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Encyclopedia > Chandrabhanu

There were numerous Malay kingdoms in the 2nd and 3rd century CE—as many as 30 according to Chinese sources. Kedah—known as Kedaram or Kataha, in ancient Pallava or Sanskrit—was in the direct route of invasions of Indian traders and kings. Rajendra Chola, who is now thought to have laid Kota Gelanggi to waste, put Kedah to heel in 1025 but his successor, Vir Rajendra Chola, had to put down a Kedah rebellion to overthrow the invaders. The coming of the Chola reduced the majesty of Srivijaya which had exerted influence over Kedah and Pattani and even as far as Ligor. The Pallava kingdom (Tamil: பல்லவர்) was an ancient South Indian kingdom. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Rajendra Chola I was the son of Rajaraja Chola I, the great Chola king of South India. ... The Chola Dynasty (Tamil: , IPA: ) was a Tamil dynasty that ruled primarily in southern India until the 13th century. ... Kota Gelanggi or Perbendaharaan Permata (Treasury of Jewels in Malay language) is an archaeological site that is believed to be the first capital of the Srivijaya empire dating back to 650. ...


The Buddhist kingdom of Ligor took control of Kedah shortly after, and its King Chandrabhanu used it as a base to attack Sri Lanka in the 11th century, an event noted in a stone inscription in Nagapattinum in Tamil Nadu and in the Sri Lankan chronicles, Mahavamsa. During the first millennium, the people of the Malay peninsula adopted Hinduism and Buddhism and the use of the Sanskrit language until they eventually converted to Islam, but not before Hinduism, Buddhism and Sanskrit became embedded into the Malay worldview. Traces of the influences in political ideas, social structure, rituals, language, arts and cultural practices still can be seen to this day. Nakhon Si Thammarat (Thai นครศรีธรรมราช) is a town in southern Thailand, capital of the Nakhon Si Thammarat province. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... The Mahavansha, also Mahawansha, (Pāli: great chronicle) is a historical record, often thought to be the oldest written record oh history, written in the Pāli language, of the Buddhist kings as well as Dravidian kings of Sri Lanka. ...


There are reports of other areas older than Kedah—the ancient kingdom of Gangganegara, around Bruas in Perak, for instance, pushes Malaysian history even further into antiquity. If that is not enough, a Tamil poem, Pattinapaalai, of the second century CE, describes goods from Kadaram heaped in the broad streets of the Chola capital; a seventh century Sanskrit drama, Kaumudhimahotsva, refers to Kedah as Kataha-nagari. The Agnipurana also mentions a territory known Anda-Kataha with one of its boundaries delineated by a peak, which scholars believe is Gunong Jerai. Stories from the Katasaritasagaram describe the elegance of life in Kataha.


Chandrabhanu was recorded by the Mahawamsa, the historic chronicle of Sri Lanka to have been a Malay chief who invaded Sri Lanka twice once with poison dart blowing Malay soldiers and then he invaded Sri Lanka yet again with the help of Tamil mercenaries from South India. According to Mahawamsa Tambralinga was his country. Taking advantage of Sinhalese weakness, the Tamils secured control of the valuable pearl fisheries around Jaffna Peninsula. During this time, the vast stretches of jungle that cover north-central Sri Lanka separated the Tamils and the Sinhalese. This geographical separation had important psychological and cultural implications. The Tamils in the north developed a more distinct and confident culture, backed by a resurgent Hinduism that looked to the traditions of southern India for its inspiration. Conversely, the Sinhalese were increasingly restricted to the southern and central area of the island and were fearful of the more numerous Tamils on the Indian mainland. The fact that the Hindu kingdom at Jaffna was expending most of its military resources resisting the advances of the expansionist Vijayanagara Empire (1336-1565) in India enhanced the Sinhalese ability to resist further Tamil encroachments. Some historians maintain that it was the arrival of the Portuguese in the sixteenth century that prevented the island from being overrun by south Indians. The Mahavamsa, also Mahawamsa, (Pāli: great chronicle) is a historical record, written in the Pāli language, of the Buddhist kings of Sri Lanka. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Languages Tamil Religions Hinduism, Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, Jainism Related ethnic groups Dravidian people Brahui people Kannadigas Malayalis Tamils Telugus Tuluvas Gonds The Tamil people are a multi-ethnic group from the Indian subcontinent with a recorded history going back more than two millennia. ... The geographical south of India includes all Indian territory below the 20th parallel. ... Location of Malayu peninsula Tambralinga is one part of Thai history. ...


