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Encyclopedia > Chania
Chania  (Χανιά)

The Venetian lighthouse in the harbour of Chania
Location
Coordinates 35°31′N 24°1′E / 35.517, 24.017Coordinates: 35°31′N 24°1′E / 35.517, 24.017
Time zone: EET/EEST (UTC+2/3)
Elevation (min-max): 0 - 5 m (0 - 16 ft)
Government
Country: Greece
Periphery: Crete
Prefecture: Chania
Population statistics (as of 2001[1])
City Proper
 - Population: 55,838
 - Area:[2] 12.564 km² (5 sq mi)
 - Density: 4,444 /km² (11,511 /sq mi)
Codes
Postal codes: 731 00
Area codes: 28210
License plate codes: ΧΝ
Website
www.chania.gr

Chania (Greek Χανιά pronounced [xaˈɲa], also transliterated Hania, older form Chanea and Venetian: Canea, Ottoman Turkish: خانيه Hanya) is the second largest city of Crete and the capital of the Chania Prefecture. It lies along the north coast of the island, about 70 km west of Rethymno and 145 km west of Heraklion. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 579 pixelsFull resolution‎ (959 × 694 pixels, file size: 255 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This photo is my own work. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 685 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (800 × 700 pixel, file size: 27 KB, MIME type: image/png) Other versions Adapted from Image:Greece outline map. ... Image File history File links Red_pog. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries not observing daylight saving Eastern European Time (EET) is one of the names of UTC+2 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Eastern European Summer Time (EEST) is one of the names of UTC+3 time zone, 3 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Eastern European Time Central Africa Time Israel Standard Time South Africa Standard Time Central European Summer Time West Africa Summer Time Category: ... -12 | -11 | -10 | -9:30 | -9 | -8 | -7 | -6 | -5 | -4 | -3:30 | -3 | -2:30 | -2 | -1 | -0:25 | UTC (0) | +0:20 | +0:30 | +1 | +2 | +3 | +3:30 | +4 | +4:30 | +4:51 | +5 | +5:30 | +5:40 | +5:45 | +6 | +6:30 | +7 | +7:20 | +7... Elevation histogram of the surface of the Earth – approximately 71% of the Earths surface is covered with water. ... This list of countries, arranged alphabetically, gives an overview of countries of the world. ... The peripheries (περιφέρειες) are the subnational divisions of Greece. ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... Greece consists of 13 administrative regions known as Peripheries of Greece, which are further subdivided into 51 prefectures (nomoi, singular - nomos, Greek: νομοί, νομός)): See also List of the prefectures of Greece by area List of the prefectures of Greece by population density List of the prefectures of Greece by population External... Chania prefecture is one of the four prefectures of Crete, Greece. ... This is an alphabetical list of municipalities and communities in Greece. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... A square metre (US spelling: square meter) is by definition the area enclosed by a square with sides each 1 metre long. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Here are list of postal codes in Greece. ... This is a list of dialing codes in Greece. ... Greek car number plates are composed of three letters and four digits per plate (e. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... Transliteration is the practice of transcribing a word or text written in one writing system into another writing system. ... A sign in Venetian reading Here we also speak Venetian Venetian or Venetan is a Romance language spoken by over five million people,[1] mostly in the Veneto region of Italy. ... Ottoman Turkish (Turkish: or , Ottoman Turkish: ‎ ) was the variant of the Turkish language that was used as the administrative and literary language of the Ottoman Empire. ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... Chania prefecture is one of the four prefectures of Crete, Greece. ... Rethymno (IPA ), also Rethimno, Rethymnon, Réthymnon, and Rhíthymnos) (Greek: Ρέθυμνο, in Turkish Resmo), a city of approximately 40,000 people, is the capital of Rethymno Prefecture in the island of Crete. ... For other uses, see Heraklion (disambiguation). ...


The official population of the municipal area is 55,838 but some 70,000 people live in the greater area of Chania. With 4,248.1 inhabitants/km², the municipality is the most densely populated outside the Athens and Thessaloniki metropolitan areas. Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Thessaloniki or Salonica (Greek: ) is Greeces second-largest city and the capital of Macedonia, the largest Region of Greece. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Contents

Geography

The city of Chania lies at the east end of the Gulf of Chania, a wide embayment between the Akrotiri peninsula in the east and the Spatha peninsula (also called Rodopos) in the west. It covers a significant part of the small Plain of Chania and borders with the hilly suburbs of Profitis Ilias, Agios Mattheos and Kounoupidiana towards the east, with the villages of Vamvakopoulo, Nerokourou, Mournies and Perivolia towards the south and with the coastal areas of Chryssi Akti and Agioi Apostoloi towards the west. “Bay” redirects here. ... The municipaliy of Akrotiri in Chania prefecture Akrotiri (Greek: Ακρωτήρι, literally promontory) is a peninsula in Crete, east of Chania. ...


Climate

The city enjoys a typical Mediterranean climate, with sunny dry summers and mild rainy winters. During the period between April and October, clear-sky weather is almost an everyday feature. The atmosphere is always warm, but fierce heatwaves (temperatures above 38°C) are not very common, since the prevailing Etesian winds ("Meltemia") blow from northern directions and pleasantly moderate the conditions. Intervals of sunny days are frequent during the windy and rainy winter as well. Snow and frost are rare near the coast, with very few exceptions, like the snowstorm on the 13 February 2004, when some 30 cm of snow accumulated in the urban area, causing general chaos. However, such cold days can be followed by much warmer and sunny weather. Even minor early heatwaves can occur in March or April, during a Saharan dust event, whose main feature is the strong and hot katabatic southerly wind, which is a type of Sirokos (σιρόκος) and is called "Livas" (i.e. the wind from Libya) by the Greeks. Such events happen only a couple of times a year, and their duration is never more than 1 or 2 days.  Areas with Mediterranean climate A Mediterranean climate is a climate that resembles the climate of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin. ... During the summer in the Aegean Sea, the prevailing winds of the main circulation are due chiefly to the deep continental depression centered over the north-west of India. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Saharan dust events refer to clouds of dust which originate from the Sahara desert region of Northern Africa, near Lake Chad, and are propelled westwards across the Atlantic Ocean by clockwise motion of the anticyclone part of the North Atlantic Oscillation. ... Sirocco, scirocco, jugo or, rarely, siroc is a strong southerly to southeasterly wind in the Mediterranean that originates from the Sahara and similar North African regions. ...


