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Encyclopedia > Channel 4
Channel 4
Launched 2 November 1982
Owned by Channel Four Television Corporation
Picture format 625 Lines PAL (analogue), 576i SDTV (digital)
Audience share 9.4% (with S4C)(+1=Unknown)
(July 2007, [1])
Country  United Kingdom
Sister channel(s) E4, More4, Film4
Timeshift service Channel 4+1
Website www.channel4.com
Availability
Terrestrial
Analogue Normally tuned to 4 (excluding Wales)
Freeview Channel 4
Channel 8 (Wales)
Channel 13 (+1)
Satellite
Sky Digital Channel 104
Channel 117 (Wales)
Channel 135 (+1)
Channel 135, 136 +1 (ROI)
Cable
Virgin Media Channel 104
Channel 143 (+1)
Tiscali TV Channel 4
UPC Ireland Channel 111

Channel 4 is a public-service British television station, broadcast to all areas of the United Kingdom (and also the Republic of Ireland), which began transmissions in 1982. Though entirely commercially self-funded, it is ultimately publicly owned: Originally a subsidiary of the Independent Broadcasting Authority (IBA), the station is now owned and operated by the Channel Four Television Corporation, a public body established in 1990 for this purpose and which came into operation in 1993, following the abolition of the IBA. Channel 4 can refer to: Channel 4, a British television broadcaster, MBC 4 Channel 4 (Iran), Channel Four Finland a Finnish broadcaster, Canal Cuatro (Spanish for Channel Four), a Peruvian television station, Cuatro TV, a Spanish television network launched in November 2005, S4C (Sianel Pedwar Cymru - Channel Four Wales), a... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (845x1131, 59 KB)[edit] Summary Channel 4 Logo form 2005-present. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see PAL (disambiguation). ... 576i is the shorthand name for a video mode. ... ... S4C (Sianel Pedwar Cymru, which is Welsh for Channel Four Wales) is a television channel in Wales. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... E4 is a British digital television channel launched as a pay-tv companion to Channel 4 on 18 January 2001. ... More4 is a digital television channel, produced by United Kingdom broadcaster Channel 4, that launched on 10 October 2005. ... Film4 is a free British digital television channel, owned and operated by Channel 4, which screens high-quality films. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Analogue television in the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the country. ... Freeview is the operator of free digital terrestrial television in the United Kingdom, using the DVB-T standard. ... Sky Digital is the brand name for British Sky Broadcastings digital satellite television service, transmitted from SES Astra satellites located at 28. ... Anthem The Soldiers Song Republic of Ireland() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() Capital (and largest city) Dublin Official languages Irish, English Government Republic and Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Mary McAleese  -  Taoiseach Bertie Ahern, TD Independence from the United Kingdom   -  Declared 24 April 1916   -  Ratified 21 January 1919... Virgin Media Inc. ... Tiscali TV is a UK-based consumer Video on Demand service, operated by the European telephony company, Tiscali SpA. The service, originally known as Homechoice, was provided by Video Networks Limited (VNL), based in Shepherds Bush in West London, until it was purchased by Tiscali UK in August 2006... UPC Ireland N.V. is Liberty Global Europes operation in Ireland. ... In the United Kingdom the term public service broadcasting (PSB) refers to broadcasting intended for the public benefit rather than for purely commercial concerns. ... British television broadcasting has a range of different broadcasters, broadcasting multiple channels over a variety of distribution media. ... The Independent Broadcasting Authority (IBA) was the regulatory body in the United Kingdom for commercial television (ITV and Channel 4 - cable and satellite television were the responsibility of the Cable Authority) and radio broadcasts. ...


The station was established to provide a fourth television service to the UK that would break the duopoly of the BBC's two established television services and the single commercial broadcasting network, ITV, then the only services broadcast there. Though having seen new competition through the subsequent availability and growth of cable, satellite and digital terrestrial stations, Channel 4 still enjoys almost universal coverage, and a significant audience share. The British Broadcasting Corporation, which is usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion. ... Independent Television (generally known as ITV, but also as ITV Network) is a public service network of British commercial television broadcasters, set up under the Independent Television Authority (ITA) to provide competition to the BBC. ITV is the oldest commercial television network in the UK. Since 1990 and the Broadcasting...


Channel 4 was established with, and continues to hold, a remit of public service obligations which it must fulfil. The remit changes periodically, as dictated by various broadcasting and communications acts, and is regulated by the various authorities Channel 4 has been answerable to; originally the IBA, then the ITC and now Ofcom. The ITC has been superseded as the British commercial television regulator by Ofcom (the Office of Communications). ... Ofcom is a regulator for communication industries in the United Kingdom. ...


The preamble of the remit as per the Communications Act 2003 states that: See also the Communications Act 2003 (Nigeria). ...

"The public service remit for Channel 4 is the provision of a broad range of high quality and diverse programming which, in particular:

  • demonstrates innovation, experiment and creativity in the form and content of programmes;
  • appeals to the tastes and interests of a culturally diverse society;
  • makes a significant contribution to meeting the need for the licensed public service channels to include programmes of an educational nature and other programmes of educative value; and
  • exhibits a distinctive character."[2][3]

The remit also involves an obligation to provide Schools Programming,[4] and a substantial amount of programming produced outside of Greater London,[5] Greater London is the top-level administrative subdivision covering London, England. ...


Initially Channel 4 was not intentionally broadcast to Wales. Prior to its establishment, a significant demand for a dedicated Welsh language service for Wales lead to the creation of S4C, that is Sianel Pedwar Cymru or Channel 4 Wales, which carried Welsh spoken programmes as well as some programmes as also broadcast on Channel 4.[6] Limited frequency space meant that Channel 4 proper could not be broadcast alongside S4C, though carriage on digital cable, satellite and digital terrestrial television means that the station is now available to over 70% of Welsh viewers.[7] Following the completion of switchover to digital broadcasting in Wales in 2009, Channel 4 should become available to all Welsh TV viewers, alongside S4C. Consequently S4C does not carry Channel 4 programming on the digital variant of its channel[8], resulting in S4C Digidol broadcasting for fewer hours than its analogue counterpart. This article is about the country. ... S4C (Sianel Pedwar Cymru, which is Welsh for Channel Four Wales) is a television channel in Wales. ... Coaxial cable is often used to transmit cable television into the house. ... Satellite television is television delivered by way of communications satellites, as compared to conventional terrestrial television and cable television. ... Digital Terrestrial Television (DTTV or DTT) is an implementation of Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB) technology to provide a greater number of channels, and digital quality of sound and picture, through a conventional aerial instead of a satellite dish or cable connection. ...

Contents

Channel Four Television Corporation

As an organisation, Channel 4 is known as the Channel Four Television Corporation, though this form is more recent than the station itself, having previously been the Channel Four Television Company, a subsidiary of the IBA, between 1982 and 1993.[9][10] The Independent Broadcasting Authority (IBA) was the regulatory body in the United Kingdom for commercial television (ITV and Channel 4 - cable and satellite television were the responsibility of the Cable Authority) and radio broadcasts. ...