Foreign rulers took advantage of the disturbed political state of the Sinhalese kingdom, Chandrabhanu, a Buddhist king from Malaya, invaded the island twice. He attempted to seize the two most sacred relics of the Buddha in Sinhalese custody, the Tooth Relic and the Alms Bowl. Chandrabhanu invaded Pollonaruwa twice. His first invasion took place from Trincomalee. king Vijayabahu escaped by running and hiding in Kandy. Chandrabhanu withdrew and settled in Jaffna. He brought mercinaries from Tamil Nadu and attacked Pollonaruwa for a second time. Vijayabahu escaped a second time and established a new capital in Kotte. Chandrabhanu ruled Jaffna for 30 years till his death and eventually his son took over. His son was not popular with Tamils. Arya Chakravarthi, a Pandyan King from Rameshwaram, wanted to replace him. They invaded Jaffna and killed him in a war. Lankan King gave a tacit approval for the new rulers.

Contents

Early History of Kedah

Early contact between the kingdoms of Tamilakkam and the Malay peninsula had been very close during the regimes of the Pallava Kings (from the 4th to the 9th Century C.E.) and Chola kings (from the 9th to the 13th Century C.E.). The trade relations the Tamil merchants had with the ports of Malaya led to the emergence of Indianized kingdoms like Kadaram (Old Kedah), Langkasugam,[1] Funan, and Champa.[2] Furthermore, Chola king Rajendra Chola I sent an expedition to Kadaram (Sri Vijaya) during the 11th century conquering that country on behalf of one of its rulers who sought his protection and to have established him on the throne. Map of early Sea Trade Route (in red) and the Early transpeninsula routeways of Malay Peninsula. ... (Tamil தமிழகம்) is a Tamil word meaning the Tamil country or the Tamil home. ... The Pallava kingdom (Tamil: பல்லவர்) was an ancient South Indian kingdom. ... The Cholas were a South Indian Tamil dynasty, antedating the early Sangam literature (c. ... Map of Peninsular Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia (Malay: Semenanjung Malaysia) is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula, and shares a land border with Thailand in the north. ... Bujang Valley (Lembah Bujang) The Bujang Valley or Lembah Bujang is a sprawling historical complex and has an area of approximately 224 square km. ... Langkasuka (-langkha Sanskrit for resplendent land -sukkha of bliss) was apparently the oldest kingdom on the Malay peninsula. ... Tây Sơn Dynasty (1778–1802) Nguyễn Dynasty (1802–1945) French Indochina (1887–1954) Empire of Vietnam (1945) North-South Division During The Indochina Wars (1945–1975) Democratic Republic of Vietnam State of Vietnam Republic of Vietnam Republic of South Vietnam Socialist Republic of Vietnam (from 1976) List... South East Asia circa 1100 C.E. Champa territory in green. ... The Cholas were the most famous of the three dynasties that ruled ancient Tamil Nadu. ... Rajendra Chola I was the son of Rajaraja Chola I, the great Chola king of South India. ... Srivijaya (-jaya meaning success or excellence) was an ancient kingdom on the island of Sumatra which was to influence much of the Malay Archipelago. ...


The Cholas had a powerful merchant and naval fleet in the Indian Ocean and the Bay of Bengal. Three kinds of craft are distinguished by the author of the Periplus – light coasting boats for local traffic, larger vessels of a more complicated structure and greater carrying capacity, and lastly the big ocean-going vessels that made the voyages to Malaya, Sumatra, and the Ganges.[3] The Cholas were a South Indian Tamil dynasty, antedating the early Sangam literature (c. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Merchant Marine. ... A rare occurance of a 5-country multinational fleet, during Operation Enduring Freedom in the Oman Sea. ... Look up Bay of Bengal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Map of Peninsular Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia (Malay: Semenanjung Malaysia) is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula, and shares a land border with Thailand in the north. ... Sumatra (also spelled Sumatera) is the sixth largest island in the world (approximately 470,000 km²) and is the largest island entirely in Indonesia (two larger islands, Borneo and New Guinea, are partially in Indonesia). ... “Ganga” redirects here. ...