History

Early history

A clay figurine found in a tomb (4th-3rd century B.C.)

Chania is the site of the Minoan settlement the Greeks called Cydonia, Greek for quince. Some important evidence for the existence of this Minoan city below some parts of today's Chania was found by excavations in the district of Kasteli in the Old Town. This area appears to have been inhabited since the Neolithic era. The city reemerged after the end of the Minoan period as an important city-state in Classical Greece, one whose domain extended from Hania Bay to the feet of the White Mountains. The first major wave of settlers from mainland Greece was by the Dorian Greeks who came around 1100 BC. Cydonia was constantly at war with other Cretan city-states such as Aptera, Falasarna and Polyrrinia and was important enough for the Cydonians to be mentioned in Homer's Odyssey (iii.330). In 69 BC the Roman Consul Metellus defeated the Cretans and conquered Cydonia to which he granted the privileges of an independent city-state. Cydonia reserved the right to mint its own coins until the third century AD. Image File history File links Chania_clay_figurine. ... Image File history File links Chania_clay_figurine. ... The Minoan civilization was a bronze age civilization which arose on Crete, an island in the Aegean Sea. ... Cydonia (Ancient Greek Κύδων, Kudon) was an important city-state on the northwest coast of the island of Crete. ... Binomial name Mill. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Parthenon This article is on the term Classical Greece itself. ... Lefka Ori (it means White Mountains in greek) or “Madares” is a mountain located in West Crete, in Chania and Rethymno prefectures. ... ... Aptera (Greek for wingless), a term in zoological classification applied by Linnaeus to various groups of wingless arthropods, including some of the insects, the centipedes, the millipedes, the Arachnida (scorpions, spiders, etc. ... For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Odyssey (disambiguation). ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 74 BC 73 BC 72 BC 71 BC 70 BC 69 BC 68 BC 67 BC 66... This article refers to the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For alternate meanings, see Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ... The Caecilii Metellii was one of the most important and wealthiest families in the Roman Republic. ...


Byzantine Era

Further information: Byzantine Greece

The early Christian period under Byzantine rule (First Byzantine Period, 395 - 824 AD) and the rule of the Arabs, who called the settlement Chania, are not well documented. During the former, Christianity spread in the island but during the latter, the Christian population was persecuted and moved to the mountains. The Byzantine Empire retook the city in 961 AD (Second Byzantine Period, until 1204 AD). They began to strongly fortify the city in order to prevent another Arab invasion, using materials from the ancient buildings of the area. By this time Chania was the seat of a bishop. Byzantine Empire (Greek: Βυζαντινή Αυτοκρατορία) is the term conventionally used since the 19th century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article...


The Venetian era

The old harbour during the Venetian era
The old harbour during the Venetian era

After the Fourth Crusade (1204) and the fall of the Byzantium in the Hellenic area, Crete was given to Bonifacio, marchese de Montferrat. He, in turn, chose to sell it to the Venetians for 100 silver marks. In 1252 the Venetians managed to subdue the Cretans but in 1263, their rivals of Genoa, with local support, seized the city under the leadership of Enrico Pescatore, count of Malta, and held it until 1285, when the Venetians returned. Chania was chosen as the seat of the Rector (Administrator General) of the region and flourished as a significant commercial centre of a fertile agricultural region. Image File history File links Chania_Ven. ... Image File history File links Chania_Ven. ... The Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople (Eugène Delacroix, 1840). ... Hellenic may refer to: the Hellenic Republic (the modern Greek state) the Hellenes, itself a term for either ancient or modern Greeks anything related to Greece in general or Ancient Greece in particular. ... Boniface of Montferrat (c. ... Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin, Italian Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ... Henry, Count of Malta was a Genoese adventurer, privateer and pirate active in the Mediterranean at the beginning of the thirteenth century. ...


The Venetian rule was initially strict and oppressive but slowly the relations between the two parts improved. Contact with Venice led to close intertwining of Cretan and Venetian cultures, without, however, the Cretans losing their Greek Orthodox nature. The city's name became La Canea and fortifications were strengthened, giving Chania the form that it still has today. On the other hand, after the fall of Constantinople in 1453, many priests, monks and artists took refuge to Crete and reinforced the Byzantine religion and culture on the island. The city of Chania during the period that followed was a blend of Byzantine, Venetian and Classical Greek cultural elements. Many of the important buildings of the town were built during this era and the intellectual activities (written word, music, education) were also promoted. For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... Crete, sometimes spelled Krete (Greek Κρήτη / Kriti) is the largest of the Greek islands and the fifth largest in the Mediterranean Sea. ... Greek Orthodox Church can refer to any of several hierarchical churches within the larger group of mutually recognizing Eastern Orthodox churches: the Orthodox Church of Constantinople, headed by the Patriarch of Constantinople, who is also the first among equals of the Eastern Orthodox Communion. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ...


Ottoman Era

The old harbour during the Ottoman era
The old harbour during the Ottoman era
Further information: Ottoman Greece

However the walls did not prevent the Turkish army overrunning the city in 1645 after just two months' siege. The Turks landed near the Monastery of Gonia in Kissamos, which they plundered and burnt.[citation needed] They seized Chania itself on 2 August 1645. Huge numbers died in the siege, particularly Turks. The Turkish commander was executed on returning home for losing up to 40,000 men. Later, most churches were turned into mosques and the riches of the city were taken. The Turks resided mainly in the eastern quarters, Kastelli and Splantzia, where they converted the Dominican church of St Nicholas into the central Sovereign's Mosque ("Houghiar Tzamissi"). They also built new mosques such as "Kioutsouk Hassan Tzamissi" on the harbour. Public baths - Hamam, and fountains were a feature of the Turkish city. The pasha of Crete resided in Chania. Image File history File links Chania_Ottoman. ... Image File history File links Chania_Ottoman. ... Greece was part of the Ottoman Empire from the 14th century until its declaration of independence in 1821. ... Kissamos (Greek: Κίσσαμος) is a town and municipality in the west of the island of Crete, Greece. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 10 - Archbishop Laud executed on Tower Hill, London. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... Saint Nicholas, also known as Nikolaus in Germany and Sinterklaas (a contracted form of Sint Nicolaas) in the Netherlands and Flanders, is the common name for the historical Saint Nicholas of Myra, who lived in 4th century Byzantine Anatolia, (now in modern Turkey) and had a reputation for secret gift... Hamam may refer to: Turkish bath in Turkish Hamam (film), European film Hamam (soap), brand of soap in India Sam Hammam, Lebanese buisinessman and soccer guru Category: ... Pasha, pascha or bashaw (Turkish: paşa) was a high rank in the Ottoman Empire political system, typically granted to governors and generals. ...


