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Encyclopedia > Chandragupta II
Coins of Chandragupta II.
Coins of Chandragupta II.

The period of prominence of the Gupta dynasty is very often referred to as the Golden Age of India. It was under the rule of Samudragupta's son, Chandragupta II (very often referred to as Vikramaditya or Chandragupta Vikramaditya) spanning 375-413/15 CE, that the Gupta empire achieved its zenith. Chandragupta attained success by pursuing both a favorable marital alliance and an aggressive expansionist policy. In this his father and grandfather set the precedent. Image File history File linksMetadata ChandraguptaII.JPG‎ Coin of Chandragupta II. Guimet Museum. ... Image File history File linksMetadata ChandraguptaII.JPG‎ Coin of Chandragupta II. Guimet Museum. ... The Gupta dynasty ruled the Gupta Empire of India, from around 320 to 550. ... Samudragupta, ruler of the Gupta Empire (c. ... The period of prominence of the Gupta dynasty is very often referred to as the Golden Age of India. ...

Contents

Biography

Not much is known about the personal details of the great king. His mother, Datta Devi, was the chief queen of Samudragupta. The most widely accepted details have been built upon the plot of the play 'Devi-Chandraguptam' of Vishakadatta. The play is now lost but fragments have been preserved in other works (Abhinava-bharati, Sringara-prakasha, Natya-darpana, Nataka-lakshana Ratna-kosha). There even exists an Arabic work Mujmalu-t-Tawarikh which tells a similar tale of a king whose name appears to be a corruption of 'Vikramaditya'.


The fragment from Natya-darpana mentions the king Rama Gupta, the elder brother of Chandragupta, surrendering his queen Dhruvadevi to the Saka king of the Western Kshatrapas Rudrasimha, after a defeat at the Saka king's hands. To avoid the ignominy the Guptas decide to send Madhavasena, a courtesan and a beloved of Chandragupta, disguised as the queen. However, Chandragupta changes the plan and himself goes to the Saka King disguised as the queen. He then kills Rudrasimha and later his brother, Ramagupta. Dhruvadevi is then married to Chandra Gupta. The Sakas are a peoples that lived in what is now Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan and parts of Iran, Ukraine, and Altay Mountains and Siberia in Russia, in the centuries before 300 AD. They are considered to be a branch of Scythians by most scholars. ... Approximate territory of the Western Kshatrapas ( 35- 405 CE). ...


We do not know what liberties Vishakadatta took with the incidents, but Dhruvadevi was indeed the king's chief queen as seen in the Vaisali terracotta seal that calls her ‘Mahadevi’ Dhruvasvamini. The Bilsad pillar inscription of their son Kumara Gupta I also refers to her as Mahadevi Dhruvadevi. A Ramagupta too is mentioned in inscriptions on Jain figures in the District Archaeological Museum, Vidisha and some copper coins found at Vidisha. The fact that the king and Dhruvadevi are the protagonists of Vishakadatta's play indicates that marrying his widowed sister-in-law was not given any significance by the playwright. However, later Hindus did not view such a marriage with favour and some censure of the act is found in the Sanjan copperplate inscription of Amoghavarsha I and in the Sangali and Cambay plates of the Rashtrakuta king Govinda IV. Vaishali is a district in Bihar state, India. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Vidisha or Besnagar or old name Bhelsa is a city in Madhya Pradesh,near its capital Bhopal, state of central India. ... Amoghavarsha Nripathunga was the greatest of the Rashtrakuta kings. ... The current version of the article or section reads like an advertisement. ...


The Allahabad pillar inscription mentions the marriage of Chandragupta with a Naga princess Kuveranaga. Surroundings of Allahabad, India. ...


Chandragupta's daughter Prabhavati by his other queen Kuberanaga, a Naga princess, was married to the powerful Vakataka king Rudrasena II. Naga people The Naga people of about two and half million are found in Nagaland, parts of Manipur, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and Myanmar. ... The Vakataka was an Indian dynasty. ...


The Empire

His greatest victory was his victory over the Shaka-Kshatrapa dynasty and annexation of their kingdom in Gujarat. His son-in-law Rudrasena II died fortuitously after a very short reign in 390 AD, following which Prabhavatigupta ruled as a regent on behalf of her two sons. During this twenty year period the Vakataka realm was practically a part of the Gupta empire. The geographical location of the Vakataka kingdom allowed Chandragupta to take the opportunity to defeat the Western Kshatrapas once for all. Many historians refer to this period as the Vakataka-Gupta age. Approximate territory of the Western Kshatrapas (35-405 CE). ... Gujarāt (GujarātÄ«: , IPA: ,  ) is the most industrialized state in the Republic of India with 19. ... The Gupta Empire in 400 CE (not including vassal states) The Gupta Empire was one of the largest political and military empires in ancient India. ... The Vakataka was an Indian dynasty. ...


Chandragupta II controlled a vast empire, from the mouth of the Ganges to the mouth of the Indus River and from what is now North Pakistan down to the mouth of the Narmada. Pataliputra continued to be the capital of his huge empire but Ujjain too became a sort of second capital..The large number of beautiful gold coins issued by the Gupta dynasty are a testament to the imperial grandeur of that age. Chandragupta II also started producing silver coins in the Shaka tradition. Early morning on the Ganges The River Ganges (Ganga in Indian languages) (Devanagiri गंगा) is a major river in northern India. ... The position of the Sindhu River in Iron Age Vedic India. ... The Narmada or Nerbudda is a river in central India. ... ... Ujjain   (Hindi:उज्जैन) (also known as Ujain, Ujjayini, Avanti) is an ancient city of central India, in the Malwa region of Madhya Pradesh, on the eastern bank of the Kshipra River. ... The Gupta dynasty ruled the Gupta Empire of India, from around 320 to 550. ...