In ancient Kedah there is an important and unmistakably Hindu settlement which has been known for about a century now from the discoveries reported 1840s by Col. James Low and has recently been subjected to a fairly exhaustive investigation by Dr. Quaritch Wales. Dr. Wales investigated no fewer than thirty sites round about Kedah. The results attained show that this site was in continuous occupation by people who came under strong South Indian influences, Buddhist and Hindu, for centuries.[4] Bujang Valley (Lembah Bujang) The Bujang Valley or Lembah Bujang is a sprawling historical complex and has an area of approximately 224 square km. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... State anthem: Allah Selamatkan Sultan Mahkota Capital Alor Star Royal capital Anak Bukit Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Sultan Tuanku Abdul Halim  - Menteri Besar Mahdzir Khalid History    - British control 1909   - Japanese occupation 1942   - Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948  Area  - Total 9,426 km² Population  - 2003 estimate 1,778,188  - Density... South India is a geographic and linguistic-cultural region of India. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ...


An inscribed stone bar, rectangular in shape, bears the ye-dharmma formula in South Indian characters of the fourth century A.D., thus proclaiming the Budhist character of the shrine near the find-spot (site I) of which only the basement survives. It is inscribed on three faces in Pallava script, or Vatteluttu rounded writing of the sixth century A.D., possibly earlier.[2] One of the early inscription stones discovered by James Low, at Bukit Meriam and in Muda River, mention of Raktamrrtika. The word Raktamrrtika means ‘Red Earth’ (Tanah Merah). An example of the Vatteluttu script from an inscription by Rajaraja Chola I at the Brihadisvara temple in Thanjavur. ... An example of the Vatteluttu script from an inscription by Rajaraja Chola I at the Brihadisvara temple in Thanjavur. ... Map of Transpeninsula routeways Original copy of the 7th century Chinese Sui Dynasty annals of Chi Tu Kingdom (Chinese: 赤土国) - Chapter 82, biographies 47 Chi Tu (Malay: Tanah Merah) is an ancient kingdom mentioned in the history of China. ...


Inscriptions, both in Tamil and Sanskrit, relate to the activities of the people and rulers of the Tamil country of South India. The Tamil inscriptions are at least 4 centuries posterior to the Sanskrit inscriptions, from which the early Tamils themselves were patronizers of the Sanskrit language.[5] Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... (Tamil தமிழகம்) is a Tamil word meaning the Tamil country or the Tamil home. ... The geographical south of India includes all Indian territory below the 20th parallel. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ...


In Kedah an inscription in Sanskrit dated 1086 A.D. has been found. This was left by Kulothunka Cholan I (of the Chola empire, Tamil country). This too shows the commercial contacts the Chola Empire had with Malaya.[5] State anthem: Allah Selamatkan Sultan Mahkota Capital Alor Star Royal capital Anak Bukit Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Sultan Tuanku Abdul Halim  - Menteri Besar Mahdzir Khalid History    - British control 1909   - Japanese occupation 1942   - Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948  Area  - Total 9,426 km² Population  - 2003 estimate 1,778,188  - Density... The Cholas were the most famous of the three dynasties that ruled ancient Tamil Nadu. ... (Tamil தமிழகம்) is a Tamil word meaning the Tamil country or the Tamil home. ...


Yazhpanam Kingdom before and after Chandrabhanu

Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan was a Pandyan king who ruled the Pandyan kingdom with Madurai as his capital, from 1251 to 1268. He succeeded Maravarman Sundara Pandyan. It was the time when the might of the Medivial Cholas was fading away and the Muslim invasion of South India had begun. Jatavarman started from a well laid platform for an empire by his predecessor Maravarman. Jatavarman is considered one of the most famous warriors and conquerors of South India. During his reign the medivial Pandyan kingdom attained its greatest splendour. It extended to the river Krishna in the north and the whole of island of Ceylon in the south. The tone of this article is inappropriate for an encyclopedia article. ...