In 1821, as Greece rose against the Ottoman Empire, there were conflicts between Greeks and Turks in Chania, leading to casualties from both sides, most of which were Christians though. The Bishop of Kissamos, Melhisedek Despotakis was hanged from a tree in Splantzia for participation in the revolutionary events. In 1878, the Pact of Halepa was signed and Christians were granted certain rights. This was when a big part of the local muslim population moved to Turkey. The rest of them stayed until the Population exchange between Greece and Turkey in 1922. Ottoman redirects here. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... Kissamos (Greek: Κίσσαμος) is a town and municipality in the west of the island of Crete, Greece. ... The Pact of Halepa was an agreement made in 1878 between the Ottoman Empire (then ruled by the Sultan Abdul Hamid II) and the representatives of several European states. ... Cartoon depicting a Turk and a Greek arguing over the exchange. ...


Modern Greek Era

Further information: History of Modern Greece

Eleftherios Venizelos, who hailed from Mournies near Chania, was the leader of the 1896-97 uprising against Ottoman rule and went on to be Prime Minister of Greece and a great statesman. His tomb is on a hill overlooking Chania (Profitis Ilias). In 1898, during the final moves towards independence and enosis— union with Greece— the Great Powers made Chania the capital of the semi-autonomous Cretan State ("Kritiki Politeia"), with Prince George of Greece, the High Commissioner of Crete living here. During these years Crete issued its own stamps and money. This was a very important transitional period when, no longer an isolated vilayet of the Ottoman Empire, the city became more cosmopolitan and flourishing, regaining its role as the crossroad of civilizations, influenced by Europe as well as by the East. Many important buildings were built during this era, intellectual and artistic societies were created and a new class of local aristocracy brought a different atmosphere to the everyday life of the town. The district of Halepa has many fine neoclassical embassies and consulates dating from this period. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Eleftherios Venizelos (1864-1936), Greek statesman and diplomat. ... The municipaliy of Eleftherios Venizelos in Chania prefecture Eleftherios Venizelos (Greek: Ελευθέριος Βενιζέλος) is a municipality of the Chania Prefecture on the Greek island of Crete, centred on the town of Mournies. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... The word Ένωσις (enosis) is Greek for union. ... In the context of international relations and diplomacy, power (sometimes clarified as international power, national power, or state power) is the ability of one state to influence or control other states. ... His Royal Highness Prince George of Greece and Denmark (24 June 1869, Corfu – 25 November 1957, St Cloud) was the third child of King George I of Greece and Grand Duchess Olga. ... Vilâyet (also eyalet or pashaluk) was the Turkish name for the provinces of the Ottoman Empire. ... Chalepa, often spelt Halepa, was formerly a town in northern Crete. ...


However the main goal was enosis with Greece which came after Venizelos's constant opposition to Prince George's rule over Crete. The series of conflicts includes the Revolution of Therissos in 1905, which overthrew Prince George and brought Alexandros Zaimis to rule Crete. Finally in 1908 Venizelos managed to establish a revolutionary government, recognized by the Great Powers. His later election as the prime minister of Greece (1910) was the last step before Crete was united with Greece on the 1 December 1913. The Greek flag was raised for the first time at Fort Firca in the Old Harbour in the presence of Eleftherios Venizelos and King Constantine. Alexandros Zaimis (Greek: Αλέξανδρος Ζαΐμης) (1855–1936) was a Greek politician. ... In the context of international relations and diplomacy, power (sometimes clarified as international power, national power, or state power) is the ability of one state to influence or control other states. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Eleftherios Venizelos (1864-1936), Greek statesman and diplomat. ...


Chania in World War II

Further information: Axis occupation of Greece during World War II and Battle of Crete

Another important period for the city of Chania was the invasion and occupation by German forces during World War II. The British force that faced the German paratroopers during the Battle Of Crete in 1941, had artillery elements over the hill of Dexameni in the south of the city. These elements bombed the German forces in the Maleme airfield undetected, until they ran out of ammunition.George II of Greece also, stayed in a villa near the village of Perivolia, outside Chania before he escaped to Egypt. Part of the city was bombed, progress in several aspects of life was halted and a significant proportion of the area's human potential was either executed or imprisoned due to participation in the resistance against the German rule. The Jewish community of Chania was also eliminated during the German occupation. Most of them were transported off the island by the Nazi occupiers in 1944. Tragically a British torpedo sank the ship "Tanais" carrying most of the Jewish prisoners, killing the island's pre-war community. German soldiers raising the Reich War Flag over the Acropolis. ... Combatants Greece United Kingdom New Zealand Australia Nazi Germany Kingdom of Italy Commanders Bernard Freyberg Kurt Student Strength United Kingdom: 15,000 Greece: 11,000 Australia: 7,100 New Zealand: 6,700 Total: 40,000 (10,000 without fighting capacity[2]) Germany: 14,000 paratroopers 15,000 mountain troopers 280... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Combatants Greece United Kingdom New Zealand Australia Nazi Germany Kingdom of Italy Commanders Bernard Freyberg Kurt Student Strength United Kingdom: 15,000 Greece: 11,000 Australia: 7,100 New Zealand: 6,700 Total: 40,000 (10,000 without fighting capacity[2]) Germany: 14,000 paratroopers 15,000 mountain troopers 280... Maleme (Greek: Μάλεμε) is a town and airport 16km to the west of Chania, in North Western Crete, Greece. ... George II, King of the Hellenes (Greek: Γεώργιος Î’ [Geōrgios] Βασιλεύς των Ελλήνων) (20 July 1890–1 April 1947) ruled Greece from 1922 to 1924 and from 1935 to 1947. ... Perivolia may refer to several places in Greece: Perivolia, a town in the Achaea prefecture Perivolia, a town in the Arcadia prefecture Perivolia, a town in the Ilia prefecture Perivolia, a town in the Grevena prefecture Perivolia, a town in the Laconia prefecture Categories: | ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...


