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Encyclopedia > Chang'an
A winter scene of the grounds of the old Xingqing Palace, which was located in the northeastern sector of Chang'an.

Chang'an listen  (Traditional Chinese: 長安; Simplified Chinese: 长安; Hanyu Pinyin: Cháng'ān; Wade-Giles: Ch'ang-an) is an ancient capital of more than ten dynasties in Chinese history. Chang'an literally means "Perpetual Peace" in Classical Chinese. During the short-lived Xin Dynasty, the city was renamed "Constant Peace" (常安, pronounced the same way in Mandarin Chinese); yet after its fall in the year 23 AD, the old name was restored. By the time of the Ming Dynasty, the name was again changed. This time to Xi'an, meaning "Western Peace", which remains unchanged till today. Changan may refer to: Changan, ancient capital of China on the site of present day Xian. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Changan (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Zh-Changan. ... Image File history File links Zh-Changan. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Pinyin (拼音, Pīnyīn) literally means join (together) sounds (a less literal translation being phoneticize, spell or transcription) in Chinese and usually refers to Hànyǔ Pīnyīn (汉语拼音, literal meaning: Han language pinyin), which is a system of... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... The following is a table of the Dynasties in Chinese history. ... China is the worlds oldest continuous major civilization, with written records dating back about 3,500 years and with 5,000 years being commonly used by Chinese as the age of their civilization. ... Classical Chinese or Literary Chinese is a traditional style of written Chinese based on the grammar and vocabulary of very old forms of Chinese , making it very different from any modern spoken form of Chinese. ... The Xin Dynasty (Chinese: 新朝; Hanyu Pinyin: xÄ«n cháo; meaning New Dynasty; 8-23) was a dynasty (even though, contrary to the usual meaning of a dynasty, it had but one emperor) in Chinese history. ... This article is on all of the Northern Chinese dialects. ... Events Rome Greek geographer Strabo publishes Geography, a work covering the world known to the Romans and Greeks at the time of Emperor Augustus - it is the only such book to survive from the ancient world. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... Xian (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsi-An; Postal System Pinyin: Sian), is the capital of Shaanxi province in China and a sub-provincial city. ...


Chang'an had been settled since the Neolithic times, during which the Yangshao Culture established in Banpo in the city's suburb. Also in the northern vicinity of the modern Xi'an, the tumulus ruler Qin Shi Huang of Qin Dynasty held his imperial court, and constructed his massive mausoleum that is guarded by the famed Terracotta Army. An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Yangshao culture (仰韶文化) was a Neolithic culture that existed extensively along the central Yellow River in China. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... A tumulus (plural tumuli, from the Latin word for mound or small hill, from the root to bulge, swell also found in ) is a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves. ... The monarch known now as Qin Shi Huang (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Shih-huang) (November / December 260 BCE – September 10, 210 BCE), personal name Yíng Zhèng, was king of the Chinese State of Qin from 247 BCE to 221 BCE (officially still under the Zhou Dynasty... Qin empire in 210 BC Capital Xianyang Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism Government Monarchy History  - Unification of China 221 BC  - Death of Qin Shi Huangdi 210 BC  - Surrender to Liu Bang 206 BC The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Chao) (221 BC - 206 BC) was preceded... The Terracotta Army (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; literally soldier and horse funerary statues) or Terracotta Warriors and Horses is a collection of 8,099 life-size Chinese terra cotta figures of warriors and horses located near the Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ). The figures were discovered...


The imperial city of Chang'an during the Han Dynasty was located in northwest of today's Xi'an. During the Tang Dynasty, the area to be known as Chang'an included the area inside the Ming Xi'an fortification, plus some small areas to its east and west, and a major part of its southern suburbs. The Tang Chang'an hence, was 8 times the size of the Ming Xi'an, which was reconstructed upon the premise of the former imperial quarter of the Sui and Tang city. During its heyday, Chang'an was one of the largest and most populous cities in the world. Around 750 A.D. Chang'an was called a "million people's city" in Chinese records, while modern estimates put it at around 800,000–1,000,000 within city walls.[1][2] According to the census in the year 742 recorded in the New Book of Tang, 362,921 families with 1,960,188 persons were counted in Jingzhao Fu (京兆府), the metropolitan area including small cities in the vicinity.[3] Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220... China under the Tang Dynasty (yellow) and its sphere of influence Capital Changan (618–904) Luoyang (904-907) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 618-626 Emperor Gaozu  - 684, 705-710 Emperor Zhongzong  - 684, 710-712 Emperor Ruizong  - 904-907 Emperor Ai History  - Li Yuan... The Sui Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; 581-619[1]) followed the Southern and Northern Dynasties and preceded the Tang Dynasty in China. ... Look up city, City in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Events Last Umayyad caliph Marwan II (744-750) overthrown by first Abbasid caliph, Abu al-Abbas al-Saffah Bold textItalic textLink title GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM... Events Chinese poet Li Po is presented before the emperor and given a position in the Imperial court. ... Xin Tang shu, New Book of Tang (also, Hsin Tang shu), is a classic work of history about the Tang Dynasty edited by Ouyang Xiu (1007-1072 CE) and Song Qi (998-1061) of the Song dynasty. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Contents

Han period

A terracotta horse head from the Han Dynasty.

The site of the Han capital was located 3 km northwest of modern Xi'an. As the capital of the Western Han, it was the political, economic and cultural center of China. It was also the eastern terminus of the Silk Road, and a cosmopolitan metropolis comparable with the greatest cities of the contemporaneous Roman Empire. Han dynasty horse (1st-2nd century C.E.). Personal photograph. ... Han dynasty horse (1st-2nd century C.E.). Personal photograph. ... Terra cotta is a hard semifired waterproof ceramic clay used in pottery and building construction. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... The Silk Road Silk Route redirects here. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...


It was a consumer city, a city whose existence was not primarily predicated upon manufacturing and trade, but rather boasted such a large population because of its role as the political amd militaristic center of China. Manufacturing (from Latin manu factura, making by hand) is the use of tools and labor to make things for use or sale. ... It has been suggested that Commerce be merged into this article or section. ...


There were 3 construction periods over more than 90 years. The Emperor Gao-zu of Han, Liu Bang, decided to build the palaces before the city walls. In 202 BC, he repaired the Xingle Palace (興樂宮) of the Qin Dynasty and renamed it Changle Palace (長樂宮). Two years later, a new palace called Weiyang Palace (未央宮) was constructed. In 195 BC, his son, Emperor Hui of Han began the construction of the walls of Chang'an and finished them in September of 191 BC. Emperor Hui, Emperor Wu of Han then built several palaces in the city. At that time, Zhang Qian journeyed west into central Asia as a diplomat. Since then, Chang'an city became the Asian gateway to Europe as the point of departure of the famous Silk Road. After the Western Han period, the Eastern Han government settled in Luoyang as the new capital and renamed Chang'an to Xijing (Western Capital). In 190 during late Eastern Han, the court was seized and relocated back to Chang'an by the notorious Prime Minister Dong Zhuo, as it was a strategically superior site against the mounting insurgency formed against him. By this time, many dynasties came to regard Chang'an as the symbolic site of supreme power and governance. Emperor Gao (256 BC or 247 BC–June 1, 195 BC), commonly known inside China as Gaozu, personal name Liu Bang, was the first emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty, ruling over China from 202 BC until 195 BC, and one of only two dynasty founders who emerged from... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 3rd century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC - 200s BC - 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC Years: 207 BC 206 BC 205 BC 204 BC 203 BC - 202 BC - 201 BC 200 BC 199 BC 198 BC 197 BC Events October... Qin empire in 210 BC Capital Xianyang Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism Government Monarchy History  - Unification of China 221 BC  - Death of Qin Shi Huangdi 210 BC  - Surrender to Liu Bang 206 BC The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Chao) (221 BC - 206 BC) was preceded... Weiyang Palace (未央宫) was a palace constructed by Emperor Liu Bang in Changan. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC - 190s BC - 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC Years: 200 BC 199 BC 198 BC 197 BC 196 BC - 195 BC - 194 BC 193 BC... Emperor Hui of Han (210 BC–188 BC) was the second emperor of the Han Dynasty in China. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC - 190s BC - 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC Years: 196 BC 195 BC 194 BC 193 BC 192 BC - 191 BC - 190 BC 189 BC... Emperor Wu of Han (156 BC*–March 29, 87 BC), personal name Liu Che, was the sixth emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty, ruling from 141 BC to 87 BC. A military compaigner, Han China reached its greatest expansion under his reign, spanning from Kyrgyzstan in the west, Northern... Zhang Qian (張騫) was an imperial envoy in the 2nd century BCE, during the time of the Han Dynasty. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Silk Road Silk Route redirects here. ... Luoyang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in western Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Events A part of Rome burns, and emperor Commodus orders the city to be rebuilt under the name Colonia Commodiana First year of Chuping era of Chinese Han Dynasty Births 190 is a number Deaths Athenagoras of Athens, Christian apologist Categories: 190 ... Dong Zhuo (董卓; Pinyin: DÇ’ng Zhuō) (139 – 192) was a warlord during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms Period in ancient China. ...