Between 1262 and 1264, on an appeal from a Ceylon minister Jatavarman Vira Pandyan, a prince invaded the island, defeated and killed another. He also received submission of a son of Chandrabhanu of the Malay peninsula who ruled over parts of northern Ceylon.


Currently Tambralinga is located at Nakhon Sri Thammarat' is the second-largest city in the south of Thailand (and is located in a province of the same name. The town was formerly know as Ligor, the capital of the ancient Langkasuka kingdom in the 2nd century A.D. Additionally, it was a bustling Srivijaya center as far back as the 13th century. Location of Malayu peninsula Tambralinga is one part of Thai history. ... A prominent mosque of Nakhon Sri Thammarat. ... Nakhon Si Thammarat (often in short Nakhon, Thai นครศรีธรรมราช) is one of the southern provinces (changwat) of Thailand, at the eastern shore of the Gulf of Thailand. ... Langkasuka (-langkha Sanskrit for resplendent land -sukkha of bliss) was apparently the oldest kingdom on the Malay peninsula. ... The 2nd century is the period from 101 - 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Map of Southeast Asia at end of 12th century. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ...


Kediri was a Hindu kingdom based in East Java from 1045 to 1221. Most probably all the army of Chandrabhanu came from Kedaram or Kedah in Malaysia as it was a Tamil-Hindu Javanese Kingdom in essence and the army was a Tamil-Javanese hybrid army from Indonesia. The Yazh Tamils and Kandyan Sinhalese look alike Achenese or Balinese and their accent is very Javanese. Kediri was a Hindu kingdom based in East Java from 1045 to 1221. ... State anthem: Allah Selamatkan Sultan Mahkota Capital Alor Star Royal capital Anak Bukit Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Sultan Tuanku Abdul Halim  - Menteri Besar Mahdzir Khalid History    - British control 1909   - Japanese occupation 1942   - Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948  Area  - Total 9,426 km² Population  - 2003 estimate 1,778,188  - Density... State anthem: Allah Selamatkan Sultan Mahkota Capital Alor Star Royal capital Anak Bukit Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Sultan Tuanku Abdul Halim  - Menteri Besar Mahdzir Khalid History    - British control 1909   - Japanese occupation 1942   - Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948  Area  - Total 9,426 km² Population  - 2003 estimate 1,778,188  - Density... See: Bali, an Indonesian island Balinese language Balinese (people) Balinese (cat), a cat breed Balinese Gamelan, local music This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Javanese is a term used to describe a native of the Indonesian island of Java. ...


In 1045 Airlangga divided Kahuripan into two kingdoms, Janggala (based on contemporary Malang) and Kediri, abdicates in favour of his sons to live the life of an ascetic. He died four years later. In 1068, Virarajendra Chola, the Chola king of Coromandel or Tamil Nadu, conquered Kedah from Srivijaya. The Cholas continued a series of raids and conquests throughout what is now Indonesia and Malaysia for the next 20 years. Although the Chola invasion was ultimately unsuccessful, it gravely weakened the Srivijayan hegemony and enabled the formation of regional kingdoms based, like Kediri, on agriculture rather than trade. Virarajendra Chola (1063 – 1070 C.E.) became the Chola king succeeding his brother Rajendra Chola II. Rajamahendra, Rajendra’s son and heir apparent died before his father and Rajendra made his younger brother Virarajendra his heir. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... State anthem: Allah Selamatkan Sultan Mahkota Capital Alor Star Royal capital Anak Bukit Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Sultan Tuanku Abdul Halim  - Menteri Besar Mahdzir Khalid History    - British control 1909   - Japanese occupation 1942   - Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948  Area  - Total 9,426 km² Population  - 2003 estimate 1,778,188  - Density... Map of Southeast Asia at end of 12th century. ... Srivijaya (-jaya meaning success or excellence) was an ancient kingdom on the island of Sumatra which was to influence much of the Malay Archipelago. ...