His Reign

Fa-hsien was the first of three great Chinese pilgrims who visited India from the fifth to the seventh centuries AD, in search of knowledge, manuscripts and relics. He arrived during the reign of Chandragupta II and gave a general description of North India at that time. Among the other things, he reported about the absence of capital punishment, the lack of a poll-tax and land tax and the presence of a strongly embedded caste system. Most citizens did not consume onions, garlic, meat and wine. The exception to this were the Chandalas, who were shunned in society and segregated from other people. Faxian (pinyin, Chinese characters: 法顯, also romanized as Fa-Hien or Fa-hsien) (ca. ... The word Caste is derived from the Portuguese word casta, meaning lineage, breed or race. ...


Culturally too, the reign of Chandragupta II marked a Golden Age. This is evidenced by later reports of the presence of a circle of poets known as the Nine_Gems in his court. The greatest among them was Kalidasa, who authored numerous immortal pieces of literature including 'Shakuntala', and he is often referred to as the Shakespeare of India. One other was Varahamihira who was a famous astronomer and mathematician. The Nine Gems of Akbars court were Abul Fazl Faizi Mian Tansen Birbal Raja Todar Mal Raja Man Singh Abdul Rahim Khan-I-Khan Fakir Aziao-Din Mullah Do Piaza. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Varahamihira (505 – 587) was an Indian astronomer, mathematician, and astrologer born in Ujjain. ...


The fourth day after the Hindu festival Diwali is called Padwa or Varshapratipada, which marks the coronation of King Vikramaditya. The Hindu Shaka-Samvat calendar was apparently started on this day and this day is celebrated as new year's day in some places (which is confusing because the Vikram-Samvat is synchronised with the Vikram-Samvat calendar, which starts around April, in some parts of India). Diwali, also called Deepavali (Sanskrit: ) is a major Hindu festival that is very significant in Hinduism, Sikhism and Jainism. ... Samvat is any of the various Hindu calendars. ... Samvat is any of the various Hindu calendars. ...


The Famous Iron Pillar

Close to the Qutub Minar is one of Delhi's most curious structures, an iron pillar, dating back to 4th century CE. The pillar bears an inscription which states that it was erected as a flagstaff in honour of the Hindu god Vishnu, and in the memory of Chandragupta II. The pillar also highlights ancient India's achievements in metallurgy. The pillar is made of 98% wrought iron and has stood more than 1,600 years without rusting or decomposing. This iron pillar is similar to the Pillars of Ashoka found mostly in northern India. At 72. ... Delhi   (Hindi: , Urdu: ‎, Punjabi: ) is a metropolis in northern India. ... Vishnu (IAST , Devanagari , with honorific Shri Vishnu; , ), (also frequently referred to as Narayana) is the most popularly worshipped form of God in Hinduism [1]. Within the Vaishnava tradition he is viewed as the Ultimate Reality or Supreme God (similarly to Shiva within Shaivism). ... The pillars of Ashoka are a series of columns dispersed throughout the northern Indian subcontinent, and erected by the Mauryan king Ashoka during his reign in the 3rd century BCE. SAlMAN Ashish Many of the pillars are carved with proclamations reflecting Buddhist teachings: the Edicts of Ashoka. ...



Preceded by:
Samudragupta
Gupta Empire Ruler
(375-414 CE)
Succeeded by:
Kumara Gupta I

Samudragupta, ruler of the Gupta Empire (c. ... The Gupta Empire in 400 CE (not including vassal states) The Gupta Empire was one of the largest political and military empires in ancient India. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...

Campaigns against foreign tribes

According to the Brihat-Katha-Manjari of the Kshmendra, king Vikramaditya (Chandragupta II) had "unburdened the sacred earth of the Barbarians like the Shakas, Mlecchas, Kambojas, Yavanas, Tusharas, Parasikas, Hunas, etc. by annihilating these sinners completely." // Barbarian is a perjorative term for an uncivilized, uncultured person, either in a general reference to a member of a nation or ethnos perceived as having an inferior level of civilization, or in an individual reference to a brutal, cruel, insensitive person whose behaviour is unacceptable in the purportedly civilized... Only known drawing of Shaka standing with the long throwing assegai and the heavy shield in 1824 - four years before his death Shaka (sometimes spelled Tshaka, Tchaka or Chaka; ca. ... Mleccha (from Sanskrit म्लेच्छ mleccha, meaning non-Aryan, barbarian) is an Indian derogatory term for foreigners or people who do not speak Sanskrit and do not conform with conventional Hindu beliefs and practices. ... Look up Kamboja in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Yona, Yonaka or Yavana is a Pali word used in ancient India to designate Greeks. ... ... For the Indian Hunas see Hephthalite Huna is the name that spiritualist entrepreneur Max Freedom Long gave his version of Hawaiian spiritualism. ...


Sources

  • R. K. Mookerji, The Gupta Empire, 4th edition. Motilal Banarsidass, 1959.
  • R. C. Majumdar, Ancient India, 6th revised edition. Motilal Banarsidass, 1971.
  • Hermann Kulke and Dietmar Rothermund, A History of India, 2nd edition. Rupa and Co, 1991.

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Gupta Empire (557 words)
Chandragupta is the first of the Guptas to be referred to as `Maharajadhiraja' or `King of Kings'.
Chandragupta died in 335 and was succeeded by his son Samudragupta, a tireless conquerer.
Chandragupta II was succeeded by his son Kumaragupta[?].
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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