Modern Era

Fortunately, Chania and Crete in general escaped the disastrous consequences of the Greek Civil War of the postwar years. The city of Chania was slowly regaining its normal pace of development during the 1950s, trying to overcome the difficulties that the war had left as an aftermath. During the 1970s Crete became a major tourist destination for Greek and international tourists, something that gave a significant boost to the city's economy and affected the everyday life and the overall culture of the locals. The capital of Crete was moved to Heraklion in 1971. Combatants Hellenic Army, Royalist forces, Republicans United Kingdom Communist Party of Greece (ELAS, DSE) Commanders Alexander Papagos, Thrasyvoulos Tsakalotos, James Van Fleet Markos Vafiadis Strength 150,000 men 50,000 men and women Casualties 15,000 killed 32,000+ killed or captured The Greek Civil War (Ελληνικός εμφύλιος πόλεμος [ellinikos emfilios polemos]) was... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Heraklion (disambiguation). ...


Historical population

Year Municipal Population Change
1981 47,471 -
1991 50,007 +2,536/5.34%
2001 53,373 +3,366/6.73%

Cityscape

Panorama of the Old Harbour in 2000

The city of Chania can be divided in two parts: the old town and the modern city which is the larger one. The old town is situated next to the old harbour and is the matrix around which the whole urban area was developed. It used to be surrounded by the old Venetian fortifications that started to be built in 1538; of them the eastern and western parts have survived. From the south, the old town is continuous with the new, and from the north the physical border is the sea. The centre of the modern city is the area extending next to the old town and especially towards the south. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 201 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 301 pixel, file size: 305 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) own photo, summer 2000 I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 201 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 301 pixel, file size: 305 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) own photo, summer 2000 I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms...


The old town

Part of the ancient Byzantine wall in the Old Town, Chania

Despite being heavily bombed during World War II Chania's Old Town is considered the most beautiful urban district on Crete, especially the crumbling Venetian harbour. The borders of the Old Town are the mostly destroyed old Venetian wall (and bulwarks) and this has been the cradle of all the civilizations which were developed in the area. The central part of the old town is named Kasteli and has been inhabited since Neolithic times. It is located on a small hill right next to the seafront and has always been the ideal place for a settlement due to its secure position, its location next to the harbour and its proximity to the fertile valley in the south. Nowadays it is a bit more quiet than the neighbouring areas of the west part of the district. The Splantzia quarter (next to the east part of Kasteli) is also largely untouched and very atmospheric. Sadly a plan for its future development is now being under consideration. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ...


The main square of the Old Town (next to the west end of Kasteli) is the Eleftherios Venizelos Square ("Syntrivani"). It is the heart of the touristic activities in the area. Next to this (on the west side) lies the Topanas district, which used to be the Christian part of the city during the Turkish occupation. Its name comes from the Venetian ammunition warehouse (Top-Hane in Turkish), which was located there. The Jewish quarter ("Evraiki" or "Ovraiki") was located at the north-west of the Old Town, behind the harbour and within the borders of Topanas. The whole Topanas area is generally very picturesque, with many narrow alleys and old charming buildings, some of which have been restored as hotels, restaurants, shops and bars. This makes it a lively and colourful place especially during the warm period (April-October). In the winter, it still remains a center of activities (especially for nightlife) but in a more quiet and atmospheric way. Eleftherios Venizelos (1864-1936), Greek statesman and diplomat. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination...


Finally, a very distinctive area of the Old Town is the harbour itself and generally the seafront ("akti"). Akti Tompazi, Akti Kountouriotou and Akti Enoseos (marina) all feature several historical buildings and a thriving nightlife. The main street that combines the modern town with the old town is Halidon Str. A harbor (or harbour) or haven is a place where ships may shelter from the weather or are stored. ... A small marina at Brixham, Devon, England. ...

The church of St. Rocco
The church of St. Rocco

Image File history File links Chania_sanrocco. ... Image File history File links Chania_sanrocco. ...

Landmarks

In Kasteli:

  • The Kasteli Archaeological Area "Kanevaro" (Minoan)
  • Part of the Byzantine walls
  • The part of the Venetian wall close to the seafront
  • The remains of the Government House ("Palazzo") of the Venetians (17th century)
  • The former Santa Maria de Miracoli Monastery (1615)
  • The Turkish Bath (Hamam) on Katre Str.
  • The house of the rectorate (now administration building of the Technical University of Crete) [1]
The orthodox church and the minaret of St. Nicholas
The orthodox church and the minaret of St. Nicholas

In Splantzia: Minoan may refer to the following: The Minoan civilization The (undeciphered) Eteocretan language The (undeciphered) Minoan language The script known as Linear A An old name for the Mycenean language before it was deciphered and discovered to be a form of Greek. ... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... Hamam may refer to: Turkish bath in Turkish Hamam (film), European film Hamam (soap), brand of soap in India Sam Hammam, Lebanese buisinessman and soccer guru Category: ... ECE Buidings in Universitys Campus The Technical University of Crete (Greek: Πολυτεχνείο Κρήτης Politexnio Kritis) (TUC) is a state University under the supervision of the Ministry of Education and was founded in 1977 in Chania, Crete. ... Image File history File links Chania_ag_nikolaos. ... Image File history File links Chania_ag_nikolaos. ...

  • The Dominican Monastery of St. Nicholas (Now "Agios Nikolaos" church, early 14th century)
  • The church of St. Rocco (early 17th century)
  • The church of Saint Catherine (Agia Aikaterini, late 16th century)
  • The Minaret of St. Nicholas ("Hioughar Tzamissi")
  • The Turkish Subterranean Fountain (18th century)

In Topanas and the Jewish quarter: This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Subterranean can also refer to something below the Earths surface Subterranean was an album released by Swedish heavy metal band In Flames in 1995. ...

  • The Renier building complex (Venetian, late 16th century)
  • The church of San Salvatore (started 15th century)
  • The Etz Hayyim Synagogue [2]
  • The Turkish Bath (Hamam) on Zambeliou Str.
The Mosque of the Janissaries
The Mosque of the Janissaries

On the harbour: Image File history File links Chania_hamam. ... Image File history File links Chania_hamam. ...