Vijayabahu, the Sinhala king, who had been ruling a tiny southern portion of the island around the Rohana district, sought to extend his power and expel the Chola occupier. Mahavamsa records that Virarajendra sent the Chola army stationed in the island to attack the Rohana district. Vijayabahu then sent for help from the king of Burma who sent ships and soldiers to assist Vijayabahu. With this help Vijayabahu succeeded in creating revolt in the northern provinces of Lanka. Although the Chola forces in the island and reinforcements sent from the mainland could control these revolts, Vijayabahu continued to create revolts and disturbances within the Chola occupied areas of the island for the next few years. The Mahavansha, also Mahawansha, (Pāli: great chronicle) is a historical record, often thought to be the oldest written record oh history, written in the Pāli language, of the Buddhist kings as well as Dravidian kings of Sri Lanka. ...


Before during and after the Chola period the Tamils of Yazhpanam became increasingly conscious of their ethnicity, which they sought to assert in terms of culture and religion. Thus the Tamils of Yazhpanam became sources of support for South Indian invaders. Mudaliyar Rasanayagam maintains that from fourth century AD to eighth century AD there were Kings in Jaffna who ruled independently during some periods and at other times under the Kings in Anuradhapura. He also states that from the eighth century AD Kalinga King Ukkirasingan and his descendants ruled some times independently and at other times under the Cholas. The historical validity of these statements remains to be confirmed.


Thirteenth century was the period of Pandyan revival in South India. Under the Pandyan king Maravarman Kulasekharan (AD 1268 - AD 1308) armies were led by one Arya Chakaravarthi who conquered the Sinhalese armies and brought the tooth relic of the Buddha from Ceylon to Madurai. The history around this period is confused by the only recorded South East Asian invasion by a petty King from Malay peninsula Chandrabhanu of Tambaralinga. He ruled for 30 years and after his death Pandyan invasion took place. Arya Chakaravarthi is a name of a dynasty of Hindu Kings of the Jaffna Kingdom in Sri Lanka. ... , Madurai   (Tamil: , IPA: ) is a city and a municipal corporation with a city population of 922,913 according to 2001 census. ...


However it is well known that Arya Chakaravarthi the leader of the Pandyan Army of invasion was installed as a ruler of Jaffna. When the Pandyan empire in turn collapsed as a result of Muslim inroads into South India, Jaffna became an independent Kingdom under Arya Chakaravarthi. Arya Chakaravarthi is a name of a dynasty of Hindu Kings of the Jaffna Kingdom in Sri Lanka. ... Arya Chakaravarthi is a name of a dynasty of Hindu Kings of the Jaffna Kingdom in Sri Lanka. ...


In the early fifteenth century, the Ming dynasty Chinese interceded on behalf of King Parakramabahu VI (1412-67), an enlightened monarch who repulsed an invasion from the polity of Vijayanagara in southern India, reunited Sri Lanka, and earned renown as a patron of Buddhism and the arts. Parakramabahu VI was the last Sinhalese king to rule the entire island. Vijayanagara (Kannada: ವಿಜಯನಗರ, English: ) is in Bellary District, northern Karnataka. ...


Lanka under Siege

The peaceful and prosperous time under Parakramabahu was disturbed by the invasion of Chandrabhanu of Java. However, the king was able to expel the enemy and bring back the country to a stable status again. It is recorded that during a severe drought, the sacred Tooth Relic was taken out of the shrine and a great procession held. He placed the Relic on the throne and having worshipped the Relic for seven days, offered the kingdom to the sacred Tooth Relic, which resulted in the termination of the drought. This incident indicates the esteem that the sacred Tooth Relic enjoyed as a symbol of kingship.


Even during the lifetime of Parakramabahu II, his son Vijayabahu as sub-king, renovated and enlarged the Relic shrine and conducted great ritual services. As the chronicle records, he restored the ruined religious edifices at Polonnaruva, including the Tooth Relic shrine and having placed the Tooth Relic therein, conducted an abhiseka (coronation) ceremony.