Towards the end of the 1980s, the government began a radical process of re-organisation of the commercial broadcasting industry,[11] which was written onto the statute books by means of the Broadcasting Act 1990.[12] Significantly, this meant the abolition of the IBA, and hence the Channel Four Television Company. The result lead to the creation of a corporation to own and operate the channel, which would have a greater deal of autonomy and would eventually go on establish its other operations. The new corporation, which became operational in 1993, remained publicly owned and was regulated by the new Independent Television Commission (ITC), created under the same act. The ITC and its duties were later replaced by Ofcom, which like its predecessor is responsible for appointing the Corporation's board, in agreement with the Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport.[2] The Broadcasting Act 1990 is a law of the British parliament, often regarded by both its supporters and its critics as a quintessential example of Thatcherism. ... The ITC has been superseded as the British commercial television regulator by Ofcom (the Office of Communications). ... Ofcom is a regulator for communication industries in the United Kingdom. ... The Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport is a UK cabinet position with responsibility for the Department for Culture, Media and Sport. ...


In terms of the station's remit and other duties, the creation of the corporation meant little change, however the new corporation would have to manage its own advertising, rather than this being carried out on its behalf by the local ITV contractors (see Funding).


History

Conception

Before Channel 4 and S4C, Britain had three terrestrial television services: BBC1, BBC2, and ITV. The Broadcasting Act 1980 began the process of adding a fourth, and Channel 4, along with its Welsh counterpart, was formally created by an Act of Parliament in 1982. After some weeks of test broadcasts, it began scheduled transmissions on 2 November 1982. BBC One (or BBC1 as it was formerly styled) is the oldest United Kingdom, and indeed, the world. ... BBC Two (or BBC2 as it was formerly styled) was the second UK television station to be aired by the BBC. History The channel was scheduled to begin at 7:20pm on April 20, 1964 and show an evening of light entertainment, starting with the comedy show The Alberts and... Independent Television (generally known as ITV, but also as ITV Network) is a public service network of British commercial television broadcasters, set up under the Independent Television Authority (ITA) to provide competition to the BBC. ITV is the oldest commercial television network in the UK. Since 1990 and the Broadcasting... The Broadcasting Act 1980 (1980 c. ... An Act of Parliament or Act is law enacted by the parliament (see legislation). ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ...


The notion of a second commercial broadcaster in the UK had been around since the inception of ITV in 1954 and its subsequent launch in 1955; the idea of an 'ITV2' was long expected and pushed for. Indeed television sets sold throughout the 1970s and early 1980s had a spare channel called 'ITV/IBA 2'. Throughout ITV's History and until Channel 4 finally became a reality, a perennial dialogue existed between the GPO, the government, the ITV companies and other interested parties, concerning the form such an expansion of commercial broadcasting would take. It was most likely politics which had the biggest impact in leading to a delay of almost three decades before the second commercial channel became a reality.[10] With what can crudely be summed up as a clash of ideologies between an expansion of ITV's commercial ethos and a public service approach more akin to the BBC, it was ultimately somewhat of a compromise that eventually led to the formation of Channel 4 as launched in 1982. Independent Television (generally known as ITV, but also as ITV Network) is a public service network of British commercial television broadcasters, set up under the Independent Television Authority (ITA) to provide competition to the BBC. ITV is the oldest commercial television network in the UK. Since 1990 and the Broadcasting... ITV2 is a free-to-air entertainment television channel in the United Kingdom owned by ITV plc. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The British General Post Office (GPO) was officially established in 1660 by Charles II and it eventually grew to combine the functions of both the state postal system and telecommunications carrier. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions. ... Commercial broadcasting - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Public broadcasting (also known as public service broadcasting or PSB) is the dominant form of broadcasting around the world, where radio, television, and potentially other electronic media outlets receive funding from the public. ...


One clear benefit of the 'late arrival' of the channel was that its frequency allocations at each transmitter had already been arranged in the early 1960s, when the launch of ITV2 was highly anticipated.[10] This led to very good coverage across most of the country and few problems of interference with other UK based transmissions; a stark contrast to the problems associated with Channel 5's launch a decade and a half later. Five, launched in 1997, is the fifth and final national terrestrial analogue television channel to launch in the United Kingdom. ...


IBA Control: 1982–1993

The original Channel 4 logo, used from 1982–1996

The first voice ever heard on Channel 4 was that of continuity announcer Paul Coia, who intoned, "Good afternoon. It's a pleasure to be able to say to you: Welcome to Channel Four", before heading into a montage of clips from its programmes set to the station's Lord David Dundas-penned signature tune, Fourscore, which would form the basis of the station's jingles for its first decade. The first programme to air on the channel was the teatime game show Countdown, produced by Yorkshire Television; it is still running as of 2007 and is contracted until 2009. Image File history File links The Channel 4 logo used from 2 November 1982 to 10 October 1996. ... Image File history File links The Channel 4 logo used from 2 November 1982 to 10 October 1996. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Paul Coia (born June 19, 1955, Glasgow) is a Scottish television presenter and continuity announcer, perhaps best known for presenting the BBC2 word puzzle gameshow Catchword. ... Lord David Paul Nicholas Dundas (born 2 June 1945 in Oxford, England) is a musician known for his film and television scoring, having previously had limited chart success in the rock genre. ... Fourscore was the signature tune used by Channel 4 in the United Kingdom for 13 years, from 1982 to 1995. ... “Quiz show” redirects here. ... Countdown is a British game show presented by Des OConnor and Carol Vorderman. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Upon its launch, Channel 4 committed itself to providing an alternative to the existing channels, an agenda in part set out by its remit which required the provision of programming to minority groups. Its new style of programming often drew critical attention, with some, such as the self-styled public-decency campaigner Mary Whitehouse, claiming the station had overstepped the boundaries of acceptability[citation needed] whilst others argued that the new style of broadcasting had led to a liberalisation of the UK television industry.[citation needed] This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Programming such as the Red Triangle series, The Tube, and Network 7 often straddled the boundary between being pioneering and being tasteless.[citation needed] A red triangle of this sort preceded broadcasts, warning viewers that special discretion was required. ... Screenshot of The Tubes neon sign trademark The Tube was an innovative United Kingdom pop/rock music television programme, which ran for 5 series, from 1982 until 1987. ... Network 7 was a shortlived but influential BAFTA winning youth music and arts programme screened on Channel 4 over two seasons in 1987 and 1988. ...


In step with its remit, the channel became well received both by minority groups and the arts and cultural worlds during this period, especially under Isaacs, where the channel gained a reputation for programmes on the contemporary arts. The channel often did not receive mass audiences for much of this period, however, as might be expected for a station focusing on minority interest.


Channel 4 also began the funding of independent films during this time.


In 1992, Channel 4 also faced it's first libel case by Jani Allan, a South African journalist, who objected to her representation in the documentary The Leader, His Driver and the Driver's Wife.[13] Jani Allan (born 11 September 1953) is a South African journalist and top radio commentator. ... The Leader, His Driver and the Drivers Wife is a feature-length documentary film about apartheid in South Africa, particularly Eugène TerreBlanche, founder of the AWB. The film is made by Nick Broomfield. ...


Channel Four Television Corporation control: 1993 onwards

The Channel 4 logo used from 1996–1999. The four circles appeared in various configurations.

After control of the station passed from the Channel Four Television Company to the Channel Four Television Corporation in 1993 (see above) a shift in broadcasting style took place. Instead of aiming for the fringes of society, it began to focus on the edges of the mainstream, and the centre of the mass market itself[citation needed]. It began to show many US programmes in peak viewing time, far more than it had previously done. It premiered such shows as Friends and ER. Image File history File links The Channel 4 logo used from 11 October 1996 to 1 March 1999. ... Image File history File links The Channel 4 logo used from 11 October 1996 to 1 March 1999. ... For the use of the word in a general sense, see Friendship. ... This article is about the drama series. ...