  • The Lighthouse ("Faros", 15th century)
  • The Mosque of the Janissaries ("Yiali Tzamissi", 17th century)
  • The Venetian Shipyards ("Neoria", late 16th century)
  • The Great Shipyard ("Megalo Arsenali", late 16th century)
  • The Fort Firca (early 17th century)
  • The Bulwark of St. Nicholas of Molos
The Orthodox Cathedral
The Orthodox Cathedral

Halidon street: Eddystone Lighthouse, one of the first wavewashed lighthouses For other uses, see Lighthouse (disambiguation). ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... The Janissaries (or janizaries; in Turkish: Yeniçeri, meaning New Troops) comprised infantry units that formed the Ottoman sultans household troops and bodyguard. ... Small shipyard in Klaksvík (Faroe Islands), reparing fishing vessels Fish ladder and shipyard in Grave, the Netherlands Construction hall of Schichau Seebeck Shipyard, Bremerhaven Gdynia Shipyard Shipyards and dockyards are places which repair and build ships. ... Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 264 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 264 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

  • The Greek Orthodox cathedral ("Trimartyri", 1860)
  • The Roman Catholic cathedral (1879)
  • The Franciscan Monastery of St. Francis (now archaeological museum)
  • The Turkish Bath (Hamam) on Halidon Str.
  • "Stivanadika" (traditional leather stores) on Skridloff Str.
The Bulwar Sabbionara

Other parts: Greek Orthodox Church can refer to any of several hierarchical churches within the larger group of mutually recognizing Eastern Orthodox churches: the Orthodox Church of Constantinople, headed by the Patriarch of Constantinople, who is also the first among equals of the Eastern Orthodox Communion. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... The Order of Friars Minor and other Franciscan movements are disciples of Saint Francis of Assisi. ... Hamam may refer to: Turkish bath in Turkish Hamam (film), European film Hamam (soap), brand of soap in India Sam Hammam, Lebanese buisinessman and soccer guru Category: ... Image File history File links Chania_sabbionera. ... Image File history File links Chania_sabbionera. ...

  • The Church of "Agioi Anargyroi"
  • The Bulwark San Salvatore (West)
  • The Bulwark Lando or Schiave or St. Dimitrios (South West)
  • The Bulwark of Santa Lucia (East)
  • The Gate and Bulwark Sabbionara (Koum Kapi)

Look up Bulwark in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

The modern city

The Court House Square ("Dikastiria")

The modern part of Chania is where most locals live and work. It is less traditional than the old town, but there are still areas of charming beauty or of some historical interest. The oldest district (early 18th century) of the modern city is Nea Hora (meaning "New Town") which is located beyond the west end of the old town. It is a developing area, but also a very picturesque one, with narrow old lanes leading to a small fishing harbour. During the same era the district of Halepa begun to grow to the east of the city and used to be home for the local aristocracy. Some of the historical buildings of the area (including old embassies of foreign countries) had been destroyed or abandoned during the later decades of the 20th century, and it was only recently when some interest was shown for the restoration of the remaining ones. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1528x902, 231 KB) The Chania_dikastiria_2. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1528x902, 231 KB) The Chania_dikastiria_2. ... Chalepa, often spelt Halepa, was formerly a town in northern Crete. ... A diplomatic mission is a group of people from one nation state present in another nation state to represent the sending state in the receiving State. ...


Other historical buildings in the area include Eleftherios Venizelos’s House (built 1876–1880), the old French school (now property of the Technical University of Crete, housing the Department of Architecture), the Church of Agia Magdalini (built 1901–1903) , The “Palace” (built 1882, house of Prince George during the period of the Cretan independence) and The Church of Evangelistria (built 1908–1923). Part of the marine area of Halepa is called Tabakaria, where a unique architectural complex of old leather processing houses is situated. The district of Koum Kapi (the Venetians had first named it "Sabbionara", which means "the Gate of the Sand", the same as "Koum Kapi") situated beyond the walls at the eastern part of the old town, was also one of the first places to be inhabited outside the fortification walls. Initially, it was home for the "Halikoutes", a group of bedouins from North Africa who had actually settled there since the last years of the Turkish occupation. Nowadays it is a developing area with many trendy cafes, bars and restaurants on its picturesque beach. Eleftherios Venizelos (1864-1936), Greek statesman and diplomat. ... Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ...


Apart from the previously mentioned older districts of the modern part of the town, several new residential areas have been developed during the 20th century, like Agios Ioannis, Koumbes, Lentariana etc. Some part -but not the biggest- of the city centre is dominated by colourless medium-height block buildings, typical of the urbanization period of Greece (1950–1970). However, there are still some beautiful neoclassical houses especially at the eastern part of Chania and some of the neighbourhoods surrounding the centre are quite picturesque. The plan of the central area is very good, there are some nice parks and several sports grounds, the most important being the Venizeleio Stadium of Chania and the Swimming Pool at Nea Hora. The 1913 indoor market ("Agora"), a large building based on the market of Marseille, is on the edge of the old town and is popular with tourists and locals alike. Some other important sites of the newer urban area are the The Court House ("Dikastiria", built late 19th century), The Public Gardens ("Kipos", created 1870), The Garden Clock-Tower ("Roloi", built 1924–1927), The Episcopal Residence (Bishop's residence, "Despotiko", built early 19th century) and the House of Manousos Koundouros (built 1909), the Cultural Centre ("Pnevmatiko Kentro"). The central largest squares in Chania are the Market Square ("Agora"), the Court House Square ("Dikastiria") and the "1866 Square". The Cathedral of Vilnius (1783), by Laurynas Gucevičius. ... City flag Coat of arms Motto: By her great deeds, the city of Massilia shines Location Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Coordinates Administration Country Region Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Department Bouches-du-Rhône (13) Subdivisions 16 arrondissements (in 8 secteurs) Intercommunality Urban Community of Marseille Provence M... Court House is a Washington Metro station in Arlington County, Virginia on the Orange Line. ... For the chosen plaintext attack used by the British during World War II, see gardening (cryptanalysis). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article...


In the last two decades there has been a profound movement of Chania residents towards the suburbs, as well as towards areas around the city which used to be rural, mainly the Akrotiri Peninsula. The municipaliy of Akrotiri in Chania prefecture Akrotiri (Greek: Ακρωτήρι, literally promontory) is a peninsula in Crete, east of Chania. ...

Culture

A snapshot from a cultural event in Chania

The cultural background of Chania is very rich, first of all due to the town's long history and its interaction with many diverse civilizations in the past. Furthermore the location of Crete (immediately connected to Athens, situated between Europe, Asia and Africa) as well as the cosmopolitan atmosphere that tourism creates, have generally kept the town up-to-date with modern advances in art and knowledge. Currently, there are several museums, art galleries, theatre and music groups, educational and research institutions within the city. Image File history File linksMetadata Chania_culture. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Chania_culture. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Tourist redirects here. ... The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. ... Serge Sudeikins poster for the Bat Theatre (1922). ... This article is about the concept. ...