Sui and Tang period

The stone-veneered foundation platform for Hanyuan Hall of the Daming Palace, along with a courtyard and stone path in front.

Both Sui and Tang empires occupied the same location. In 582, Emperor Wen of Sui Dynasty sited a new region southeast of the much ruined Han Dynasty Chang'an to build his new capital, which he called Daxing (Great Prosperity). Daxing was renamed Chang'an in year 618 when the Duke of Tang -Li Yuan- proclaimed himself the Emperor Gaozu of Tang empire. Chang'an in the Tang Dynasty (618907) was, with Constantinople (Istanbul) and Baghdad, one of the largest cities in the world. It was a cosmopolitan urban center with considerable foreign populations from other parts of Asia and beyond. This new Chang'an was laid out on a north-south axis in a grid pattern, dividing the enclosure into 108 wards and featuring two large marketplaces, in the east and west respectively. Chang'an's layout influenced city planning of several other Asian capitals for many years to come. Chang'an's walled and gated wards were much larger than conventional city blocks seen in modern cities, as the smallest ward had a surface area of 68 acres and the largest ward had a surface area of 233 acres.[4] The height of the walls enclosing each ward were on average 9 to 10 ft in height.[4] The Japanese built their ancient capitals, Heijokyo (today's Nara) and later Heian-Kyo or Kyoto, modelled after Chang'an in a more modest scale yet was never fortified.[5] The modern Kyoto still retains some characteristics of Sui-Tang Chang'an. Similarly, the Korean Silla dynasty modeled their capital of Gyeongju after the Chinese capital. Unfortunately, much of Chang'an was ruthlessly destroyed during the fall of the Tang empire and in the subsequent centuries. It never recovered, but there are still some monuments from the Tang era that are still standing. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Changan (disambiguation). ... Events Maurice I succeeds Tiberius II Constantine as Byzantine Emperor. ... Emperor Wen of Sui (541-604), personal name Yang Jian, also known by the Xianbei name Puliuru Jian (普六茹堅) during Northern Zhou, nickname Naluoyan (那羅延), was the founder and first emperor of Chinas Sui Dynasty. ... The Sui Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; 581-619[1]) followed the Southern and Northern Dynasties and preceded the Tang Dynasty in China. ... Events End of the Sui Dynasty and beginning of the Tang Dynasty in China. ... Emperor GāozÇ” of Táng China (566 - June 25, 635), born Lǐ Yuān, was the founder of the Tang Dynasty of China, and the first emperor of this dynasty from 618 to 626. ... China under the Tang Dynasty (yellow) and its sphere of influence Capital Changan (618–904) Luoyang (904-907) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 618-626 Emperor Gaozu  - 684, 705-710 Emperor Zhongzong  - 684, 710-712 Emperor Ruizong  - 904-907 Emperor Ai History  - Li Yuan... Events End of the Sui Dynasty and beginning of the Tang Dynasty in China. ... Events Oleg leads Kievan Rus in a campaign against Constantinople Yelü Abaoji establishes Liao (Khitan) dynasty Births Deaths Categories: 907 ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Look up ward in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A marketplace is the space, actual or metaphorical, in which a market operates. ... An acre is the name of a unit of area in a number of different systems, including Imperial units and United States customary units. ... Nara ) is the capital city of Nara Prefecture in the Kansai region of Japan, near Kyoto. ... Nara can refer to: The city of Nara, Nara Prefecture, Japan The Nara Period of the History of Japan Nara prefecture, part of the Kansai region of central Honshu, Japan Nara is a major Manchu clan. ... Location of Kyoto, on the main island of Japan Kyoto (Japanese: 京都市; Kyōto-shi) is a city in Japan that has a population of 1. ... Kyoto )   is a city in the central part of the island of HonshÅ«, Japan. ... Silla (also spelled Shilla, traditional dates 57 BCE - 935 CE) was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. ... Gyeongju is a city (see Subdivisions of South Korea) and prominent tourist destination in eastern South Korea. ...


Layout of the city

The Giant Wild Goose Pagoda, built in 652 AD, located in the southeast sector of Chang'an.

During Tang, the main exterior walls of Chang'an rose 18 ft. high, were 5 miles by six miles in length, and formed a city in the shape of a large square, with an inner surface area of 30 squared miles.[6] The areas to the north that jutted out like appendages from the main wall were the West Park, the smaller East Park, and the Daming Palace, while the southeasternmost extremity of the main wall was built around the Serpentine River Park that jutted out as well. The West Park walled off and connected to the West Palace (guarded behind the main exterior wall) by three gates in the north, the walled off enclusure of the Daming Palace connected by three gates in the northeast, the walled off East Park led in by one gate in the northeast, and the Serpentine River Park in the southeast was simply walled off by the main exterior wall, and open without gated enclosures facing the southeasternmost city blocks. There was a Forbidden Park to the northwest outside of the city, where there was a cherry orchard, pear grove, a vineyard, and fields for playing popular sports such as horse polo and cuju (ancient Chinese football).[7] On the northwest section of the main outer wall there were three gates leading out to the Forbidden Park, three gates along the western section of the main outer wall, three gates along the southern section of the main outer wall, and three gates along the eastern section of the main outer wall.[8] Although the city had many different streets and roads passing between the wards, city blocks, and buildings, there were distinct major roads (lined up with the nine gates of the western, southern, and eastern walls of the city) that were much wider avenues than the others.[9] There were six of these major roads that divided the city into 9 distinct gridded sectors (listed below by cardinal direction). The narrowest of these streets were 82 ft wide, those terminating at the gates of the outer walls being 328 ft wide, and the largest of all, the Imperial Way that stretched from the central southern gate all the way to the Administrative City and West Palace in the north, was a whopping 492 ft wide.[10] Streets and roads of these widths allowed for efficient fire breaks in the city of Chang'an. For example, in the year 843, a large fire consumed 4,000 homes, warehouses, and other buildings in the East Market, yet the rest of the city was at a safe distance from the blaze (which was largely quarantined in East Central Chang'an).[10] The citizens of Chang'an were also pleased with the government once the imperial court ordered the planting of fruit trees along all of the avenues of the city in the year 740.[11] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 1381 KB) Summary Photo taken by Bobak HaEri. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 1381 KB) Summary Photo taken by Bobak HaEri. ... Big Wild Goose Pagoda, Xian, China The Giant Wild Goose Pagoda or Big Wild Goose Pagoda (Chinese: 大雁塔; pinyin: ), is located in southern Xian, China. ... For other uses, see Changan (disambiguation). ... “Cherry tree” redirects here. ... A community apple orchard originally planted for productive use during the 1920s, in Westcliff on Sea (Essex, England) An orchard is an intentional planting of trees or shrubs maintained for food production. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up Grove, grove in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A common vineyard. ... A game of polo. ... Cuju (Chinese: ) is an ancient sport similar to footbal (soccer), played in China as well as Korea and Japan. ... Look up Football in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A city-centre street in Frankfurt, Germany A residential street in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA A street is a public thoroughfare in the built environment. ... Mountain road with hairpin turns in the French Alps For other uses, see Road (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Changan (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Events Treaty of Verdun divides the Carolingian empire between the 3 sons of Louis the Pious. ... Old warehouses in Amsterdam Inside Green Logistics Co. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A plum tree Flowering almond tree A fruit tree is a tree bearing fruit — the structures formed by the ripened ovary of a flower containing one or more seeds. ...


Pools, streams, and canals

The Small Wild Goose Pagoda, built in 709 AD, damaged by an earthquake in 1556 but still standing, located in the central sector of Chang'an.
The Small Wild Goose Pagoda, built in 709 AD, damaged by an earthquake in 1556 but still standing, located in the central sector of Chang'an.