Latterly, it began broadcasting various reality formats (including Big Brother) and obtained the rights to broadcast certain popular sporting events such as cricket and horse racing (the contract to broadcast Test Match Cricket ceased with the end of the Summer 2005 Ashes series). This new direction increased ratings and revenues. For the current series, see Big Brother 2007 (UK). ... Bowler Shaun Pollock bowls to batsman Michael Hussey. ... Horse-racing is an equestrian sporting activity which has been practiced over the centuries; the chariot races of Roman times were an early example, as was the contest of the steeds of the god Odin and the giant Hrungnir in Norse mythology. ... The Ashes is a Test cricket series, played between England and Australia - it is international crickets most celebrated rivalry and dates back to 1882. ...


In addition, the Channel launched a number of new television channels through its new 4Ventures off-shoot, including Film4, At The Races, E4 and More4 (see Other Services).


Partially in reaction to its new 'populist' direction, the Communications Act 2003 directed the channel to demonstrate innovation, experimentation and creativity, appeal to the tastes and interests of a culturally diverse society and to include programmes of an educational nature which exhibit a distinctive character.[2] See also the Communications Act 2003 (Nigeria). ...


Under the leadership of Freeview founder Andy Duncan, 2005 saw a change of direction for Channel 4's digital channels. Channel 4 made E4 'free to air' on Digital Terrestrial, and launched a new 'free to air' digital channel called More4. By October Channel 4 had joined the Freeview consortium.[14] By July 2006, Film4 had also become a 'free to air' and re-started broadcasting on Digital Terrestrial.[15] Freeview is the operator of free digital terrestrial television in the United Kingdom, using the DVB-T standard. ... Andy Duncan (born July 31, 1962) is the chief executive of Channel 4 television in the United Kingdom. ... More4 is a digital television channel, produced by United Kingdom broadcaster Channel 4, that launched on 10 October 2005. ... Film4 is a free British digital television channel, owned and operated by Channel 4, which screens high-quality films. ...


Venturing into radio broadcasting, 2005 saw Channel 4 purchase a 51 per cent of shares in the Oneword radio station with UBC Media holding onto the remaining shares. New programmes such as the weekly, half hour The Morning Report news programme are among some of the new content Channel 4 has provided for the station, with the name 4Radio being used. Oneword Radio is a British commercial radio station featuring books, drama, comedy, childrens programming, and discussion. ...

The Channel 4 logo, used from 1999–2004. The white square background is part of the logo.

Image File history File links Channel4logo1999-2004. ... Image File history File links Channel4logo1999-2004. ...

The future

Channel 4 has in recent years raised concerns over how it might finance its public service obligations after digital switch-over. However, some certainty lies in the announcement in April 2006 that Channel 4's digital switch-over costs would be paid for by licence fee revenues.[16]


Channel 4 ran a six month closed trial of HDTV, as part of the wider FreeviewHD experiment in London[17], including the use of Lost and Desperate Housewives as part of the experiment, as US broadcasters such as ABC already have an HDTV back catalogue. Projection screen in a home theater, displaying a high-definition television image. ... For years many countries have shown limited interest in HDTV for terrestrial broadcasts. ... Lost is an Emmy Award and Golden Globe-winning American serial drama television series that follows the lives of plane crash survivors on a mysterious tropical island, after a passenger jet flying between Australia and the United States crashes somewhere in the South Pacific. ... Desperate Housewives is an American television comedy-drama series, created by Marc Cherry, who also serves as show runner, and produced by ABC Studios — The Walt Disney Companys main television studio — and Cherry Productions. ... The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) operates television and radio networks in the United States and is also shown on basic cable in Canada. ...


On March 28, 2007, Channel 4 announced plans to launch a music channel as a joint venture with UK media company EMAP which would include carriage on the Freeview platform.[18][19] Channel 4 has since acquired a 50% stake in EMAP's TV business for a reported £28 million.[20] is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... EMAP plc (LSE: EMA) is a British media company, specialising in the production of magazines, and the organization of business events and conferences. ... Freeview is the operator of free digital terrestrial television in the United Kingdom, using the DVB-T standard. ...


Carriage

Channel 4 was carried from its beginning on analogue terrestrial (except in Wales), which was practically the only means of television broadcast in the UK at the time. It will continue to be broadcast through these means until the UK's analogue television services are closed down over the course of the next decade. Since 1998, it has been universally available on digital terrestrial, and the Sky Digital platform (encrypted, though free of charge) as well as having been available from various times in various areas, on analogue and digital cable networks. This article is about the country. ... Sky Digital is the brand name for British Sky Broadcastings digital satellite television service, transmitted from SES Astra satellites located at 28. ...


Due to its special status as a public service broadcaster with a specific remit, it is afforded free carriage on the terrestrial platforms,[21] in contrast with other broadcasters such as ITV.[22]


Channel 4 is also available overseas: Some viewers in the Republic of Ireland and parts of the European mainland, have been able to receive terrestrial transmissions from Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and some overseas cable networks, especially in the RoI, have carried the service. From 4 December 2006 Channel 4 was officially available to Sky viewers in the Republic of Ireland; some programmes, mainly imports, are not aired on this channel variant, due to Channel 4 not owning the relevant broadcast rights within the country. is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


From June 2006, Channel 4 allowed Internet users in the United Kingdom to watch Channel 4 live on the Internet. However, for legal reasons all adverts have been removed and some programmes (mostly international imports) are not shown. Channel 4 is also provided by Virgin Mobile's DAB mobile TV service which has the same restrictions as the internet live stream. Virgin Mobile Ltd is a mobile phone service provider operating in the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, South Africa, the United States and France. ... Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB), also known as Eureka 147, is a technology for broadcasting of audio using digital radio transmission. ...


Channel 4 also makes some of its programming available 'on demand' via cable and the internet (see 4oD).


Funding

Channel 4 has never received any public funding. During the station's formative years, funding came from the ITV companies in return for their right to sell advertisements in their region on the fourth channel. Independent Television (generally known as ITV, but also as ITV Network) is a public service network of British commercial television broadcasters, set up under the Independent Television Authority (ITA) to provide competition to the BBC. ITV is the oldest commercial television network in the UK. Since 1990 and the Broadcasting...


Nowadays it pays for itself in much the same way as most privately run commercial stations, i.e. through the sale of on-air advertising, programme sponsorship, and the sale of any programme content and merchandising rights it owns, such as overseas sales and video sales. It also has the ability to subsidise the main network through any profits made on the corporation's other endeavours, which have in the past included subscription fees from stations such as E4 and Film4 (now no longer subscription services) and its 'video-on-demand' sales. In practice, however, these other activities are loss-making, and are subsidised by the main network. According to Channel 4's last published accounts, for 2005, the extent of this cross-subsidy was some £30 million. [3] E4 is a British digital television channel launched as a pay-tv companion to Channel 4 on 18 January 2001. ... Film4 is a free British digital television channel, owned and operated by Channel 4, which screens high-quality films. ...


The change in funding method came about by the Broadcasting Act 1990 when the new corporation was afforded the ability to fund itself. Originally this arrangement left a 'safety net' guaranteed minimum income should the revenue fall too low, funded by large insurance payments made to the ITV companies. Such a subsidy was never required, however, and these premiums were phased out by government in 1998. After the link with ITV was cut, the cross-promotion which had existed between ITV and Channel 4 also ended. The Broadcasting Act 1990 is a law of the British parliament, often regarded by both its supporters and its critics as a quintessential example of Thatcherism. ...