The most important museums in Chania are:

  • Archaeological Museum [3] (Old Town). It houses findings from different parts of the county and from several historical and prehistorical periods of the local history (Neolithic to Roman)
  • Folklore Museum (Old Town)
  • Historical Archive [4] (the second most important in Greece)
  • Maritime Museum of Crete [5] (Old Town)
  • Municipal Art Gallery [6]
  • Byzantine/Post-Byzantine Collection (Old Town) [7]
  • House of E. Venizelos [8]
  • War Museum
Part of the Mediterranean Centre for Architecture

Several theatre groups are active in Chania with the most important being the Municipal and Regional Theatre of Crete (DI.PE.THE.K) [9]. The repertoire includes old and contemporary plays from Greek and foreign writers. The Venizelian Conservatory of Music ("Odeion", established 1931) is also one of the most important cultural societies in Crete. A recent attempt from the municipality to create a chamber music group named "Sinfonietta" has been successful and its performances throughout the year have enriched the cultural event calendar of the city. There is also a significant community of people who focus on alternative/indie music as well as jazz and some interesting bands performing modern musical styles. A number of traditional [Cretan] musicians are also active in town. Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Image File history File links Chania_kam. ... Image File history File links Chania_kam. ... Chamber music is a form of classical music, written for a small group of instruments which traditionally could be accommodated in a palace chamber. ... Alternative music redirects here. ... In popular music, indie music (from independent) is any of a number of genres, scenes, subcultures and stylistic and cultural attributes, characterised by perceived independence from commercial pop music and mainstream culture and an autonomous, do-it-yourself (DIY) approach. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ...


The city is also quite cinephile. There are five cinemas (two of them open-air), concentrating both in commercial and independent movies and occasionally organizing small festivals.


During the summer period a variety of cultural events take place on a daily basis. Theatrical plays, concerts and several exhibitions from Greek and foreign artists are organized either by the municipality or by individuals. A venue which hosts many of these events is a theater located in the east bulwark of the Old Town ("Anatoliki Tafros"). Also, several festivals, conferences or sport events take place in Chania especially between May and September. The Venizeleia athletics competition is one of the most noteworthy events of the year.


Cultural life throughout the wintry period of the year (November-March) is not as rich as in the summer, but it is certainly maintained to a good standard. During the last years there has been a substantial effort by both the city councils and by the locals to create the background for the city to be in the centre of interest throughout the year. Towards this direction, the increasing number of students moving to Chania for their studies has proved to be helpful. There is also some effort to promote Crete as a tourist destination for all seasons - a role that the island could easily hold - which would also support both the local economy and culture.


A major role in the city's cultural life is played by the Municipal Cultural Corporation of Chania (DI.P.E.X.) [10] which organizes a significant part of the events taking place throughout the year.


There is a French, a German, an Italian and a Swedish consulate in Chania. The rule of Napoleon Bonaparte after his coup detat in France had conducted the manners of French governmant under dictatorship and in a consulate. ...


Entertainment/Night life

Chania is a family orientated town, traditionally Cretan in its charm. However, that does not stop it from boasting a fairly lively night life. The family atmosphere is more profound during the winter, something that is slowly changing with the reinforcement that the University students bring to the town. During the summer period (late April - early October) the place becomes more cosmopolitan with many tourists coming to the place from both mainland Greece and from any other part of the world. There is a selection of food choices, with plenty of Greek tavernas, many of them serving traditional Cretan specialities and a decent number of foreign cuisine restaurants. A big proportion of them is gathered in the Old Town, Nea Hora and Koum Kapi, the coastal areas of the town, but there are several choices around the city as well. The Old Town is the place to find a myriad of galley bars and cafes, carved into the cliff side and the age-old Venetian buildings. Some of them are quite popular among people who look for a relaxed and cosy night out, offering a more intellectual point of view on nightlife, with good music ranging from jazz to indie and to traditional Greece. Some other ones are very popular among specific types of visitors (Scandinavian Bars, American Bars etc). A Taverna is a small restaurant serving Greek cuisine, not to be confused with tavern. The Greek word is Ταβερνα and is originally derived from the Latin word taberna (shed or hut, from tabula board). As Greeks have migrated elsewhere, tavernas have spread throughout the world, especially countries such as the... Cuisine (from French cuisine, cooking; culinary art; kitchen; ultimately from Latin coquere, to cook) is a specific set of cooking traditions and practices, often associated with a specific culture. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... In popular music, indie music (from independent) is any of a number of genres, scenes, subcultures and stylistic and cultural attributes, characterised by perceived independence from commercial pop music and mainstream culture and an autonomous, do-it-yourself (DIY) approach. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ...


The area of Koum Kapi has developed rapidly during the last decade and nowadays offers a variety of nice choices for mainstream cafes and some restaurants. The ratio of Greek people going there (either locals or visitors) is much higher than in the Old Town, where the atmosphere is more cosmopolitan (not meaning that it is not preferred by Greeks as well). There are also some clubs in town, which are usually closing in the summer, since people prefer to party closer to the beach resorts of Agia Marina and Platanias where the major clubs are located. During the summer, a main way of entertainment is the everyday swimming, which is often a kind of social outing especially for the locals, since it replaces the afternoon coffee that many Greeks fancy.


Cinema, theater and concerts are, among the already mentioned ones, some very common activities for entertainment in Chania, with a fair amount of choices offered and repertoires varying from independent to commercial. Some venues for live music focus on Greek traditional and perhaps Cretan artists. The outdoor evening feasts in the villages, usually related to religious celebrations, are quite popular during the summer.


Sports

The National Stadium of Chania, built in 1935
The National Stadium of Chania, built in 1935

Water sports are very popular in Chania and especially the local water polo team (Nautical Club of Chania, N.O.X. [11]) has managed to be a protagonist in the primary league of the Greek national championship for years. Several athletes of this team have also played extensively for the Greek national team which has achieved major international successes. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x163, 56 KB) The Chania_panorama_new2. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x163, 56 KB) The Chania_panorama_new2. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Water sport most commonly refers to a sport which is played in the water. ... Water polo is a team water sport that combines some elements of swimming and football. ...


