems are designed to withstand fire inside the wagon for 30 minutes, longer than the transit time of 27 minutes. Wagon air conditioning units help to purge dangerous fumes from inside the wagon before travel. Each wagon has a fire detection and extinguishing system, with sensing of ions, or ultraviolet radiation, smoke and gases that can trigger halon gas to quell a fire. Since the Heavy Goods Vehicle (HGV) wagons are not covered, fire sensors are located on the loading wagon and in the tunnel itself. A water main in the service tunnel provides water to the main tunnels at 125-metre (410 ft) intervals. The ventilation system can control smoke movement. Special arrival sidings exist to accept a train that is on fire, the train should not stop whilst on fire in the tunnel. Eurotunnel has banned a wide range of hazardous good from travelling in the tunnel. Two STTS vehicles with firefighting pods are on duty at all times, with a maximum delay of 10 minutes before they reach a burning train.[28] The modern concept of Small Office and Home Office or SoHo , or Small or Home Office deals with the category of business which can be from 1 to 10 workers. ...


Terminals

A vehicle entering a shuttle wagon at the French terminal at Coquelles near Calais in northern France.
A vehicle entering a shuttle wagon at the French terminal at Coquelles near Calais in northern France.

Terminal sites are located at Cheriton (Folkestone in England) and Coquelles (Calais in France). The terminals are unique facilities designed to transfer vehicles from the motorway onto trains at a rate of 700 cars and 113 heavy vehicles per hour. The UK site uses the M20 motorway. The terminals are organised with the frontier controls juxtaposed with the entry to the system to allow travellers to go onto the motorway at the destination country immediately after leaving the shuttle. The area of the UK site was severely constrained and the design was challenging. The French layout was achieved more easily. To achieve design throughput, the shuttles accept cars on double-decks; for flexibility, ramps were placed inside the shuttles to provide access to the top decks.[64] At Folkestone there is 20 kilometres (12 mi) of main-line track and 45 turnouts with eight platforms. At Calais there is 30 kilometres (19 mi) of track with 44 turnouts. At the terminals the shuttle trains traverse a figure eight to reduce uneven wear on the wheels.[58] , Coquelles is a village and commune of the Pas-de-Calais département, located near Calais in northern France. ... Calais (Kales in Dutch) is a town in northern France, located at 50°57N 1°52E. It is in the département of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... The M20 motorway is a major road in England. ...