Programming

Main article: Channel 4 programming
Channel 4 share of viewing 1992-2007 BARB figures

Channel 4 is a "publisher-broadcaster", meaning that it commissions or "buys" all of its programming from companies independent of itself, and was the first broadcaster in the United Kingdom to do so on any significant scale. This had the consequence of starting an industry of production companies that did not have to rely on owning an ITV licence in order to see their programmes air, though since Channel 4, external commissioning has become regular practise on the numerous stations that have launched since, as well as on the BBC and in ITV. Somewhat ironically, (and against the wider trend) being used to outsourcing its core function - programming - it is the only terrestrial broadcaster that has kept its transmission and playout operation in-house. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 750 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 800 pixel, file size: 35 KB, MIME type: image/png) Channel 4 share of viewing 1992-2007 based on BARB figures I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 750 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 800 pixel, file size: 35 KB, MIME type: image/png) Channel 4 share of viewing 1992-2007 based on BARB figures I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Independent Television (generally known as ITV, but also as ITV Network) is a public service network of British commercial television broadcasters, set up under the Independent Television Authority (ITA) to provide competition to the BBC. ITV is the oldest commercial television network in the UK. Since 1990 and the Broadcasting... The British Broadcasting Corporation, which is usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion. ... Independent Television (generally known as ITV, but also as ITV Network) is a public service network of British commercial television broadcasters, set up under the Independent Television Authority (ITA) to provide competition to the BBC. ITV is the oldest commercial television network in the UK. Since 1990 and the Broadcasting...


The requirement to obtain all content externally is stipulated in its licence[3]. Additionally, Channel 4 also began a trend of owning the copyright and distribution rights of the programmes it aired, in a manner that is similar to the major Hollywood studios' ownership of television programs that they did not directly produce. Thus, although Channel 4 does not produce programmes, many are seen as belonging to it. ...


Channel 4 also pioneered the concept of stranded programming, where seasons of programmes following a common theme would be aired and promoted together. Some would be very specific, and run for a fixed period of time; the 4 Mation season, for example, showed innovative animation. Other, less specific strands, were (and still are) run regularly, such as T4, a strand of programming aimed at teenagers, on weekend mornings (and weekdays during school/college holidays); Friday Night Comedy, a slot where the channel would pioneer its style of comedy commissions, 4Music and 4Later, an eclectic collection of offbeat programmes transmitted to a cult audience in the early hours of the morning. T4 is a scheduling slot on Channel 4 (UK) from about 9 a. ...


In its earlier years, Red Triangle was the name given to the airing of certain risqué art-house films, dubbed as being pornographic by many of Channel 4's critics, whilst general broadcasting of films on the station for many years came under the banner of Film on Four prior to the launch of the FilmFour brand and station in the late 1990s. Film4 is a free British digital television channel, owned and operated by Channel 4, which screens high-quality films. ...


Its critically acclaimed news service, Channel 4 News, is supplied by ITN whilst its long-standing investigative documentary, Dispatches, causes perennial media attention. The Channel 4 News logo after the headline stab. ... ITN may refer to: Independent Television News In the news, a section on the Main Page of English Wikipedia This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Dispatches is a British television documentary series on Channel 4. ...


Other Services

November 1998 saw Channel 4 expand beyond its remit of providing the 'fourth service' in a significant way, with the launch of FilmFour. Since then the corporation has been involved in a range of other activities, all in some way associated with the main channel, and mainly using the '4' brand. Film4 is a free British digital television channel, owned and operated by Channel 4, which screens high-quality films. ...


4Ventures/4Rights

In 2001 4Ventures was created as the parent body of its other activities, which at the time were run as commercial businesses, rather than public-service obligations, with the intent of making profit which would serve to subsidise the main Channel 4. 4Ventures has subsequently been run-down, with its television stations (listed below) moving from a largely subscription based profit-making model, to being widely available free-to-view services, available on most platforms.


However, following the sale of Quiz Call (a gaming channel operated by the then-owned subsidiary Ostrich Media) in 2006, a restructure of 4Ventures saw many of its activities re-integrated back into the main channel's operations (including day-to-day running of E4, Film4 and More4). The last remaining division (and now the only commercial arm of Channel 4), 4Rights, was formed from an amalgamation of Channel 4 International and Channel 4 Consumer Products. As part of the restructure, much of the 4Ventures management team either left the company - chief executive (and Channel 4 commercial director) Rob Woodward and managing director Anmar Kawash are now Chief Executive and Director of Strategy of SMG respectively - or transferred to other posts within Channel 4. Most overt references to 4Ventures have since ended and/or been removed. 4Ventures' website still exists, but has not been updated for some time. Quiz Call is a phone-in quiz show, produced by Ostrich Media (owned by iTouch) for Five, Five US and Five Life. ... Ostrich Media is a British company, best known as the owner of interactive quiz channel - Quiz Call. ... SMG plc (formerly Scottish Media Group) is a Scottish media company. ...


In 2007, the expanding, UK-based, independent distribution group Digital Rights Group (DRG) announced an intention to buy Channel 4 International (adding it to Zeal and ID Distribution among its other companies), following a review by Channel 4 of its commercial division. However, it is unclear whether a formal offer has been made (or, for that matter, accepted) and what future the Consumer Products division would have, ie: remaining part of its new owner, being sold on, or retained by Channel 4 as part of a new, heavily-shrunken 4Rights division.


Television

Film4

Main article: Film4

Channel 4 has had a long record of success in funding the production of films through Channel Four Films, renamed FilmFour in 1998 to coincide with the launch of its digital channel of the same name. Notable successes include The Madness of King George, The Crying Game and Four Weddings and a Funeral. However, this dedicated film-making wing was scaled back in 2002 as a cost-cutting measure in the face of substantial losses. Film4 is a free British digital television channel, owned and operated by Channel 4, which screens high-quality films. ... The Madness of King George is a 1994 film which tells the story of King George III of the United Kingdoms deteriorating mental health, and the equally declining relationship between him and his son, the Prince of Wales. ... For the song of the same name by Geoff Stephens, see The Crying Game (song). ... Four Weddings and a Funeral is a 1994 British romantic comedy film directed by Mike Newell. ...


Channel 4 launched a subscription film channel, FilmFour, in November 1998. It was available on digital satellite television and digital cable. Companion services, such as FilmFour+1, FilmFour World and FilmFour Extreme were also available on some digital services. In 2003 Extreme and World were discontinued, and replaced with FilmFour Weekly. FilmFour Weekly closed in July 2006, when the main, newly named Film4 channel went free-to-view and became available on Digital Terrestrial. The switchover to Digital Terrestrial was heavily advertised. The adverts featured Lucy Liu, Christian Slater, Ewan McGregor, Judi Dench, Gael García Bernal, Willem Dafoe, Mackenzie Crook, Rhys Ifans and Ray Winstone declaring "Film4 is now free" in various situations across London. It remains the only film channel available free on digital terrestrial television. “Moving picture” redirects here. ... Satellite television is television delivered by way of communications satellites, as compared to conventional terrestrial television and cable television. ... Digital Terrestrial Television (DTTV or DTT) is an implementation of Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB) technology to provide a greater number of channels, and digital quality of sound and picture, through a conventional aerial instead of a satellite dish or cable connection. ... Lucy Alexis Liu (Chinese: 劉玉玲 Liú Yùlíng, born December 2, 1968 in Queens, New York) is an Emmy Award-nominated American actress. ... Christian Slater (born August 18, 1969) is an American actor. ... Ewan Gordon McGregor (born March 31, 1971) (IPA pronunciation: [1]) is a Scottish actor who has had significant success in mainstream, indie and art house films. ... Dame Judith Olivia Dench, CH, DBE, FRSA, (born 9 December 1934), usually known as Dame Judi Dench, is an Academy Award, Golden Globe, Tony, three-time BAFTA, and six-time Laurence Olivier Award-winning English actress. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... William Dafoe, Jr. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... On set: Importance of Being Idle From left: Andy Bell, Liam Gallagher, Rhys Ifans, Noel Gallagher, Zak Starkey and Gem Archer Rhys Ifans IPA: (approximately hris EEvans) (born 22 July 1968, Haverfordwest, Pembrokeshire, Wales) is a Welsh actor. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