Football and basketball are also very popular in the town, however not as successful. The main football teams are "A.E.X" (Sports Club of Chania). and "Ionia". The main clubs for athletics are "Eleftherios Venizelos" and "Kydon". The "Antisfairisi" club is specialized in tennis and table tennis and has also a significant tradition in chess. Many of the above sports are being practiced in the National Stadium of Chania, constructed in 1935 with the financial support of Elena Venizelou, then wife of Eleftherios Venizelos. There is also an open swimming pool for water sports in Nea Chora and a new indoor one which is being built in the area of Akrotiri. A modern indoor stadium for basketball / volleyball etc has also been built (2002-2005) near Nea Chora (Kladisos area). A player (wearing the red kit) has penetrated the defence (in the white kit) and is taking a shot at goal. ... This article is about the sport. ... A womens 400 m hurdles race on a typical outdoor red rubber track in the Helsinki Olympic Stadium in Finland. ... For other uses, see Tennis (disambiguation). ... “Ping Pong” redirects here. ... This article is about the Western board game. ... Eleftherios Venizelos (1864-1936), Greek statesman and diplomat. ... Map of Akrotiri (Western) SBA Akrotiri (also known as the Western Sovereign Base Area or WSBA) and Dhekelia (also known as the Eastern Sovereign Base Area or ESBA) are UK Sovereign Base Areas (SBAs) in Cyprus, a former British Crown Colony. ...


It also has to be mentioned that there is a very active climbing / mountain walking club (Greek Mountaineering Club of Chania, E.O.S. Chanion [12]) organizing weekly excursions of varying difficulty on the mountains of Crete and several other longer term missions in mainland Greece and abroad.


Education/Research

The library of the Technical University of Crete
The library of the Technical University of Crete

Educational institutions located at the greater area of the city are: Image File history File links TUC_library. ... Image File history File links TUC_library. ...

  • The Technical University of Crete [13]. It is the largest educational institution in Chania with around 2200 students. It is focusing on Electronic and Computer Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Production Engineering and Management, Mineral resources Engineering, Scienes and Architecture.
  • The Chania branch of the Technological Educational Institute of Crete [14]
  • The Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Chania [15]

Other research and intellectual institutes and societies in Chania are: ECE Buidings in Universitys Campus The Technical University of Crete (Greek: Πολυτεχνείο Κρήτης Politexnio Kritis) (TUC) is a state University under the supervision of the Ministry of Education and was founded in 1977 in Chania, Crete. ...

  • The National Research Foundation "Eleftherios K. Venizelos" [16]
  • The Mediterranean Architecture Centre (KAM) [17]
  • The Institute of Olive Tree and Subtropical Plants of Chania [18]
  • The Literary Society “Chryssostomos” [19]
  • The Institute of Cretan Law
  • The Historical, Laographical and Archaeological Society of Crete

Primary and secondary schools are mainly public in Chania (as in all cities in Greece). However there has been a slow development of some private high schools recently. Among the "Eniaia Lykeia" (Unified Upper Secondary Schools) of the town there is an autonomus Ecclesiastical Lyceum in Agios Mattheos. Venizelos may be: Eleftherios Venizelos: Greek politician (1864-1936) Sophoklis Venizelos: Greek politician (1894-1964), his son. ... For the Italian political alliance see Olive Tree, and the color, olive (color). ... Subtropical (or semitropical) areas are those adjacent to the tropics, usually roughly defined as the ranges 23. ... Literature is literally an acquaintance with letters as in the first sense given in the Oxford English Dictionary (from the Latin littera meaning an individual written character (letter)). The term has, however, generally come to identify a collection of texts. ... A primary school in Český Těšín, Poland Primary education is the first stage of compulsory education. ... Secondary school is a term used to describe an institution where the final stage of compulsory schooling, known as secondary education, takes place. ...


Economy

The central Market Square ("Agora")

Two main sources of wealth in Chania are agriculture and tourism. A big portion of the city's residents (not necessarily farmers) own from few to many decares of agricultural land where several plants are being cultivated, the most popular ones being olive trees and citrus. Other important products include wine, avocados, dairy etc. Apart from the traditional ways of cultivation, some of the producers have concentrated on practicing new methods in order to promote organic food. The organization of the Agricultural August [20] has been a recent attempt to promote local quality products including a series of activities organised by the Perfecture of Chania since 1999 and has proved very successful. Image File history File links Chania_agora. ... Image File history File links Chania_agora. ... Tourist redirects here. ... Decare is a unit for the measurement of area. ... ... Species & major hybrids Species Citrus aurantifolia - Key lime Citrus maxima - Pomelo Citrus medica - Citron Citrus reticulata - Mandarin & Tangerine Major hybrids Citrus ×sinensis - Sweet Orange Citrus ×aurantium - Bitter Orange Citrus ×paradisi - Grapefruit Citrus ×limon - Lemon Citrus ×limonia - Rangpur lime Citrus ×latifolia - Persian lime See also main text for other hybrids Citrus... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Persea americana Mill. ... A dairy farm near Oxford, New York in the United States. ... Organic vegetables at a farmers market in Argentina. ...


On the other hand, tourism has developed rapidly during the last decades, starting from the early 1970s. Nowadays the tertiary sector is becoming more and more important for the locals, since an increasing number of them are participating in the business. Agrotourism and ecotourism are forms of tourism which are significantly developing lately. The tertiary sector of industry, also called the service sector or the service industry, is one of the three main industrial categories of a developed economy, the others being the secondary industry (manufacturing and primary goods production such as agriculture), and primary industry (extraction such as mining and fishing). ... Agritourism is a style of vacation in which hospitality is offered on farms. ... Tapanti National Park in Costa Rica Ecotourism, also known as ecological tourism, is a form of tourism which appeals to the ecologically and socially conscious. ...


There is also some secondary industry with focus on the processing-packaging of the agricultural products (some of them export oriented) or manufacture products that support the agricultural production. On the other hand, the growth and development of academic/research institutions in Chania is a challenge for future economic activities by taking advantage of the specialised knowledge of scientists and technicians and by also reinforcing quality tourism (conferences etc.). Plato is credited with the inception of academia: the body of knowledge, its development and transmission across generations. ... This article is about the concept. ...


An important centre of the economic activities in the town is the Chania Chamber of Commerce and Industry (E.B.E.X.) [21].