Within the West Park there was a running stream, and within the walled enclosure of the West Palace there were two running streams, one connecting three ponds and another connecting two ponds. The small East Park had a pond the size of those in the West Palace. The Daming Palace and the Xingqing Palace (located along the eastern wall of the city) both had a small lake to boast, yet the Serpentine River Park had a large lake within its bounds that was bigger than the latter two lakes combined, connected at the southern end by a river that ran under the main walls and out of the city.[8] There were 5 transport and sanitation canals running throughout the city, which had several different water sources, and delivered water to city parks, gardens of the rich, and the grounds of the imperial palaces.[11] The sources of water came from a stream running through the Forbidden Park and under the northern city wall, two different running streams from outside the city in the south, a stream that fed into the pond of the walled East Park, which in turn fed into a canal that led to the inner city. These canal waterways in turn streamed water into the ponds of the West Palace while the lake in the Xingqing Palace connected two different canals running through the city. The canals were also used to transport crucial goods throughout the city, such as charcoal and fire wood in the winter.[11] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Small Wild Goose Pagoda in Xian, China The Small Wild Goose Pagoda, sometimes Little Goose Pagoda (Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ), is one of two significant pagodas in the city of Xian, China. ... An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of stored energy in the Earths crust that creates seismic waves. ... For other uses, see Changan (disambiguation). ... Butchers Creek, Omeo, Victoria A stream, brook, beck, burn or creek, is a body of water with a detectable current, confined within a bed and banks. ... Two people reflected in a fish pond A pond is typically a man made body of water smaller than a lake. ... Two people reflected in a fish pond A pond is typically a man made body of water smaller than a lake. ... Blowdown Lake in the mountains near Pemberton, British Columbia A lake (from Latin lacus) is a body of water or other liquid of considerable size contained on a body of land. ... For other uses, see Canal (disambiguation). ... Charcoal is the blackish residue consisting of impure carbon obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances. ...


Locations and events during the Tang Dynasty

Southwestern Chang'an

Locations and events in the southwest sector of the city included:[8][9][12]

A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... Monastery of St. ... For other uses of the words tao and dao, see Dao (disambiguation). ... Bold textTHIS IS THE PAGE THAT A.S. REALLY NEEDS!! THIS IS NOW MARKED!!! ] ps i like A.O. This article is about an abbey as a Christian monastic community. ... Ancestor worship, also ancestor veneration, is a religious practice based on the belief that ones ancestors possess supernatural powers. ... Inns are establishments where travellers can procure food, drink, and lodging. ... Graves at Green-Wood Cemetery, Brooklyn, New York A cemetery is a place (usually an enclosed area of land) in which dead bodies are buried. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... By other animals Humans are not the only species to bury their dead. ... Look up Grave in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Outhouse near Crabapple Lake, USA, with chipboard walls, and a fiberglass ceiling This article refers to an outhouse, privy or kybo that is an old type of toilet in a small structure separate from the main building which does not have a flush or sewer attached. ... The Chinese Pagoda is a landmark in Birmingham. ... Media:Example. ... Monument to pilgrims in Burgos, Spain This article is on religious pilgrims. ... St. ... Emperor Yang of Sui China (569 - March 11, 618), or Yangdi was the son and heir of Emperor Wen of Sui, and then the second emperor of Chinas Sui Dynasty. ...

South Central Chang'an

A Tang era gilt hexagonal silver plate with a Fei Lian beast pattern, found from a 1970 excavation in Xi'an.
A Tang era gilt hexagonal silver plate with a Fei Lian beast pattern, found from a 1970 excavation in Xi'an.

Locations and events in the south central sector of the city included:[8][9][12] Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... A gilded Tibetan Vajrasattva Gilding is the art of applying metal leaf (most commonly gold or silver leaf) to a surface. ... For other uses, see Hexagon (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Standard atomic weight 107. ...

  • 20 walled and gated wards
  • 3 Buddhist monasteries
  • 7 Daoist abbeys
  • 11 Family shrines
  • 1 Inn
  • An event in the year 815 where assassins murdered Chancellor Wu as he was leaving the eastern gate of the northeasternmost ward in south central Chang'an; the event took place just before dawn.
  • An event in the year 849 where an imperial prince was impeached from his position by officials at court for erecting a building that obstructed a street in the northwesternmost ward in south central Chang'an.
  • The infamous rebel An Lushan's garden
  • A garden with a pavilion where graduate students of the Advanced Scholar's Exam could hold 'peony parties'.
  • A walled ward with an empty field; in the 7th century it was originally a place where slaves, horses, cattle, and donkeys could be sold, but the entire ward was eventually transformed into a military training ground for crossbowmen to practice.
  • A special garden that provided food for the imperial crown prince's household.
  • A government garden that supplied pear-blossom honey, amongst other natural goods.

Jack Ruby murdered the assassin, Lee Harvey Oswald, in a very public manner. ... An Lushan (Simplified Chinese: 安禄山; Pinyin: ) (703 - 757) was a military leader of Sogdian origin during the Tang Dynasty in China. ... A free-standing garden pavilion, Hofgarten in Munich, Bavaria In architecture a pavilion (from French, pavillon) has two main significations. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Imperial examinations (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) in Imperial China determined who among the population would be permitted to enter the states bureaucracy. ... Species See text The peony or paeony (Paeonia) is the sole genus in the flowering plant family Paeoniaceae. ... Wiktionary has related dictionary definitions, such as: slave Slave may refer to: Slavery, where people are owned by others, and live to serve their owners without pay Slave (BDSM), a form of sexual and consenual submission Slave clock, in technology, a clock or timer that synchrnonizes to a master clock... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 For other uses, see Donkey (disambiguation). ... This article needs cleanup. ... 15th century French soldier wearing a helmet and a hauberk, carrying a crossbow/arbalest and a pavise. ... A Crown Prince or Crown Princess is the heir or heiress apparent to the throne in a royal or imperial monarchy. ... For other uses, see Honey (disambiguation). ...

Southeastern Chang'an

Locations and events in the southeast sector of the city included:[8][9][12]

  • 13 walled and gated wards
  • 9 Buddhist monasteries
  • 3 Daoist abbeys
  • 5 Family shrines
  • 2 Inns
  • 1 Graveyard
  • The Serpentine River Park, which had one of the Buddhist monasteries and one of the family shrines of the southeastern sector of the city within its grounds.
  • A medicinal garden for the heir apparent was located in a northern walled ward of this southeast sector of the city. A pastry shop stood by the north gate of the same ward, along with the site of an ancient shrine where citizens came every third day of the third moon and ninth day of the ninth month.
  • A ward to the north of this southeast city sector had half of its area designated as a graveyard.
  • A purportedly haunted house
  • A large monastery with ten courtyards and 1897 bays; this monastery was home to the Giant Wild Goose Pagoda (built in 652), which still stands today at a height of 64 m tall. Graduate students of the Advanced Scholars Exam would come here to this monastery in order to inscribe their names. This same city ward also had a large bathhouse, an entertainment plaza, an additional monastery which had its own pond, and a mansion that had its own bathhouse.
  • A ward with another garden pavilion for graduate students to hold their 'peony parties'.
  • An inn that was attached to the rapid relay post office.
  • An apricot grove where graduate students could celebrate their success with feasts.

See drugs, medication, and pharmacology for substances that are used to treat patients. ... Contrasting with heir presumptive, an heir apparent is one who cannot be prevented from inheriting by the birth of any other person. ... Basket of western-style pastries, for breakfast Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Pastries For the Pastry Distributed Hash Table, see Pastry (DHT). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A court or courtyard is an enclosed area, often a space enclosed by a building that is open to the sky. ... A Bay is a module in classical or Gothic architecture, the distance between two supports of a vault or the unit of an opening and its framing on a façade. ... Big Wild Goose Pagoda, Xian, China The Giant Wild Goose Pagoda or Big Wild Goose Pagoda (Chinese: 大雁塔; pinyin: ), is located in southern Xian, China. ... A bath house is a place where people bathe. ... Plaza is a Spanish word related to field which describes an open urban public space, such as a city square. ... Small-town post office and town hall in Lockhart, Alabama A post office is a facility (in most countries, a government one) where the public can purchase postage stamps for mailing correspondence or merchandise, and also drop off or pick up packages or other special-delivery items. ... Binomial name Prunus armeniaca L. For other uses, see Apricot (disambiguation). ... The Forum for European-Australian Science and Technology Cooperation (FEAST) is a non-government organisation aimed at highlighting and developing collaborative research activities between Europe (European countries and the European Union) and Australia. ...

West Central Chang'an

A Tang era gilt-silver ear cup with flower design, found from a 1970 excavation in Xi'an.
A Tang era gilt-silver ear cup with flower design, found from a 1970 excavation in Xi'an.