In 2002, Channel 4's film financing division (Film4 Productions) was seriously scaled back, due to massive losses, although total closure was averted. It had however had various successes, most notably Four Weddings and a Funeral and Trainspotting. In 1994, BAFTA/LA (the Los Angeles branch of the British Academy of Film & Television Arts) presented a full-length film festival in Los Angeles in conjunction with the American Cinematheque (the US equivalent of Britain's National Film Theatre that saluted the considerable contributions to British film of Channel 4's film division since its inception. The festival presented many of the most celebrated Channel 4 films, and also featured panel discussions about Channel 4's role between Channel 4 chief executive Michael Grade and US TV producer Norman Lear. Film4 Productions is a British film production company owned by Channel 4. ... Four Weddings and a Funeral is a 1994 British romantic comedy film directed by Mike Newell. ... Movie poster for Trainspotting Trainspotting is a 1996 black comedy film directed by Danny Boyle based on the novel Trainspotting by Irvine Welsh about a group of heroin addicts in Edinburgh and their passage through life. ... The British Academy of Film and Television Arts (BAFTA), is a British organization that hosts annual awards shows for film, television, childrens film and television, and interactive media. ... The American Cinematheque is an independent, non-profit cultural organization in Los Angeles dedicated exclusively to the public presentation of the Moving Picture in all its forms. ... The used book sale in front of the National Film Theatre The National Film Theatre is located on the South Bank of the river Thames in London. ... Michael Ian Grade CBE (born March 8, 1943) is a British businessman and a distinguished figure in the field of broadcasting. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


When Channel 4 had the rights to broadcast test match cricket in England, the downtime of the FilmFour channel was often used to broadcast uninterrupted coverage of a match when the main channel was committed elsewhere, usually to racing. At these times FilmFour was available unencrypted and free-to-air. Bowler Shaun Pollock bowls to batsman Michael Hussey. ...


At The Races

Main article: At the Races

In 2000, Channel 4 launched a dedicated horse racing channel, At the Races. However, for a combination of financial and legal reasons[citation needed] the channel ceased broadcasting in 2003. It was subsequently bought by BSkyB and relaunched in June 2004. Channel 4 has no involvement with the new At The Races, which is branded with almost identical livery as Sky Sports. Channel 4's racing coverage, re-named to incorporate "At The Races" in the title, returned to its original name of Channel 4 Racing when the channel left involvement with At The Races. Channel 4 racing programmes now feature close co-operation with rival digital racing channel Racing UK, (including cross-promoting Racing UK's coverage of the day's racing during its broadcasts). At the Races is a United Kingdom television channel, formerly run by Channel 4, but now owned by British Sky Broadcasting. ... British Sky Broadcasting (BSkyB - formerly two companies, Sky Television and British Satellite Broadcasting, which merged) is a company that operates the most popular subscription television service in the Ireland. ...


E4

Main article: E4 (channel)

E4, a digital entertainment channel previously available on the Internet, with a target age-range of 16-34, was launched in January 2001. It features premieres of US imports and supplementary footage for programmes on its main channel (most notably extended Big Brother coverage). E4 is a British digital television channel launched as a pay-tv companion to Channel 4 on 18 January 2001. ...


In 2005 it launched on Digital Terrestrial. E4 now has as much coverage as other services available on Cable, Satellite and Digital Terrestrial like ITV2 and BBC Three. It is a very successful channel with a first look or sneak peek, with the next episode of some series, such as Hollyoaks and Desperate Housewives appearing on E4 immediately after the show on Channel 4 has finished. Also they have "Second Chance Sunday" which allows you to see programmes you have missed during the week on a Sunday. New show Skins was a massive success for E4, peaking at the 2 million mark - one of the most viewed premieres in digital TV history. There has, however, been some criticism that E4 (like many other digital channels), relies on seemingly endless repeats of a small selection of shows (notably Friends), with further suggestion that it is often the same season of a particular show that is endlessly repeated. Digital Terrestrial Television (DTTV or DTT) is an implementation of Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB) technology to provide a greater number of channels, and digital quality of sound and picture, through a conventional aerial instead of a satellite dish or cable connection. ... ITV2 is a free-to-air entertainment television channel in the United Kingdom owned by ITV plc. ... BBC Three, the successor to the similar BBC Choice, is a British television channel from the BBC broadcasting only on digital cable, terrestrial and satellite. ... Hollyoaks is a British television soap opera, first broadcast on 23 October 1995, on Channel 4. ... Desperate Housewives is an American television comedy-drama series, created by Marc Cherry, who also serves as show runner, and produced by ABC Studios — The Walt Disney Companys main television studio — and Cherry Productions. ... Skins is a British teen drama from Company Pictures which premiered on E4 on 25 January 2007. ... For the use of the word in a general sense, see Friendship. ...


During Big Brother, E4 plays host to live coverage of the show, subject to a delay. Until 2006, programmes on the channel didn't air until 14.00 GMT, but in February 2006 the widely-advertised E4 Music airs from 06.00 until 14.00 GMT, with various music shows and videos being showcased. This however is rested during Big Brother.


E4 is widely available in the Republic of Ireland in close to 70% of homes. It is carried on the NTL / Chorus cable networks and also on Sky Digital. The channel operates a separate advertising opt-out in the Republic allowing advertisers to directly target Irish audiences. This has been a highly successful commercial operation and all airtime sales are handled on the channels behalf by Medialink in Dublin. NTL Communications (Ireland) Limited is a cable television and MMDS company in the Republic of Ireland. ... Chorus Communications is a communications provider in Ireland, it offers internet, television and telephone services. ... Medialink is the leading media representation company based in Ireland. ...


More4

Main article: More4

More4 is a channel aimed at those aged 35–60. Launched on 10 October 2005, it channel carries news and nightly discussion programmes, such as More4 News, an extension of Channel 4 News that attempts to look "beyond the headlines", giving in-depth analysis. Advertising before the launch of the channel flaunted such HBO shows as Curb Your Enthusiasm and The Sopranos, as well as NBC's The West Wing. Its conception has met conflicting responses; many people believe the programmes shown to be of great quality, while others see it as an excuse to free up more room for a deluge of property programmes or less respectable programmes (see Fat Pets) in all other free slots on Channel 4. More4 is a digital television channel, produced by United Kingdom broadcaster Channel 4, that launched on 10 October 2005. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Channel 4 News logo after the headline stab. ... Curb Your Enthusiasm is an American comedy, though not in the traditional sitcom format, starring Seinfeld writer, co-creator, and executive producer Larry David. ... The Sopranos is an American television drama series created by David Chase and originally broadcast on the HBO network. ... The National Broadcasting Company (NBC) is an American television network headquartered in the GE Building in New York Citys Rockefeller Center. ... “The West Wing” redirects here. ...