See also

The Channel Tunnel fire of 18 November 1996 occurred on a train carrying heavy goods vehicles (HGVs) and their drivers through the Channel Tunnel from France to Britain. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Anderson, pp. xvi–xvii
  2. ^ Harlow, John. "Phantom Trains Wreak Havoc in Channel Tunnel", The Sunday Times, Times Newspapers Ltd, 2 April 1995. 
  3. ^ ingenious: Navvies. ingenious. Retrieved on 2008-03-11.
  4. ^ a b Flyvbjerg et al. p. 68–69
  5. ^ Reynolds, Christopher. "Seven Wonders of the World: The Modern List", The Plain Dealer, 19 May 1996. Retrieved on 2008-03-13. 
  6. ^ Whiteside p. 17
  7. ^ Whiteside pp. 18–23
  8. ^ "The Proposed Tunnel Between England and France", The New York Times, August 7, 1866. Retrieved on 2008-01-03. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i Wilson pp. 14–21
  10. ^ Kirkland pp. 10–11
  11. ^ a b c Flyvbjerg et al. pp. 96–97
  12. ^ Flyvbjerg et al. p. 12
  13. ^ Flyvbjerg et al. p. 3
  14. ^ Glenn Frankel. "Britain and France Link Up-at Last", The Washington Post, 31 October 1990. 
  15. ^ "Chunnel birthday", Evening Mail, Birmingham Post & Mail Ltd, 2 December 2000. 
  16. ^ a b "1994: President and Queen open Chunnel", On This Day, BBC News, 1994-05-06. Retrieved on 2008-01-12. 
  17. ^ Woodman, Peter. "High-speed Rail Link Finally Completed", Press Association National Newswire, 14 November 2007. 
  18. ^ "New high-speed rail line opens to link Britain to Europe", Channel NewsAsia, MediaCorp News, 15 November 2007. 
  19. ^ Chisholm, Michael (1995). Britain on the edge of Europe. London: Routledge, p. 151. ISBN 0 415 11921 9. 
  20. ^ a b c Flyvbjerg et al. p. 22
  21. ^ a b Ricard Anguera (May 2006). "The Channel Tunnel—an ex post economic evaluation". Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice 40 (4): pp. 291–315. 
  22. ^ Flyvbjerg et al. pp. 32–34
  23. ^ The CPS: Channel Tunnel. Crown Prosecution Service. Retrieved on 2008-03-11.
  24. ^ Kirkland p. 331
  25. ^ "Eurotunnel gets backing for freight service=", AFX, Agence France Presse, 28 October 2004. 
  26. ^ Dominic O'Connell. "Chunnel cash row threatens freight trains", The Sunday Times, September 3, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-09-03. 
  27. ^ a b C. J. Kirkland (2002). "The fire in the Channel Tunnel" (pdf). Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology 17: pp. 129–132. 
  28. ^ "Lorry fire closes Channel Tunnel", BBC Online, 21 August 2006. Retrieved on 2006-08-21. 
  29. ^ European Commission pp. 220–222
  30. ^ European Commission pp. 248–252
  31. ^ Fayman, Sonia; Metge, Pierre (September 1995). "The regional impact of the Channel Tunnel: Qualitative and quantitative analysis". European Planning Studies 3 (3): p. 333. 
  32. ^ Button, Kenneth (July 1990). "The Channel Tunnel: The Economic Implications for the South East of England". The Geographical Journal 156 (2): pp. 187–199. 
  33. ^ a b c Pierre Kremer. "Sangatte: A place of hope and despair", The Magazine of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, February 2002. Retrieved on 2006-08-04. 
  34. ^ Caryl Phillips. "Strangers in a strange land", The Guardian, November 17, 2001. Retrieved on 2006-08-04. 
  35. ^ Avril Stephens. "Desperate journeys fraught with danger", CNN, July 31, 2001. Retrieved on 2006-08-04. 
  36. ^ "Europe's most notorious refugee camp", BBC News, 12 July 2002. Retrieved on 2006-08-05. 
  37. ^ "UK/Ireland: Asylum (news digest)", Migration News, 1998 (?). Retrieved on 2006-08-04. 
  38. ^ "Sangatte asylum talks due", BBC, 26 September, 2002. Retrieved on 2006-08-04. 
  39. ^ "Tunnel security to be tightened", BBC, 31 May, 2002. Retrieved on 2006-08-04. 
  40. ^ Philip Delves Broughton and Andrew Sparrow. "Blunkett reaches deal to shut Sangatte camp", Daily Telegraph, September 27, 2002. Retrieved on 2006-08-04. 
  41. ^ Institute of Civil Engineers p. 95
  42. ^ Gilbert, Jane. "`Chunnel' workers link France and Britain", The Daily Post (New Zealand), APN New Zealand Ltd, 1 December 2006. 
  43. ^ Kirkland p. 13
  44. ^ Institute of Civil Engineers p. 208
  45. ^ Flyvbjerg et al. p. 51
  46. ^ a b c Kirkland pp. 22–26
  47. ^ (1996) in Harris, C.S. et al: Engineering Geology of the Channel Tunnel. London: Thomas Telford, p. 57. ISBN 0 7277 2045 7. 
  48. ^ a b c Kirkland pp. 21–50
  49. ^ a b c d Kirkland pp. 63–128
  50. ^ Wilson p. 38
  51. ^ Kirkland p. 29
  52. ^ Wilson p. 44
  53. ^ Kirkland pp. 117–128
  54. ^ Kirkland pp. 129–132
  55. ^ Kirkland pp. 134–148
  56. ^ Kirkland pp. 149–155
  57. ^ a b Kirkland pp. 157–174
  58. ^ Kirkland pp. 175–211
  59. ^ Kirkland pp. 247–254
  60. ^ a b Kirkland pp. 212–230
  61. ^ The Channel Tunnel Experience Lessons for the Future pp. 19–23
  62. ^ Kirkland pp. 231–240
  63. ^ Kirkland pp. 255–270