Locations and events in the west central sector of the city included:[8][14][15][16] Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... A gilded Tibetan Vajrasattva Gilding is the art of applying metal leaf (most commonly gold or silver leaf) to a surface. ... General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Standard atomic weight 107. ... Look up flower in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

  • 11 walled and gated wards (including the large marketplace ward)
  • 22 Buddhist monasteries
  • 2 Daoist abbeys
  • 2 Family shrines
  • 3 Large water ponds
  • The West Market (西市); its surface area covered the size of two regular city wards, and was divided into 9 different city blocks. It sported a Persian bazaar that catered to tastes and styles popular then in medieval Iran. It had numerous wineshops, taverns, and vendors of beverages (tea being the most popular), gruel, pastries, and cooked cereals. There was a safety deposit firm located here as well, along with government offices in the central city block that monitored commercial actions.
  • The offices for Chang'an County, the western half of the city.
  • The mansion of a Turkic prince.
  • The main office of Chang'an City's mayor.
  • A bureau for managing the households of princes.
  • An event in the year 613 where a family threw their gold into the well of their mansion because they feared the city government would confiscate it.
  • A firm that rented hearses and other equipment for funerals, along with hiring exorcists.
  • An event in the year 813 where a sow in a pig sty gave birth to a deformed piglet that had one head, three ears, two connected bodies, and eight different legs.[17]
  • An event every day where the West Market (and East Market) would open at noon, announced by the 300 strikes on a loud drum, while the markets would close one hour and three quarters before dusk, the curfew signaled by the sound of 300 beats to a loud gong.[18] After the official markets were closed for the night, small night markets in residential areas would then thrive with plenty of customers, despite government efforts in the year 841 to shut them down.[18]

City Blocks are a part of the fictional universe recounted in the Judge Dredd series that appears in the UK comic book 2000 AD. // Overview Also known as starscrapers or stratoscrapers (compare skyscraper), they are the most common form of mass-housing in Mega-City One, averaging a population of... This article is about the Persian people, an ethnic group found mainly in Iran. ... The Grand Timcheh of Qoms Bazaar. ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A vendor is one who sells something. ... The word drink is primarily a verb, meaning to ingest liquids, see Drinking. ... Tea leaves in a Chinese gaiwan. ... This article is about cereals in general. ... Explicit Deposit insurance is a measure introduced by policy makers in many countries to protect deposits, in full or in part, in the event of a run on a bank or banks. ... Look up Commercial in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A county is generally a sub-unit of regional self-government within a sovereign jurisdiction. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... The term prince, from the Latin root princeps, is used for a member of the highest ranks of the aristocracy or the nobility. ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... Look up well in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... It has been suggested that The Firm be merged into this article or section. ... Funeral carriage, Museum of Funeral Customs For the extreme metal band, see Hearse (band) A hearse is a funeral vehicle, a conveyance for the coffin from e. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An exorcist is a person who performs exorcism, the ridding of demons or other supernatural beings who have possessed a person, or (sometimes) a building or other object. ...

Central Chang'an

Locations and events in the central sector of the city included:[8][15][16]

  • 16 walled and gated wards
  • 17 Buddhist monasteries
  • 6 Daoist abbeys
  • 1 Official temple
  • 3 Family shrines
  • 3 Locations for Provincial Transmission Offices
  • 3 Inns
  • 2 Graveyards
  • A court for imperial musicians
  • A minister's mansion that had a 'pavilion of automatic rain', that is, air conditioning by the old Han Dynasty invention of technician Ding Huan's (fl. 180 AD) rotary fan.[19]
  • An event where a scholar was once injured on the head here by a cuju football, and out of pity for his plight, the emperor gave him a personal gift of twenty-five pints of drinking ale.
  • An event in the year 720 where the walls of one ward partially collapsed during a heavy storm.
  • A mansion belonging to Princess Taiping (died 713).
  • An event where a dwarf lady magician was said to provide the illusion of changing herself into a bamboo stalk and a skull.
  • The main Capital Schools, which were the Sons of State Academy, the Grand Learning Academy, and Four Gates Academy.
  • An assortment of other colleges for law, mathematics, and calligraphy.
  • A ward that had the largest number of entertainment plazas in the city.
  • A mansion home that was valued at 3 million Tang-era copper coins in the 9th century.
  • Another mansion that had a pavilion of plastered walls covered with an aromatic herb from Central Asia
  • The Small Wild Goose Pagoda, which still stands today.
  • A shop that sold fancy pastry
  • The Pavilion of Buddha's Tooth, located in a monastery where graduate students of the Advanced Scholars Exam could enjoy their 'cherry feasts' in honor of their academic success.
  • A government-run mint for casting copper-coin currency
  • A small field for playing horse polo

Music of China appears to date back to the dawn of Chinese civilization, and documents and artifacts provide evidence of a well-developed musical culture as early as the Zhou Dynasty (1122 BC _ 256 BC). ... Note: in the broadest sense, air conditioning can refer to any form of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning. ... See: Rotary engine Rotary International Rotary milking shed rotary intersections This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Household Electric Fan A mechanical fan is a device used to produce an airflow for the purpose of creature comfort, ventilation, exhaust, or any other gaseous transport. ... The pint is a unit of volume or capacity. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Princess Taiping (太平公主) (655? - 713), was the princess of Tang dynasty of China. ... Events Byzantine Emperor Philippicus deposed. ... Men hur kommer man in i berget, frÃ¥gade tomtepojken (But how do I get into the mountain? the young dwarf asked. ... Look up magician in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An illusion is a distortion of a sensory perception, revealing how the brain normally organizes and interprets sensory stimulation. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, as imagined by by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens. ... Contemporary Calligraphy Calligraphy (from Greek kallos beauty + graphẽ writing) is the art of beautiful writing (Mediavilla 1996: 17). ... In chemistry, an aromatic molecule is one in which electrons are free to cycle around circular arrangements of atoms, which are alternately singly and doubly bonded to one another. ... Herbs: basil Herbs (IPA: hÉ™()b, or É™b; see pronunciation differences) are seed-bearing plants without woody stems, which die down to the ground after flowering. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Small Wild Goose Pagoda in Xian, China The Small Wild Goose Pagoda, sometimes Little Goose Pagoda (Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ), is one of two significant pagodas in the city of Xian, China. ... “Cherry tree” redirects here. ... MiNT (MiNT is Now TOS) is an alternative operating system (OS) kernel for the Atari ST computer and its successors which is free software. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ...

East Central Chang'an

A gilt-silver jar with a pattern of dancing horses, found from a 1970 excavation in Xi'an.
A gilt-silver jar with a pattern of dancing horses, found from a 1970 excavation in Xi'an.

Locations and events in the east central sector of the city included:[8][15][16][9] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (600 × 800 pixel, file size: 51 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (600 × 800 pixel, file size: 51 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... A gilded Tibetan Vajrasattva Gilding is the art of applying metal leaf (most commonly gold or silver leaf) to a surface. ... General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Standard atomic weight 107. ... There are a number of theories regarding the domestication of the horse. ...

  • 11 walled and gated wards
  • 11 Buddhist monasteries
  • 7 Daoist abbeys
  • 1 Family shrine
  • 1 Foreign place of worship (church, synagogue, mosque, etc.)
  • 4 Locations for Provincial Transmission Offices
  • 3 Inns
  • 1 Graveyard
  • 1 Large water pond
  • The East Market (东市); like the West Market, this walled and gated marketplace had nine city blocks and a central block reserved for government offices that regulated trade and monitored the transactions of goods and services. There was a street with the name "Ironmongers' Lane", plenty of pastry shops, taverns, and a seller of foreign musical instruments.
  • The North Hamlet (the Gay Quarters); the homosexual community of Chang'an was concentrated here in a ward to the northwesternmost area of the city sector. Homosexuality in China was often called 'pleasures of the bitten peach', the 'cut sleeve', or the 'southern custom'. Along with the concentration of Chang'an's gay community here, the North Hamlet was also heavily concentrated with many of the city's entertaining courtesans, as well as its notorious brothel houses for prostitution.[20] Aside from the prostitutes, the Chinese courtesans were more or less similar to the Japanese geisha, and unlike the bar and tavern maids they had excellent table manners, polite mode of speech and behavior, and were reserved for entertaining the elite of society.[21]
  • The Offices of Wannian County, the eastern half of the city
  • The main office of the City Archives
  • The government bureau of the Directorate for Astronomy
  • An event in 775 where an Uyghur Turk stabbed a man to death in broad daylight in the East Market before being arrested in the marketplace shortly after. However, his Uyghur chieftan named Chixin (赤心) or Red Heart broke into the county prison and freed the murderous culprit, wounding several wardens in the process.
  • A mansion of a princess with a large polo playing field in the backyard
  • An event where Emperor Gaozong of Tang (r. 649-683) once held the wedding feast here for the marriage ceremony of his daughter Princess Taiping.
  • The beer brewery of Toad Tumulus Ale.
  • An event in the year 788 where a gang of four thieves killed their arresting officer and fled the city.
  • An event where the assassins of Chancellor Wu hid in the bamboo groves of a mansion in this sector of the city after the murder.
  • A Buddhist monastery with an entertainment plaza
  • A home of a 'face reader' (physiognomist) where daily flocks of people came to have their fortunes told.
  • A mansion bestowed by the emperor to An Lushan (who became the most infamous rebel during the Tang era) in 750 that was converted into a Buddhist abbey after his demise. There was also a garden in a separate ward designated for An Lushan.
  • A mansion of a high-ranking general in the mid 8th century that was recorded to have 3000 inhabitants of the extended family living on the premesis.
  • A Zoroastrian church of worship from Iran
  • An event where the imperial court demoted an official because it was discovered that he had assembled a large number of female entertainers here in a dwelling that was not his home.
  • An event in the 9th century where three maidservants committed suicide by leaping into a well and drowning once they heard the rebel Huang Chao was ransacking their mistress's mansion.