'+1' Channels

Channel 4 runs time-shift variants of its E4, More4 and Film4 services, and from August 20, 2007 has run Channel 4 +1[23] across all digital platforms. In common with many other broadcasters, these channels output exactly the same programmes and continuity as was broadcast an hour previously, and are titled with the station name followed by a "+1" suffix. is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...


Channel 4+1, E4+1 and More4+1 all carry a "+1" indication onscreen. There was some concern about how it would be indicated on Channel 4+1 as Channel 4 doesn't carry its own on-screen graphic. Eventually, a "+1" symbol in a similar style to the Channel 4 was unveiled. However, it should be noted that neither Film4 or Film4+1 carry on-screen graphics.


Quiz Call

Main article: Quiz Call

4Ventures previously owned Ostrich Media Limited, a company which ran the participation television station, Quiz Call. In November 2006, Channel 4 confirmed that it had sold Ostrich Media Limited to iTouch.[24] Channel 4 cited the fact that strong competition in the UK participation television market had meant that it was no longer easy to make profits from participation TV as the reason for selling. The space occupied by QuizCall on Freeview wasn't included as part of the sale. Consequently, the channel left Channel 4's space on Freeview on 15 November 2006, and was replaced in the short term by Film4+1.[25] Channel 4 director of television, Kevin Lygo, confirmed the plan to launch a new channel in the longer term. However, he was reported not to be satisfied with the first round of ideas submitted to him (a US acquisitions channel, a comedy channel and a T4 youth brand channel) and is now canvassing further options.[24] Quiz Call is a phone-in quiz show, produced by Ostrich Media (owned by iTouch) for Five, Five US and Five Life. ... Ostrich Media is a British company, best known as the owner of interactive quiz show, Quiz Call. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Radio

4 Digital Group

Main article: 4 Digital Group

Channel 4 is the leading member of a the 4 Digital Group consortium, which includes EMAP, UTV and SMG as partners (although SMG's involvement will cease when Virgin Radio is floated as a separate company). In July 2007 The group was awarded the 12 year licence to operate the second UK national DAB radio licence after having defeated its only rival, National Grid Wireless, in the three-month bidding process.[26] This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... EMAP plc (LSE: EMA) is a British media company, specialising in the production of magazines, and the organization of business events and conferences. ... For other uses of the UTV acronym, see UTV (disambiguation) UTV (formerly Ulster Television) is the ITV franchise for Northern Ireland. ... SMG plc (formerly Scottish Media Group) is a Scottish media company. ... Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB), also known as Eureka 147, is a technology for broadcasting of audio using digital radio transmission. ... National Grid Wireless (formerly Crown Castle UK) is a company which provides telecommunications infrastructure and broadcast transmission facilities in the UK. Its main customers are broadcasters and mobile phone network operators, and its main asset is a network of over 1,000 radio masts and towers. ...


The service will operate ten radio stations, including Channel 4 Radio, E4 Radio, Sky News Radio (operated by BSkyB and Global Radio UK) and Radio Disney (in association with Disney). Many of the services, especially Channel 4 Radio and E4 Radio, will attempt to compete directly with national BBC Radio stations. Podcast and text services will also be provided when the stations go on air in 2008.[27] British Sky Broadcasting (BSkyB - formerly two companies, Sky Television and British Satellite Broadcasting, which merged) is a company that operates the most popular subscription television service in the Ireland. ... Disney may refer to: The Walt Disney Company and its divisions, including Walt Disney Pictures. ... An orange square with waves indicates that an RSS feed is present on a web page. ...


4radio

In June 2006 they launched 4radio[28], offering audio programmes in the shape of podcasts aimed at introducing new public service radio services informed by C4’s values of creativity and innovation. Coupled with their strategy of becoming a truly multimedia company, there are shows that tie in with their flagship TV hits including Big Brother, Lost, and Channel 4 News. But they are also looking to introduce opportunities for new music, comedy, speech and drama production from independents to invigorate the commercial radio sector and give the BBC some real competition. Image File history File links 4radio_logo. ... Look up lost in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The successful multiplex consortium will not be expected to launch until 2008. However a taste of Channel 4 Radio's audio output is already available [29] including a revival of the Channel's The Tube [30] music programme and a very small amount of 4radio branded content can be heard on Oneword. Screenshot of The Tubes neon sign trademark The Tube was an innovative United Kingdom pop/rock music television programme, which ran for 5 series, from 1982 until 1987. ... Oneword Radio is a British commercial radio station featuring books, drama, comedy, childrens programming, and discussion. ...


Oneword

Main article: Oneword

Oneword is a digital radio station featuring the spoken word. In early 2005 Channel 4 purchased a minority stake in it, later that year buying a majority one. It has been rumoured that the station will be relaunched with a format featuring greater integration with Channel 4's other properties. Oneword Radio is a British commercial radio station featuring books, drama, comedy, childrens programming, and discussion. ... A typical DAB digital radio receiver with the Digital Radio Development Bureau DAB digital radio marketing logo In the United Kingdom, the roll-out of digital radio is proceeding since test transmissions were started by the BBC in 1990. ...


Channel4.com

The station's website is channel4.com. The site offers detailed programme information, highlights, and chats with actors and presenters of all Channel 4 channels. It also has in-depth sections including news, film, homes, sport, and more. Its learning sections are often used by many for educational needs. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... “Moving picture” redirects here. ... Look up home in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


4oD

4oD Logo

Launched in November 2006, 4oD stands for "4 on Demand", a service which allows some internet, Virgin Media, Tiscali and BT Vision users to view programming recently shown on Channel 4, E4 or More4, or from their archives. 4oD also includes a selection of films and content from the National Geographic Channel.[31] The cable version is operated through an appropriate set top box whilst the internet variant requires the installation of a free piece of software, which allows users to download the programmes to a computer for viewing. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Virgin Media Inc. ... Archaeological village of Nuragici people, in Sardinia, Italy. ... BT Vision is a service provided in the United Kingdom supplied by BT Group. ... The National Geographic Channel is a subscription television network that features documentaries produced by the National Geographic Society. ... The term set-top box describes a device that connects to a television and some external source of signal, and turns the signal into content then displayed on the screen. ...


The services are limited to UK and Republic of Ireland viewers only, and the internet version is at present further limited to Windows XP and Windows Vista, PC users only.[31] This is due to the proprietary Microsoft DRM system chosen for the service, being only available to that platform at this time. Channel 4 state that this choice of system is at the stipulation of many of the programme copyright holders, thus such a limitation is unavoidable if their programmes are to be made available in this way.[31] At this time there is no widespread, secure multiplatform DRM technology available which is accepted by the major content producers, including the Hollywood studios.[citation needed] It has been suggested that closed source be merged into this article or section. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... Digital rights management (DRM) is an umbrella term that refers to access control technologies used by publishers and other copyright holders to limit usage of digital media or devices. ... The acronym DRM can stand for: Digital Rights Management - Technologies to give content providers control over redistribution and access to material. ... ...