Health Care

The main health center in the city is the General Hospital "Agios Georgios" [22]. Other institutions include the Crete Naval Hospital, the branch of the National Centre for Emergency Medical Care (E.K.A.B.) [23] and the Clinic of Chronic Disease. The Chania branch of the Organisation Against Drugs (Ο.ΚΑ.ΝΑ.) [24] opened in 2003.


There is also a number of private clinics and medical centers specializing in various areas within the town.


Transportation

The city is served by Chania International Airport (IATA code: CHQ) on the Akrotiri Peninsula. The airport is named after Daskalogiannis, a Sfakiot hero who was skinned by the Turks in the 18th century. Chania International Airport, Ioannis Daskalogiannis (IATA: CHQ, ICAO: LGSA) is an international airport located near Souda on the Greek island of Crete, serving the city of Chania, Greece. ... An IATA airport code, also known an IATA location identifier or simply a location identifier [1], is a three-letter code designating many airports around the world, defined by the International Air Transport Association (IATA). ... The municipaliy of Akrotiri in Chania prefecture Akrotiri (Greek: Ακρωτήρι, literally promontory) is a peninsula in Crete, east of Chania. ... Ioannis Daskalogiannis (Ioannis Vlachos, Δασκαλογιάννης) (?-June 17, 1771) was a Cretan rebel against Ottoman rule in the 18th century. ... The village of Hóra Sfakíon Sfakiá (Greek Σφακιά) is a beautiful, traditional, mountainous area to the South West of the island of Crete, in the Chania prefecture. ...


There are several flights a day from Athens to Chania, with Aegean Airlines and Olympic Airlines. From April to early November, there are many direct charter flights to Chania from the UK, Germany, Scandinavia and other European countries. See Domestic flight schedules. Aegean Airlines is the second largest Greek airline based in Athens. ... Olympic Airlines (Ολυμπιακές Αερογραμμές - OA) is the state-run flag carrier of Greece, employing about 1850 people. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ...


Souda, some 7 km from Chania, is the city's port, with daily ferries to Piraeus and a NATO naval base. See ANEK Lines and the ferry schedules. Souda (Greek: Σούδα) is a town and municipality of the Greek island of Crete, in the prefecture of Chania. ... It has been suggested that Kaminia (Piraeus), Greece be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the military alliance. ...


Notable Residents

  • Eleftherios Venizelos 1864-1936 (prime minister of Greece 1910-1920, 1924, 1928-1932, 1933; widely considered as the most important statesman of modern Greece).
  • Constantine Mitsotakis *1918 (prime minister of Greece 1990-1993)
  • Constantinos Manos 1869-1913 (politician and writer of the late 19th and early 20th century)
  • Nana Mouskouri *1934 (one of the world's highest-selling female recording artist of all time)
  • Alexis Minotis 1898-1967 (famous stage and screen actor active between 1930s-1980s)
  • Manos Katrakis 1909-1984 (famous theater and film actor)
  • Nikos Christodoulakis *1952 (politician, Minister of Development 2000-2001, Minister of Economy and Finance, 2001-2004)
  • Eftichios Bitsakis (philosopher – theoretical physicist)
  • Kostas Moundakis 1926-1991 (Traditional Cretan music composer, teacher and lyra player)
  • George Psychoundakis 1920-2006 (Cretan war hero and author)
  • Eleni Daniilidou *1982 (Greece's Number 1 Tennis Player)
  • Antonios Katinaris 1931-1999 (bouzouki player)

Eleftherios Venizelos (1864-1936), Greek statesman and diplomat. ... Constantine Mitsotakis Constantine Mitsotakis (in Greek:Κωνσταντίνος Μητσοτάκης-Konstantinos Mitsotakis) (born October 18, 1918), Greek politician, was born in Chania, Crete. ... Manos is a Greek family which was one of lesser Phanariot families. ... Nana Mouskouri (in Greek, Nανά Μούσχουρη), born as Ioanna Mouskouri on October 13, 1934, in Chania, Crete, Greece, is a singer of Greek origin. ... Alexis Minotakis, known as Alexis Minotis, was born 8 August 1898 or 1899 in Chania, Crete and died on 11 November 1990 in Athens, Greece. ... Manos Katrakis (August 14, 1909 in Kastelli Kissamou - September 2, 1984) was a Greek theatrical player He was the smallest of the five children of Charalambos Katrakis and Irini Katraki. ... Kostas Mountakis was born in February 1926 at the village Alfa in Milopotamos, Rethimnon. ... George Psychoundakis (November 3, 1920 – January 29, 2006) was a Greek Resistance fighter on Crete during the Second World War. ... Country: Greece Residence: Thessaloniki, GRE Height: 511 1/2 (182 cm) Weight: 158 1/2 lbs. ... Antonios Katinaris was given birth in Chania Crete, first son of a refugee’s family from Asia Minor . ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Chania

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Chania prefecture is one of the four prefectures of Crete, Greece. ... This is a list of settlements in the Chania Prefecture, Greece. ...

External links

  • Chania Panorama
  • Municipality of Chania
  • Technical University of Crete
  • National Research Foundation "Eleftherios K. Venizelos"
  • History of Chania
  • Information about Harbour of Chania
  • Hania Prefecture – Tourism Promotion Committee – guide
  • CityMayors article
  • Map and aerial photos:
    • Street map: Street map from Mapquest, MapPoint or Google or Yahoo! Maps
    • Satellite images: Google or Microsoft Virtual Earth - image not yet available
  • Coordinates: 35°30′50″N, 24°1′2″E
North: Sea of Crete Northeast: Akrotiri
West: Nea Kydonia Chania East: Souda
South: Eleftherios Venizelos

  Results from FactBites:
 
Chania - definition of Chania in Encyclopedia (1196 words)
Chania (SAMPA [xa'nja]) (also transliterated as Hania) (Greek Χανιά;) is the second city of Crete and the capital of the prefecture of the same name.
Chania was chosen as the seat of the Rector (Administrator General) of the region and flourished as a significant commercial centre of a fertile agricultural region.
Chania prefecture is one of the four prefectures of Crete and covers the Westernmost quarter of the island.
Chania-info.com - Chania Town (644 words)
Chania is the main town in the west of Crete, with the second largest population after Heraklion.
Chania is the capital of the prefecture because of its geographic position and commercial activity.
The city of Chania was rebuilt on the site of the Byzantine acropolis in 1252 and after improving the fortifications at Kastelli the Venetians built their own cathedral plus many palaces and houses in the surrounding area for their people.
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