For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ... A synagogue (from ancient Greek: , transliterated synagogÄ“, assembly; Hebrew: beit knesset, house of assembly; Yiddish: , shul; Ladino: , esnoga) is a Jewish house of worship. ... A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... Abbey Road in London A street name or odonym is an identifying name given to a street. ... Today, the term Ironmonger refers to a retailer (or wholesaler) of iron goods. ... A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified with the purpose of making music. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... Young men sipping tea and having sex. ... A courtesan in mid-16th century usage was a high-class prostitute or mistress, especially one associated with rich, powerful, or upper-class men who provided luxuries and status in exchange for her services. ... A brothel, also known as a bordello or whorehouse, is an establishment specifically dedicated to prostitution, providing the prostitutes a place to meet and to have sex with the clients. ... Whore redirects here. ... Typical nape make-up Geisha ) or Geigi )(pronounce Gay - Sha) are traditional, female Japanese entertainers, whose skills include performing various Japanese arts, such as classical music and dance. ... Archive of the AMVC hahahahaAn archive refers to a collection of records, and also refers to the location in which these records are kept. ... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ... The Uyghur (Uyghur: ئۇيغۇر; Uighur Simplified Chinese: 维吾尔; Traditional Chinese: 維吾爾; Pinyin: Wéiwúěr; Turkish: Uygur) are a Turkic people, forming one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. ... ... For other uses, see Princess (disambiguation). ... Emperor Gaozong (628 - 683) was the third emperor of Tang Dynasty in China and he ruled from 649 to 683. ... Events July 5 - Martin I becomes pope Arabs conquer Cyprus Reccaswinth succeeds his father Chindaswinth as king of the Visigoths. ... Events Umayyad caliph Yazid I (680 - 683) succeeded by Muawiya II ibn Yazid (683 - 684) End of the reign of Pacal the Great, ruler of Maya state of Palenque Births Emperor Mommu of Japan Bilge Khan, emperor of the Gokturks I Sin, Chinese astronomer Deaths Pope Leo II Tang Gao... Nuptial is the adjective of wedding. It is used for example in zoology to denote plumage, coloration, behavior, etc related to or occurring in the mating season. ... Marriage is an interpersonal relationship with governmental, social, or religious recognition, usually intimate and sexual, and often created as a contract, or through civil process. ... Princess Taiping (太平公主) (655? - 713), was the princess of Tang dynasty of China. ... For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ... The entrance of a brewery. ... Everyday instance of theft: the bike which fits on this wheel has disappeared. ... Physiognomist- One who studies the outer appearance of the person (primarily the face) to gain access to knowledge of the inner personality. ... An Lushan (Simplified Chinese: 安禄山; Pinyin: ) (703 - 757) was a military leader of Sogdian origin during the Tang Dynasty in China. ... Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ... A maidservant or in current usage maid is a female employed in domestic service. ... Huang Chao(Chinese:黃巢)(d. ... Ransack is the name of several characters in the Transformers Universes. ...

Northwestern Chang'an

Locations and events in the northwest sector of the city included:[8][7][14]

  • 12 walled and gated city wards
  • 27 Buddhist monasteries
  • 10 Daoist abbeys
  • 1 Official Temple
  • 1 Family shrine
  • 6 Foreign places of worship (Church, synagogue, mosque, etc.)
  • 1 Inn
  • 1 Graveyard
  • The military barracks for the Divine Strategy Army.
  • A shrine for Laozi's father
  • Three Zoroastrian churches of worship
  • Three Persian Nestorian-Christian churches of worship
  • The office of the Inexhaustible Treasury
  • An event in the year 828 where a eunuch commanded fifty wrestlers to arrest 300 commoners over a land dispute, whereupon a riot broke out in the streets.
  • The home of An Jinzang, who cut his belly open with a knife in order to defend Emperor Ruizong of Tang against charges of treason.
  • A mansion of Princess Anle
  • The Inexhaustible Treasury; in the year 713, Emperor Xuanzong liquidated the highly lucrative Inexhaustible Treasury, which was run by a prominent Buddhist monastery in Chang'an. This monastery collected vast amounts of money, silk, and treasures through multitudes of synonymous rich people's repentances, leaving the donations on the premesis without providing their name. Although the monastery was generous in donations, Emperor Xuanzong issued a decree abolishing their treasury on grounds that their banking practices were fraudulent, collected their riches, and distributed the wealth to various other Buddhist monasteries, Daoist abbeys, and to repair statues, halls, and bridges in the city.

A barracks housing conscripts of Norrbottens regemente in Boden, Sweden. ... Laozi (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Lao Tzu; also Lao Tse, Laotze, Lao Zi, and in other ways) was an ancient Chinese philosopher. ... The term Nestorianism is eponymous, even though the person who lent his name to it always denied the associated belief. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... The term treasury was first used in classical times to describe the votive buildings erected to house gifts to the gods, such as the Siphnian Treasury in Delphi or the many buildings put up in Olympia, Greece by competing city-states, to impress each other during the Ancient Olympic Games. ... Wrestling can be: Sport wrestling Professional wrestling Another term for grappling This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Teamsters, armed with pipes, riot in a clash with riot police in the Minneapolis Teamsters Strike of 1934. ... Emperor Ruizong 唐睿宗, born Li Dan 李旦(662-716), was the fifth and ninth emperor of Tang Dynasty. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Emperor Tang Xuanzong (唐玄宗) (September 8, 685 - May 3, 762), born Li Longji (李隆基), was the sixth emperor of the Tang dynasty of China, reigning from 712 to 756. ...

North Central Chang'an

Locations and events in the north central sector of the city included:[8][7][14]

  • Large gated walls connected to the West Palace and the main outer walls of the city
  • 24 walled and gated wards
  • 14 Different armed guard units in 6 different wards
  • The August Enceintes; this large walled compound of 24 wards was the Administrative City, where the various offices and main bureaus of the central government were located (in front of the southern walls of the lavish West Palace).
  • The headquarters for the Service for Supreme Justice (Supreme court).
  • The Imperial factories
  • An event in the year 713 where a large carnival was held along the main avenue lined against the southern wall of the West Palace
  • The Imperial stables and hay fields for horses
  • The government halls for civil and military examinations
  • The Imperial ancestral shrine

A security officer guards a construction site. ... The supreme court functions as a court of last resort whose rulings cannot be challenged, in some countries, provinces and states. ... A factory (previously manufactory) is a large industrial building where goods or products are manufactured. ... This article describes the festival season. ... Leland Stanfords horse stable, still in use Horse kept in stable A stable is a building in which livestock, usually horses, are kept. ... For other uses, see Hay (disambiguation). ...