Screen shot of 4oD Browser

The "Catch-up" service offers content free of charge for both streaming and downloaded versions of a programme for seven days after its broadcast on Channel 4. Some content is available free of charge, whilst most other programmes and films, including archive programming, is charged for on a per-download basis, typically around 99p per standard programme or £1.99 per film.[31] Video can be viewed multiple times, for up to forty-eight hours after the first time it was played, or for a month until played. The video on the internet service is advertised as being 'DVD quality', and estimates download time to be around twice the programme length on an average broadband connection, though speeds vary dramatically dependent on ISP, connection speed and other factors, and may be less or more than this. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 758 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1256 × 993 pixel, file size: 186 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) screenshot of freeware from http://en. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 758 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1256 × 993 pixel, file size: 186 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) screenshot of freeware from http://en. ... “ISP” redirects here. ...


A Download to Own (DTO) or "Buy" feature is also available on selected content, allowing users to purchase a programme and keep it for as long as they wish.


The 4oD internet service uses exactly the same technology (Kontiki Delivery Manager and Microsoft DRM) as the BBC iPlayer test service that was successfully trailed at the end of 2005 and is due to be launched in 2007. The BBC service made no charge for watching recently aired programmes during its trial. It is also the same technology used by the Sky Anytime service.[citation needed] This article is about the digital media distribution company. ... iPlayer - formerly iMP (Integrated Media Player; also referred to as Interactive Media Player) is a computer program being developed by the BBC to replace and extend its existing RealPlayer-based Radio Player and other streamed content. ... Sky Anytime is the brand-name of a range of on demand services from BSkyB designed to compete with Video on demand services currently offered by cable companies such as Virgin Media. ...


Teletext

4-Tel/FourText

Main article: FourText

Channel 4 originally licensed a ancillary teletext service to provide schedules, programme information and features. The original service was called 4-Tel and was provided in collaboration with Oracle.[32] In 1993, with Oracle losing its franchise to Teletext Ltd, the running of 4-Tel was taken over by Intelfax[32], and in 2002 was renamed FourText. FourText (originally 4-Tel) was the British Channel 4s ancillary teletext service from the 1980s until 2003. ... ORACLE (Optimal Reception of Announcements by Coded Line Electronics) was a commercial teletext service first broadcast on ITV in 1974 and later on Channel 4 in the United Kingdom finally ending on both channels at the end of December 1992. ... Teletext Ltd is the provider of Teletext services for ITV, Channel 4 and Five in the United Kingdom. ...


Teletext on 4

Main article: Teletext on 4

In 2003, Channel 4 awarded Teletext Ltd a ten year contract to run the channels ancillary teletext service, named Teletext on 4.[33] The service is provided on both Channel 4 analogue and digital television services, Channel 4, E4 and More4. Teletext on 4 has been the name of two different text and teletext services in the on Channel 4 and S4C in the United Kingdom. ...


Corporate Structure

Management

Channel 4 is run by a chief executive, whose role can be compared to that of the Director-General of the BBC. The chief executive is appointed by the chairman, which is a part-time position appointed by Ofcom. The Director-General is chief executive and editor-in-chief of the BBC. The position is appointed by Board of Governors of the BBC. Sir John Reith (1927-1938) Sir Frederick Ogilvie (1938-1942) Sir Cecil Graves and Robert W. Foot (joint Director-Generals, 1942-1943) Robert W. Foot (1942... Ofcom is a regulator for communication industries in the United Kingdom. ...


Chairmen

The Rt. ... Richard Samuel Attenborough, Baron Attenborough, CBE, KBE (born August 29, 1923) is an English actor, director, producer, and entrepreneur. ... Sir Michael Bishop (b. ... Luke Johnson (born 1959), is a British serial entrepreneur, best known for his dealings with Pizza Express. ...

Chief executives

Sir Jeremy Isaacs (b. ... Michael Ian Grade CBE (born March 8, 1943) is a British businessman and a distinguished figure in the field of broadcasting. ... Michael Jackson (born 1958) is a British television executive. ... Mark Thompson has been the BBC Director-General since May 2004. ... Andy Duncan (born July 31, 1962) is the chief executive of Channel 4 television in the United Kingdom. ...

Financial information

Channel 4's total revenue for the year to 31 December 2005 was £894.3 million, of which £735.2 million was generated by its main channel, and the remainder by its subsidiaries channels, sales of programming rights to other broadcasters, Film Four and "new media". Operating profits for the year to 31 December 2006 fell 70% to £14.5 million from £56.9 million in 2005. [4] is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Headquarters

The Channel 4 building

Originally based at 60 Charlotte Street (the same building in which former chief executive Jeremy Isaacs later originally based his Artsworld channel), close to the BT Tower in London's film and media heartland, Channel 4 has occupied since 1994 a distinctive, purpose-designed building at 124 Horseferry Road, Westminster, designed by Richard Rogers Partnership with structural engineering by Ove Arup & Partners. Architecturally it follows on from, but is more restrained than, the Lloyd's building in the City of London, and was constructed between 1991 and 1994.[34] It was built on the former site of a Methodist teacher-training college, which occupied a neo-Gothic campus intermittently from its foundation in 1851 until World War II, when the buildings were badly damaged by an incendiary bomb. The College eventually moved to a purpose-built site in Oxford in 1959 and became Westminster College, Oxford. Channel 4 Building - Horseferry Road - London - England - photo by and copyright Tagishsimon - 31st May 2004 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Channel 4 Building - Horseferry Road - London - England - photo by and copyright Tagishsimon - 31st May 2004 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The BT Tower is a tall cylindrical building in London, England. ... The City of Westminster is a London borough with city status, situated to the west of the City of London and north of the River Thames. ... For the American composer, see Richard Rodgers. ... structural engineer is an engineering profession who practices structural engineering. ... Arup is a worldwide engineering and design company. ... One of the stainless steel clad stair cases, and ducts on the outside of the Lloyds building Lloyds Building, City of London Lloyd’s Building (with the blue cranes), London The Lloyds building is the headquarters of the insurance institution Lloyds of London, located in the... Motto: Domine dirige nos Latin: Lord, guide us Shown within Greater London Sovereign state United Kingdom Constituent country England Region Greater London Status sui generis, City and Ceremonial County Admin HQ Guildhall Government  - Leadership see text  - Mayor John Stuttard  - MP Mark Field  - London Assembly John Biggs Area  - City  1. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      For school of ancient Greek medicine... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Oxford is a city and local government district in Oxfordshire, England, with a population of 134,248 (2001 census). ... Westminster College, Oxford was founded in 1851 in Horseferry Road, London, and originally specialised in the training of teachers for Methodist schools. ...


Despite commissioning all programmes from independent production companies, the Channel 4 headquarters contains a studio and post production facility, marketed as 124 Facilities.[5] The studio has been used for Channel 4 programmes (such as T4 continuity), and third party programmes (it is currently used by Five as the base for their football coverage).


Regions

Channel 4 has, since its inception, broadcast identical programmes and continuity throughout the UK (excluding Wales where it doesn't operate on analogue transmitters). At launch this made it somewhat unique, as both the BBC and ITV had long established traditions of providing regional variations in their programming and announcements between transmitters in different areas of the country (although in the case of BBC2, variations have by and large tended to be limited to national idents as opposed to regional ones). In ITV's case, this was a consequence of its inherent federal structure (see ITV companies). Since the launch of subsequent British television channels, Channel 4 has become typical in its lack of variations of this nature. Continuity is a term used in broadcasting, especially in the United Kingdom, to refer to announcements, messages and graphics played by the broadcaster between specific programmes. ... Independent Television (generally known as ITV, but also as ITV Network) is a public service network of British commercial television broadcasters, set up under the Independent Television Authority (ITA) to provide competition to the BBC. ITV is the oldest commercial television network in the UK. Since 1990 and the Broadcasting... Regional variations is a common term used in British television listings publications to show the different programmes broadcast in different areas of the country. ... Independent Television (generally known as ITV, but also as ITV Network) is a public service network of British commercial television broadcasters, set up under the Independent Television Authority (ITA) to provide competition to the BBC. ITV is the oldest commercial television network in the UK. Since 1990 and the Broadcasting...