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Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Red Cross redirects here. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... This article is about the year. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article deals with The Daily Telegraph in Britain, see The Daily Telegraph (Australia) for the Australian publication The Daily Telegraph is a British broadsheet newspaper founded in 1855. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Anderson, Graham; Roskrow, Ben (1994). The Channel Tunnel Story. London: E & F N Spon. ISBN 0 419 19620 x. 
  • European Commission. Directorate-General for Regional Policy and Cohesion. (1996). The regional impact of the Channel Tunnel throughout the Community. Luxembourg: European Commission. ISBN 92 826 8804 6. 
  • Flyvbjerg, B. Buzelius, N. Rothengatter, W. (2003). Megaprojects and Risk. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0 521 00946 4. 
  • Institution of Civil Engineers (1989). The Channel Tunnel. London: Thomas Telford. ISBN 0 7277 1546 1. 
  • Kirkland, Colin J., ed. (1995). Engineering the Channel Tunnel. London: Chapman and Hall. ISBN 0 419 17920 8. 
  • Whiteside, Thomas (1962). The Tunnel under the Channel. London: Rupert Hart-Davis.  Most of the material in the book originated in The New Yorker as a series of articles.
  • Wilson, Jeremy; Spick, Jerome (1994). Eurotunnel - The Illustrated Journey. HarperCollins. ISBN 1 870029 48 4. 

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  • Official site

Keyhole Markup Language (KML) is an XML-based language for describing three-dimensional geospatial data and its display in application programs. ... GeoTagging, sometimes referred to as Geocoding, is the process of adding geographical identification metadata to various media such as websites, RSS feeds, or images. ... Channel Tunnel. ... TransManche Link (Cross Channel Link) or TML was an Anglo French construction consortium responsible for building the Channel Tunnel under the English Channel between Cheriton in Kent, England and Sangatte in northern France. ... 0 km London St Pancras Temple Mills Eurostar Depot 9 km Stratford International 10 km 21 km 27 km 30 km 32 km 37 km Ebbsfleet International 39 km 50 km 54 km 88 km 89 km 90 km Ashford International 91 km 106 km Dollands Moor Freight terminal 108... Eurotunnel logo Eurotunnel plc (in the UK) and Eurotunnel SA (in France) make up the Eurotunnel Group, founded in August 1986, which manages and operates the Channel Tunnel between the UK and France. ... Eurostar (U.K.) Limited or EUKL is the United Kingdom partner of Eurostar, responsible for the operation of the groups train services in Britain. ... SNCF (Société Nationale des Chemins de fer Français) (French National Railway Company) is a French public enterprise. ... An NMBS/SNCB electric multiple unit, model AM73 The NMBS (Nationale Maatschappij der Belgische Spoorwegen) or SNCB (Société Nationale des Chemins de Fer Belges, not to be confused with SNCF) is the Belgian national railway operator. ... This article is about high-speed trains between London and Brussels / Paris. ... Interior of a Eurotunnel Shuttle passenger vehicle train Interior of single deck train with carriage doors open Interior of single deck train with carriage doors closed Eurotunnel Shuttle (previously known as Le Shuttle) is a shuttle service between Calais/Coquelles in France and Folkestone in the UK. It conveys road... Europorte 2 is a rail freight service operator owned by Eurotunnel, which operates rail freight services between France and the United Kingdom through the Channel Tunnel. ... This article contains material from the CIA World Factbook (2003 edition) which, as a US government publication, is in the public domain. ... Class 180 multiple unit of First Great Western at speed near Yate, Bristol. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Channel Tunnel - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3366 words)
The Channel Tunnel (French: le tunnel sous la Manche) is a 31 mile (50.5 km)-long rail tunnel beneath the English Channel at the Straits of Dover, connecting Folkestone, Kent in England to Coquelles near Calais in northern France.
The planned route of the tunnel took it from Calais to Folkestone (a route rather longer than the shortest possible crossing) and the tunnel follows a single chalk stratum, which meant the tunnel was deeper than the previous attempt.
Accepting that the Channel Tunnel was a special case, and in light of UK Department of Industry intransigence, EWS said that they could not economically justify running trains to their customers in light of the higher charges.
Channel Tunnel - MSN Encarta (734 words)
The tunnel, one of the greatest civil engineering projects of the 20th century, has an ultimate design capacity of 600 trains per day each way.
In 1875 the Channel Tunnel Company set up by the British engineer John Hawkshaw was given authority to build a tunnel by the governments of both Britain and France.
The present tunnel is based on a scheme drawn up in 1960 by the Channel Tunnel Study Group, an alliance of British and French companies; Technical Studies, Inc. of the United States; and the Suez Canal Company.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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