Northeastern Chang'an

Locations and events in the northeast sector of the city included:[8][7][14]

  • 14 walled and gated wards
  • 13 Buddhist monasteries
  • 4 Daoist abbeys
  • 1 Family shrine
  • 3 Locations for Provincial Transmission Offices
  • 1 Inn
  • The Xingqing Palace; once a Buddhist monastery, it was converted to an Imperial palace in the early 8th century. Within the walled and gated grounds there was a large lake, two streams, an aloeswood pavilion, and an archery hall.
  • A large carriage park where officials visiting the Daming Palace could safely leave their horse-drawn vehicles for the day.
  • An entertainment ward in this sector that was considered to have the finest singers in the city, and another with the finest dancers.
  • An event where Empress Wu once donated one of her dressing rooms to a monastery here
  • An event where a eunuch who converted his mansion into a monastery held a feast where he demanded each guest to celebrate by striking the cloister's bell and donating 100,000 strings of cash.
  • An event in the year 730 where Emperor Xuanzong of Tang had four palace halls dismantled and reassembled as halls and gates for a Daoist abbey, the grounds of which was formally a large garden for the Bureau of Agriculture.
  • A residence for princes in the ward forming the northeast corner of the city
  • An event in the year 835 where palace troops captured rebel leaders in a tea shop that were planning a palace coup de tat against the chief court eunuchs.
  • An event in the early 9th century where the emperor spent 2 million strings of cash to purchase the former mansion of a venerated minister so that the dwelling could be returned to the minister's pious grandson.
  • A mansion of Princess Tongchang that had a water well lined with a railing made of pure gold and silver.
  • A court for imperial musicians
  • A large playing ground as a horse polo field
  • An event in 756 where the occupying rebel An Lushan ordered Sun Xiaozhe to have eighty three princesses, their husbands, and parties of Yang Guozhong and Gao Lishi murdered at Zongren Fang in reprisal for his already executed son An Qingzong.
  • A workshop for a maker of musical instruments
  • An event where a renowned but drunken artist painted an entire mural in one night at the north gate of a Buddhist monastery in the southwesternmost ward of this city sector.
  • A spot in the south central ward of this city sector where girls often played cuju football under a tree beside the road.
  • A street where the emperor would organize public entertainments to celebrate his birthday

// This article is about the resinous heartwood from Aquilaria trees. ... Catherine IIs carved, painted and gilded Coronation Coach (Hermitage Museum) George VI and Queen Elizabeth in a landau with footmen and an outrider, Canada 1939 The classic definition of a carriage is a four-wheeled horse drawn private passenger vehicle with leaf springs (elliptical springs in the 19th century... A singer is a musician who uses their voice to produce music. ... A contemporary dancer rehearsing in a dance studio Dance generally refers to human movement either used as a form of expression or presented in a social, spiritual or performance setting. ... Wu Zetian (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ) (625 - December 16, 705), personal name Wu Zhao (武曌), was the only woman in the history of China to assume the title of Emperor. ... The term dressing room may be applied to different places. ... Cloister of Saint Trophimus, in Arles, France A cloister (from latin claustrum) is a part of cathedral, monastic and abbey architecture. ... Emperor Tang Xuanzong (唐玄宗) (September 8, 685 - May 3, 762), born Li Longji (李隆基), was the sixth emperor of the Tang dynasty of China, reigning from 712 to 756. ... Agriculture is the most important economic sector of China, employing over 300 million farmers- nearly half of its work force. ... A coup détat (pronounced kū dā ta), or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Standard atomic weight 107. ... “Instrumentalist” redirects here. ... The An Shi Rebellion (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) occurred in China, during the Tang Dynasty, from 756 to 763. ... Yang Guozhong (楊國忠 Pinyin: yang2 guo2 zhong1) (d. ... Gao Lishi (高力士) (684-762) was a eunuch official during Emperor Xuanzong of Tang Chinas reign, reaching high ranks like Biaoqi Grand General (驃騎大將軍) and Jinkai Fu Yitong Sansi (進開府儀同三司). He is believed to have run much of the empire during Xuanzongs inattentive later years, and is known to have been...

The West Palace

The West Palace to the north included:[8][7]

  • An archery hall
  • Polo grounds
  • Elaborate Gardens
  • Five large water ponds and three different streams
  • A cuju football field
  • A drum tower
  • A bell tower
  • The residence of the Crown Prince, dubbed the 'East Palace'
  • The Flank Court, where women were incarcerated for the crimes of their husbands and other menfolk of the family they remained loyal to.
  • The school for palace ladies
  • The Seat of the Eunuch Agency

Bass drum made from wood, rope, and cowskin A drum is a musical instrument in the percussion group that can be large, technically classified as a membranophone. ... Bell Tower is an office tower in Edmonton, Canada. ... Dorchester Penitentiary in New Brunswick, Canada is an institution that is part of Corrections Canada. ...

The West Park

The West Park grounds included:[8][7]

  • A river stream
  • Three gates leading into the West Palace
  • Ice pits for refrigerating foods during the spring and summer

Snowflakes by Wilson Bentley, 1902 Ice is the name given to any one of the 14 known solid phases of water. ... Refrigeration (from the Latin frigus, frost) is generally the cooling of a body by the transfer of a portion of its heat away from it. ...

The Daming Palace

The Daming Palace grounds included:[8][7]

  • Double walled gates at the north end leading out of the city, and one walled gate at the south end leading into the city
  • A large lake
  • An archery hall
  • A bathhouse
  • A storehouse for musical instruments
  • A drum tower
  • A bell tower
  • A cuju football field
  • A cockfighting arena
  • Academy of music for the actors and performers in the Pear Garden Troupe
  • A separate entertainment ward

This article does not cite any references or sources. ... ARENA may refer to either: Nationalist Republican Alliance, a political party in El Salvador. ... Academy of Music is College or university school of music. ... Actors in period costume sharing a joke whilst waiting between takes during location filming. ... The Pear Garden (梨园), the first known opera troupe in China. ...

The East Park

The East Park grounds included:[8][7]

  • A large pond
  • Two streams (one leading into the park from under the wall, one feeding water into a city canal)
  • A cuju football field

Tallies

For different buildings and locations in the entire city, the total numbers for each were:[8]

  • 111 Buddhist monasteries
  • 41 Daoist abbeys
  • 38 Family shrines
  • 2 Official temples
  • 10 City wards having one or multiple Provincial Transmission Offices
  • 12 Inns
  • 6 Graveyards
  • 7 Official foreign-religion churches

Citywide events

Citywide events of Chang'an include:[22][23][24][25][26]