A few exceptions exist to this rule for programming and continuity: The Republic of Ireland has a dedicated variant broadcast on Sky Digital which omits programmes for which broadcast rights are not held in the Republic,[citation needed] whilst some schools' programming (1980s/early 90s) were regionalised due to differences in curricula between different regions of the UK.[35] Sky Digital is the brand name for British Sky Broadcastings digital satellite television service, transmitted from SES Astra satellites located at 28. ...


Part of Channel 4's remit covers the commissioning of programmes from outside of London. Channel 4 has a dedicated director of nations and regions (Stuart Cosgrove), who is based in a regional office in Glasgow. As his job title suggests, it is his responsibility to foster relations with independent producers based in areas of the UK (including Wales) outside of London.


Advertising on Channel 4 does contain regular variation: Prior to 1993, when ITV was responsible for selling Channel 4's advertising, each regional ITV company would provide the content of advertising breaks, covering the same transmitter area as themselves, and these breaks were often unique to that area. After Channel 4 became responsible for its own advertising, it continued to offer advertisers the ability to target particular audiences and divided its coverage area into six parts coining the term 'LEMNUS' standing for "London, The East [and South] of England, The Midlands, The North of England, Ulster and Scotland.[36] At present, Wales does not have its own advertising region, instead its viewers receive the southern region on digital platforms intentionally broadcast to the area, or the neighbouring region where analogue transmissions spill over into Wales. The Republic of Ireland shares its advertising region with Northern Ireland (referred to by Channel 4 as the 'Ulster Macro') with many advertisers selling products for the Republic here.[37] E4 also has an advertising variant for the Republic.[37] This article is about the nine-county Irish province. ... This article is about the country. ... E4 is a British digital television channel launched as a pay-tv companion to Channel 4 on 18 January 2001. ...


The six regions are also carried on satellite, cable and Digital Terrestrial. Five and GMTV use a similar model to Channel 4 for providing their own advertising regions, despite also having a single national output of programming. Five, launched in 1997, is the fifth and final national terrestrial analogue television channel to launch in the United Kingdom. ... GMTV (Good Morning Television) is a national British breakfast television station owned by ITV plc (75%) and The Walt Disney Company (25%). It has held the license for the breakfast Channel 3 franchise since 1993, when it outbid the previous 6am-9. ...


Annual Reports and Financial Statements

Annual Reports and Financial Statements 1983-2004


References

  1. ^ Monthly Viewing Summary, 4 weeks ending 25th Feb. Retrieved on 2007-03-08.
  2. ^ a b c Channel 4 Overview. Channel 4.
  3. ^ a b Channel 4 Licence. Ofcom.
  4. ^ Channel 4 Broadcasting Licence (PDF) Appendix 2, part 10 (Page 13). Ofcom (2006-10-04).
  5. ^ Channel 4 Broadcasting Licence (PDF) Appendix 2, part 8 (Page 12). Ofcom (2006-10-04).
  6. ^ Dafydd Hancock (2005-09-11). A Channel for Wales. seefour by Electromusications from Transdiffusion. Retrieved on 2007-03-23.
  7. ^ Ofcom publishes research on communications in the Nations and Regions of the UK. Ofcom (2006-06-24). Retrieved on 2007-03-23.
  8. ^ About Us. S4C. Retrieved on 2007-03-23.
  9. ^ National Assets Register of the Department of Culture Media & Sport (PDF) Page 42. Retrieved on 2007-03-23.
  10. ^ a b c Russ J Graham (2005-09-11). Yes it's no. seefour by Electromusications from Transdiffusion. Retrieved on 2007-03-23.
  11. ^ Stephen Hopkins (2005-09-11). Never Mind The Quality. The Authority by Electromusications from Transdiffusion. Retrieved on 2007-03-23.
  12. ^ Broadcasting Act 1990 (c. 42). Office of Public Sector Information (2000-09-20). Retrieved on 2007-03-23.
  13. ^ BBC News - UK - Victims of the 'silver fox'. Retrieved on 2007-08-20.
  14. ^ DTG News: ITV and Channel 4 confirm Freeview stakes. Retrieved on 2007-04-03.
  15. ^ CHANNEL4SALES : NEWS. Retrieved on 2007-04-03.
  16. ^ Media registration promo - Media - MediaGuardian.co.uk. Retrieved on 2007-04-03.
  17. ^ [1]
  18. ^ Variety.com - Channel 4 maps music presence. Retrieved on 2007-05-07.
  19. ^ Channel 4 to join YouTube and add music channel to - ukfree.tv - independent digital TV and switchover advice. Retrieved on 2007-05-07.
  20. ^ Neil Wilkes (2007-07-23). Channel 4 takes 50% stake in Emap TV. Digital Spy.
  21. ^ [2] Digital PSB, Public Service Broadcasting post Digital Switchover, section 1.1
  22. ^ Ofcom determination of financial terms for Channel 3 licences ITV plc response. Retrieved on 2007-04-03.
  23. ^ Chris Tryhorn (2007-07-05). Channel 4 launches '+1' timeshift service. Media Guardian. Retrieved on 2007-07-05.
  24. ^ a b The Guardian, Channel 4 sell Ostrich Media
  25. ^ http://community.channel4.com/eve/forums/a/tpc/f/3696002921/m/1950058466
  26. ^ Ben Dowell (2007-07-06). Channel 4 wins radio multiplex bid. Media Guardian. Retrieved on 2007-07-06.
  27. ^ The 4 Digital Group radio stations. Media Guardian (2007-07-06). Retrieved on 2007-07-06.
  28. ^ 4radio. Retrieved on 2007-04-03.
  29. ^ 4radio. Retrieved on 2007-04-03.
  30. ^ 4Radio - The Tube. Retrieved on 2007-04-03.
  31. ^ a b c d 4oD Website.
  32. ^ a b Brown, Mike. ANCILLARY TELETEXT SERVICES. MB21. Retrieved on 2007-06-10.
  33. ^ Teletext and C4 sign text services deal. Daily Mail and General Trust plc (2003-07-01). Retrieved on 2007-06-10.
  34. ^ "Channel vision - Channel 4's new building in London, England", The Architectural Review, December 1994. 
  35. ^
  36. ^ Channel 4's 'Macro Regions' for advertising, including a map.
  37. ^ a b Channel 4's Dublin Sales Office.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Digital Spy (or DS as it is often known by its users) is a leading British media and entertainment website, noted for its extensive Big Brother coverage and forums. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

This is a list of TV services available on digital terrestrial, satellite, internet streaming and cable systems. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This is a list of programmes broadcast by Channel 4, which is one of the five major terrestrial television channels in the United Kingdom. ... Channel 4 logo 3 Minute Wonder is a short Channel 4 television slot that broadcasts first time directors three-minute TV programmes in the middle of the channels weekday primetime schedule. ... Channel 4 logo The Channel 4 Sheffield Pitch is an annual competition sponsored by British public-service television broadcaster Channel 4, which seeks to offer one new documentary maker the chance to make a film for the company. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

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