  • Festivals of traditional Chinese holidays celebrated throughout the city (and empire) included:
    • New Years; the grandest of all festivals, and a seven-day holiday period for government officials. Civil officials, military officers, and foreign emissaries gathered first in the early hours of the morning to attend a levee, an occassion where omens, disasters, and blessings of the previous year would be reviewed, along with tribute of regional prefectures and foreign countries presented. It was also an opportunity for provincial governors to present their recommended candidates for the imperial examination. Although festival ceremonies in Chang'an were lavish, rural people in the countryside celebrated privately at home with their families in age old traditions, such as drinking a special wine, Killing Ghosts and Reviving Souls wine, that was believed to cure illnesses in the following year.
    • Lantern Festival; a three-day festival held on the 14th, 15th, and 16th days of the first full moon. This was the only holiday where the government lifted its nightly curfew all across the city so that people could freely exit their wards and stroll about the main city streets to celebrate. Citizens attempted to outdo one another each year in the amount of lamps and the size of lamps they could erect in a grand display. By far the most prominent was the one in the year 713 erected at a gate in Chang'an by the recently-abdicated Emperor Ruizong of Tang. His lantern wheel had a recorded height of 200 ft., the frame of which was draped in brocades and silk gauze, adorned with gold and jade jewelry, and when it had its total of some 50,000 oil cups lit the radiance of it could be seen for miles.
    • Lustration; this one day festival took place on the third day of the third moon (dubbed the "double-three"), and traditionally was meant to dispell evil and wash away defilement in a river with scented aromatic orchis plants. By the Tang era it had become a time of baudy celebration, feasting, wine drinking, and writing poetry. The Tang court annually served up a special batch of deep fried pastries as desert for the occasion, most likely served in the Serpentine River Park.
    • Cold Food Festival; this solar-based holiday on April 5th (concurrent with the Qingming Festival) was named so because no fires were allowed to be lit for three days, hence no warmed or hot food. It was a time to respect one's ancestors by maintaining their tombs and offering sacrifices, while a picnic would be held later in the day. It was also a time for fun in outdoor activities, with amusement on swing sets, playing cuju football, horse polo, and tug of war. In the year 710, Emperor Zhongzong of Tang had his chief ministers, sons-in-law, and military officers engage in a game of tug of war, and purportedly laughed when the oldest ministers fell over. The imperial throne also presented porridge to officials, and even dyed chicken and duck eggs, similar to the practice on Easter in the Western world.
    • Fifth Day of the Fifth Moon; this one-day holiday dubbed the Dragon Boat Festival was held in honor of an ancient Chinese statesman Qu Yuan (c. 340 BC-278 BC) from the State of Chu. Ashamed that he could not save the dire affairs of his state or his king by offering good council, Qu Yuan leaped into a river and committed suicide; it was said that soon after many went out on the river in boats in a desperate attempt to rescue him if still alive. This act turned into a festive tradition of boarding a dragon boat to race against other oarsmen, and also to call out Qu's name, still in search of him. The type of food commonly eaten during the Tang period for this festival was either glutinous millet or rice wrapped in leaves and boiled.
    • Seventh Night of the Seventh Moon; this was a one-day festival that was held in honor of the celestial love affair with deities associated with the star Altair (the male cow-herd deity) in the constellation Aquila and the star Vega (the female weaver maid deity) in the constellation Lyra. For this holiday, women prayed for the enhancement of their skills at sewing and weaving. In the early 8th century Tang servitors had erected a 100 ft. tall hall by knotting brocades to a bamboo frame and laid out fruits, ale, and roasts as offerings to the two stellar lovers. It was during this holiday that the emperor's concubines threaded polychrome thread into needles with nine eyes, while facing the moon themselves (in a ritual called "praying for skill [in sewing and weaving]").
    • Fifteenth Day of the Seventh Moon; this holiday was called All Saints' Feast, developing from the legend of the bodhisattva savior Mulian who had discovered his mother paying for her sinful ways while in purgatory filled with hungry ghosts. According to the tale, she starved there because any food that she put into her mouth would turn into charcoal. Then it was said that she told the Buddha to make an offering with his clergy on the fifteenth day of the seventh month, a virtuous act that would free seven generations of people from being hungry ghosts in Hell as well as people reborn as lower animals. After Mulian was able to save his own mother by offerings, Mulian convinced the Buddha to make the day into a permanent holiday. This holiday was an opportunity of Buddhist monasteries to flaunt their collected wealth and attract donors, especially by methods of drawing crowds with dramatic spectacles and performances.
    • Fifteenth Day of the Eighth Moon; this festival (today simply called the Moon Festival or Mid-Autumn Festival), took place in mid autumn, and was designated as a three day vacation for government officials. Unlike the previous holiday's association with Buddhism, this holiday was associated with Taoism, specifically Taoist alchemy. There was a tale about a hare on the moon who worked hard grinding ingredients for an elixir by using a mortar and pestle. In folklore, a magician escorted Emperor Illustrious August to the palace of the moon goddesss across a silver bridge that was conjured up by him tossing his staff into the air. In the tale, on the fifteenth day of the eighth moon, the emperor viewed the performance of "Air of the Rainbow Robe and Feathered Skirt" by immortal maids. He memorized the music, and on his return to earth taught it to his performers. For people in Chang'an (and elsewhere), this holiday was a means for many to simply feast and drink for the night.
    • Ninth Day of the Ninth Moon; this was a three-day holiday associated with the promotion of longevity (with chrysanthemum as the main symbol). It was a holiday where many sought to have picnics out in the country, especially in higher elevated areas such as mountain sides. Without the ability to travel away to far off mountains, inhabitants of Chang'an simply held their feasts at the tops of pagodas or in the Serpentine River Park. Stems and leaves of chrysanthemum were added to fermented grains and were brewed for a year straight. On the same festival the following year, it was believed that drinking this ale would prolong one's life.
    • The Last Day of the Twelfth Moon; on this holiday ale and fruit were provided as offerings to the god of the stove, after having Buddhist or Taoist priests recite scripture at one's own home (if one had the wealth and means). Offerings were made to the stove god because it was his responsibility to make annual reports to heaven on the good deeds or sins committed by the family in question. A family would do everything to charm the god, including hanging a newly painted portrait of the god on a piece of paper above their stove on New Years, which hung in the same position for an entire year. It was a common practice to rub in some alcoholic beverage across the picture of the deities mouth, so that he would become drunk and far too inebriated to make any sort of reasonably bad or negative report about the family to heaven.
  • Grand Carnivals; carnivals during the Tang period were lively events, with tons of eating, drinking, street parades, and sideshow acts in tents. Carnivals had no fixed dates or customs, but were merely celebrations bestowed by the emperor in the case of his generosity or special circumstances such as great military victories, abundant harvests after a long drought or famine, sacrifices to gods, or the granting of grand amnesties.[27] This type of carnival as a nationwide tradition was established long before the Tang by Qin Shihuang in the 3rd century BC, upon his unification of China in 221.[28] Between the years 628 and 758, the imperial throne bestowed a total of sixty nine different carnivals, seventeen of which were held under Empress Wu.[27] These carnivals generally lasted 3 days, and sometimes five, seven, or nine days (using odd numbers due so that the number of days could correspond with beliefs in the cosmos). The carnival grounds were usually staged in the wide avenues of the city, and smaller parties in attendance in the open plazas of Buddhist monasteries. However, in the year 713, a carnival was held in the large avenue running east to west between the West Palace walls and the government compounds of the administrative city, an open space that was 0.75 miles long and 1,447 ft. wide, and was more secure since the guard units of the city were placed nearby and could handle crowd control of trouble arose.[29] Carnivals of the Tang Dynasty featured large passing wagons with high poles were acrobats would climb and perform stunts for crowds. Large floats during the Tang, on great four-wheeled wagons, rose as high as five stories, called 'mountain carts' or 'drought boats'.[30] These superstructure vehicles were draped in silken flags and cloths, with bamboo and other wooden type frames, foreign musicians dressed in rich fabrics sitting on the top playing music, and the whole cart drawn by oxen that were covered in tiger skins and outfitted to look like rhinoceroses and elephants. An official in charge of the music bureau in the early seventh century set to the task of composing the official music that was to be played in the grand carnival of the year. On some occasions the emperor granted prizes to those carnival performers he deemed to outshine the rest with their talents.
  • In the year 682, a culmination of major droughts, floods, locust plagues, and epidemics, a widespread famine broke out in the dual Chinese capital cities of Chang'an and Luoyang. The scarcity of food drove the price of grain to unprecedented heights of inflation, while a once prosperous era under emperors Taizong and Gaozong ended on a sad note.[31]

The traditional Chinese holidays have been part of Chinese tradition for thousands of years; they are an essential part of Chinese Culture. ... Chinese New Year (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), or Spring Festival or the Lunar New Year (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most important of the traditional Chinese holidays. ... The levée was a ceremony commonly held in European high society, constituting a morning assembly or reception given by kings and important nobles. ... The Imperial examinations (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) in Imperial China determined who among the population would be permitted to enter the states bureaucracy. ... Year 2007 Taiwan Lantern Festival in Chiayi, Taiwan The Lantern Festival (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) or (Yuanxiao Festival), also known as the Shang Yuan Festival (上元节), is a Chinese festival celebrated on the fifteenth day of the first month in the lunar year in the Chinese calendar. ... For other uses, see Full Moon. ... Emperor Ruizong 唐睿宗, born Li Dan 李旦(662-716), was the fifth and ninth emperor of Tang Dynasty. ... Brocade can stands for: thick heavy fabric into which raised patterns have been woven. ... For other uses of this word, see Silk (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... A selection of antique, hand-crafted Chinese jade (jadeite) buttons Unworked Jade Jade is used as an ornamental stone, the term jade is applied to two different rocks that are made up of different silicate minerals. ... Lustration is, literally, a sacrifice, or ceremony, by which cities, fields, armies, or people, defiled by crimes, pestilence, or other cause of uncleanness, were purified. During the period after the fall of the various European Communist states in 1989&#8211;1991, the term came to refer to the policy of... List of genera in the Orchid family (Orchidaceae), originally according to The Families of Flowering Plants - L. Watson and M. J. Dallwitz. ... Deep frying is cooking food by submerging the whole food item in hot oil or fat, originating in Africa. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Burning paper gifts for the departed. ... Friends and family gather for a picnic in a public park in Columbus, Ohio, c. ... A little girl playing on a swing A swing is a hanging seat in a playground, for acrobats in a circus, or on a porch for relaxing. ... Tug of war Tug of war, also known as rope pulling, is a sport that directly pits two teams against each other in a test of strength. ... Zhongzong (656-710) was fourth and seventh Emperor of the Tang Dynasty of China, ruling briefly in 684 and again from 705 to 710. ... This article is about the Christian festival. ... The term Western world, the West or the Occident (Latin occidens -sunset, -west, as distinct from the Orient) [1] can have multiple meanings dependent on its context (e. ... Dragon Boat Festival is also called Duan Wu or Tuen Ng Festival (端午节/端午節), which is a festival on the fifth day of the fifth month of the Chinese calendar. ... Qu Yuan (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (ca. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC - 340s BC - 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC Years: 345 BC 344 BC 343 BC 342 BC 341 BC - 340 BC - 339 BC 338 BC... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC - 270s BC - 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 283 BC 282 BC 281 BC 280 BC 279 BC - 278 BC - 277 BC 276 BC 275... State of Chu (small seal script, 220 BC) Chu (楚) was a kingdom in what is now southern China during the Spring and Autumn period (722-481 BCE) and Warring States Period (481-212 BCE). ... For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ... A Dragon boat (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is a very long and narrow human powered boat used in the team paddling sport or Dragon boat racing which originated in China. ... An oar is an implement used for water-borne propulsion. ... The term celestial refers to the sky and/or Heaven. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Altair (α Aql / α Aquilae / Alpha Aquilae / Atair ) is the brightest star in the constellation Aquila and the twelfth brightest star in the nighttime sky, at visual magnitude 0. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Aquila (IPA: , Latin: ; sometimes named the Vulture), is one of the 48 constellations listed by Ptolemy, also mentioned by Eudoxus (4th century BC) and Aratus (3rd century BC) and now also part of the list of 88 constellations acknowledged by the IAU. It lies roughly at the celestial equator. ... For other uses, see Vega (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Lyra (disambiguation). ... Brocade can stands for: thick heavy fabric into which raised patterns have been woven. ... A swampy marsh area ... Polychrome is one of the terms used to describe the use of multiple colors in one entity. ... Lands Bhutan â€¢ China â€¢ Korea Japan â€¢ Tibet â€¢ Vietnam Taiwan â€¢ Mongolia Doctrine Bodhisattva â€¢ Bodhicitta Karuna â€¢ Prajna Sunyata â€¢ Buddha Nature Trikaya â€¢ Eternal Buddha Scriptures Prajnaparamita Sutra Avatamsaka Sutra Lotus Sutra Nirvana Sutra VimalakÄ«rti Sutra Lankavatara Sutra History 4th Buddhist Council Silk Road â€¢ Nagarjuna Asanga â€¢ Vasubandhu Bodhidharma      A statue of a Bodhisattva, Akasagarbha. ... Illustration for Dantes Purgatorio (18), by Gustave Doré, an imaginative picturing of Purgatory. ... Japanese name Kanji: Kana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quoc Ngu: Han Tu: Mid-Autumn Festival celebrations in Victoria Park, Hong Kong. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ... Jack rabbit and Jackrabbit redirect here. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Look up elixir in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Mortar and pestle Mortar used to pulverise plant material with liquid nitrogen A mortar and pestle is a tool used to grind and mix substances. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up magician in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Species Chrysanthemum aphrodite Chrysanthemum arcticum Chrysanthemum argyrophyllum Chrysanthemum arisanense Chrysanthemum boreale Chrysanthemum chalchingolicum Chrysanthemum chanetii Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium Chrysanthemum crassum Chrysanthemum glabriusculum Chrysanthemum hypargyrum Chrysanthemum indicum Chrysanthemum japonense Chrysanthemum japonicum Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium Chrysanthemum mawii Chrysanthemum maximowiczii Chrysanthemum mongolicum Chrysanthemum morifolium Chrysanthemum morii Chrysanthemum okiense Chrysanthemum oreastrum Chrysanthemum ornatum Chrysanthemum pacificum Chrysanthemum... For other uses, see Fermentation. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Drunkenness, in its most common usage, is the state of being intoxicated with alcohol (i. ... This article describes the festival season. ... United States Marines on parade. ... Look up Harvest in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Amnesty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Qin Shi Huang (&#31206;&#22987;&#30343;) (November or December 260 BC - September 10, 210 BC), personal name Zheng, was king of the Chinese State of Qin from 247 BC to 221 BC, and then the first emperor of a unified China from 221 BC to 210 BC, ruling under the... Wu Zetian (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ) (625 - December 16, 705), personal name Wu Zhao (武曌), was the only woman in the history of China to assume the title of Emperor. ... Binomial name Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758 Cattle are domesticated ungulates, a member of the subfamily Bovinae of the family Bovidae. ... For other uses, see Tiger (disambiguation). ... Black Rhino from Howletts Wild Animal Park For other uses, see Rhinoceros (disambiguation). ... Genera and Species Loxodonta Loxodonta cyclotis Loxodonta africana Elephas Elephas maximus Elephas antiquus † Elephas beyeri † Elephas celebensis † Elephas cypriotes † Elephas ekorensis † Elephas falconeri † Elephas iolensis † Elephas planifrons † Elephas platycephalus † Elephas recki † Stegodon † Mammuthus † Elephantidae (the elephants) is a family of pachyderm, and the only remaining family in the order Proboscidea... // Events Leo II elected pope. ... Fields outside Benambra, Victoria suffering from drought conditions A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. ... Flooding in Amphoe Sena, Ayutthaya Province, Thailand. ... Desert locust Nymph of Locust Schistocera americana with distinct wing-rudiments Desert Locust Schistocerca gregaria Locust from the 1915 Locust Plague For other uses, see Locust (disambiguation). ... Look up plague in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In epidemiology, an epidemic (from [[Latin language] epi- upon + demos people) is a disease that appears as new cases in a given human population, during a given period, at a rate that substantially exceeds what is expected, based on recent experience (the number of new cases in the population during... <nowiki>Insert non-formatted text hereBold text</nowiki>A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ...

See also

The Chinese phrase Four Great Ancient Capitals of China (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) traditionally refers to Beijing, Nanjing, Luoyang, and Xian. ... According to administrative divisions of the Peoples Republic of China, there are three level of cities, namely municipalities, prefecture-level cities, and county-level cities. ... Direct-controlled municipalities are the highest-level cities in China, with status equal to that of the provinces. ... Xi Ming Temple (Chinese 西明寺; pinyin xi ming si, also romanized Hsi-ming-ssu) is a famous temple from Changan (todays Xian), the capital of Tang Dynasty in Chinese history. ...

Notes

  1. ^ (a) Tertius Chandler, Four Thousand Years of Urban Growth: An Historical Census, Lewiston, NY: The Edwin Mellen Press, 1987. ISBN 0-88946-207-0. (b) George Modelski, World Cities: –3000 to 2000, Washington DC: FAROS 2000, 2003. ISBN 0-9676230-1-4.
  2. ^ However, Charles Benn (Benn, 46), Patricia Ebrey, Anne Walthall, and James Palais (Ebrey, 93) assert that Chang'an and the surrounding jurisdictions of the suburban countryside (the metropolitan area of Chang'an) had a potential population size of around 2,000,000 people.
  3. ^ New Book of Tang, vol. 41 (Zhi vol. 27) Geography 1.
  4. ^ a b Benn, 50.
  5. ^ Ebrey, 92.
  6. ^ Benn, 47.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h Benn, xiv.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Benn, xiii.
  9. ^ a b c d e Benn, xviii
  10. ^ a b Benn, 48.
  11. ^ a b c Benn, 49.
  12. ^ a b c Benn, xix
  13. ^ Benn, 62.
  14. ^ a b c d Benn, xv
  15. ^ a b c Benn, xvi.
  16. ^ a b c Benn, xvii.
  17. ^ Benn, 54.
  18. ^ a b Benn, 55.
  19. ^ Needham, Volume 4, Part 2, 33, 233.
  20. ^ Benn, 67.
  21. ^ Benn, 64.
  22. ^ Benn, 149.
  23. ^ Benn, 150.
  24. ^ Benn, 151.
  25. ^ Benn, 152.
  26. ^ Benn, 153.
  27. ^ a b Benn, 155.
  28. ^ Benn, 154.
  29. ^ Benn, 156.
  30. ^ Benn, 157.
  31. ^ Benn, 4.

This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

References

This article contains Chinese text.
Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Chinese characters.
  • Benn, Charles (2002). China's Golden Age: Everyday Life in the Tang Dynasty. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-517665-0.
  • Ebrey, Walthall, Palais (2006). East Asia: A Cultural, Social, and Political History. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 0-618-13384-4.
  • Needham, Joseph (1986). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 4, Physics and Physical Technology, Part 2, Mechanical Engineering. Taipei: Caves Books Ltd.
  • Ma, Dezhi. "Sui Daxing Tang Chang’an Cheng Yizhi" ("Archeological Site of Sui's Daxing and Tang's Chang'an". Encyclopedia of China (Archeology Edition), 1st ed.
  • Wang, Chongshu. "Han Chang’an Cheng Yizhi" ("Archeological Site of Han's Chang'an"). Encyclopedia of China (Archeology Edition), 1st ed.

Image File history File links Zhongwen. ... Japanese name Kanji: Kana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quoc Ngu: Hantu: A Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, sometimes Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ... The Encyclopedia of China (Chinese: ) is the first large-scale encyclopedia in the Chinese language in the modern era. ... The Encyclopedia of China (Chinese: ) is the first large-scale encyclopedia in the Chinese language in the modern era. ...

Further reading

  • Schafer, Edward H. “The Last Years of Ch’ang’an”. Oriens Extremus X (1963):133-179.
  • Sirén, O. “Tch’angngan au temps des Souei et des T’ang”. Revue des Arts Asiatiques 4 (1927):46-104.
  • Steinhardt, Nancy Shatzman (1999). Chinese Imperial City Planning. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
  • Xiong, Victor Cunrui (2000). Sui-Tang Chang’an: A Study in the Urban History of Medieval China. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Center for Chinese Studies.

External links


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