Yapahuva (ancient Subha-pabbata) comes into prominence around this time with the appointment of his brother Bhuvanekabahu as the sub-ruler of this province. This location, simulating the well known Sigiriya rock fortress, found itself to be a very secure place for the Relics. However, Chadrabhanu of Java invaded the country for the second time and after defeating the local sub-ruler at Yapahuva, demanded the Tooth Relic from Vijayabahu of Dambadeniya. Yet, the Sri Lankan ruler was able to defeat him and bring peace to the island again. See: lakdiva.org


Place names in Jaffna

In the local Tamil language, all South East Asians are known as Javar or Javanese. There are number of place names in the Jaffna peninsula which pertains to its South East Asian connections. The name "Jaffna" itself is regarded by some historians to mean "Java" patuna, while other interpretations have also been given. See Place names in North and East of Sri Lanka. Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... Javanese is a term used to describe a native of the Indonesian island of Java. ... Jaffna District. ... Location of Sri Lanka Many Place Names in the Northern and Eastern provinces of Sri Lanka with Tamil sounding names appear to have etymologies originating in the Sinhala language. ...

  • Chavakacheri -> Javanese Settlement
  • Chavahakottai -> Javanese Fort

There are several other names found in Indonesia and Malaya, also seen around eastern Sri lanka. Javanese culture has spread even to infuse Madagascar's heritage in the west, as well as Amban, Mandan, Aru Islands, Banda Sea, Pahlawan, and Seram, and the 13000 islands of Indonesia, as well as parts of Sri Lanka. The present-day "Malays" in Sri Lanka regard themselves as descendants of Javanese people who settled down in the country in ancient times, as well as the Javanese who came in the days of the Dutch East India company which ruled Indonesia, maritime Sri Lanka and other parts of south asia (VOC). See [ http://infolanka.com/org/srilanka/hist/hist20.html Malays]. shops were closed for holiday Chavakacheri (Tamilசாவகச்சேரி) is a small town in the Jaffna peninsula of Sri Lanka which has been badly devastated in the Sri Lankan civil war. ... VOC is a three-letter abbreviation with multiple meanings, as described below: A historic trade organization (Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie); see Dutch East India Company A group of chemical compounds; see Volatile Organic Compounds Vehicle operating costs Voice of the customer Creative Voice file, a proprietary audio format developed by Creative...


Implications of Chandrabhanu and his Invasion

Anuradhapura was the most suitable place for a capital of Sri Lanka as that was the geographical center of Sri Lanka (closer to Dambulla which is the most probable geographical center). As the Tamil (Pandyan and Chola) kings have to make their 18 miles crossing of Adam's Bridge and walk over only a few more miles to capture Anuradhapura. Pollonaruwa or Sigiriya seems to be a better place as a capital since there is more time to get ready for an Indian invasion. Pollonaruwa is closer to Chinese, Javanese or Malay invasion as seen by the attacks of Chandrabhanu and Cheng Ho. Anuradhapura, ( in Sinhala), is one of the ancient capitals of Sri Lanka, world famous for its well preserved ruins of the Great Sri Lankan Civilization. ... The city of Dambulla is situated in the Central Province of Sri Lanka, the city is situated 148 km east of Colombo and 72 km north of Kandy. ... The Pandyan kingdom பாண்டியர் was an ancient Tamil state in South India of unknown antiquity. ... The Cholas were the most famous of the three dynasties that ruled ancient Tamil Nadu. ... Sigiriya is an archeological site in Central Sri Lanka. ... Zheng He (Traditional Chinese:鄭和, Simplified Chinese: 郑和 , Hanyu Pinyin: Zhèng Hé, Wade_Giles: Cheng Ho) (1371 - Chinese mariner and explorer, made the voyages collectively referred to as the Eunuch Sanbao to the Western Ocean (三保太監下西洋) or Zheng He to the Western...


By attacking Pollonaruwa on a constant basis Javanese and Chinese made the Sinhala king to relocate his capital to Kotte. As such Chandrabhanu pushed the Sinhalese capital to go further down South. Kotte is a few miles from the western seaboard and thus became an easy target for any naval power like Portugal, Holland or England. , District Government  - Mayor Swarnalatha Silva (Sri Lanka Freedom Party) Area  - City 17 km²  (6. ...


Soon the Pandyan kings started attacking Kotte as it was very near to Korkai. After Vijayabahu the Tamil kings started ruling Kotte. Alahakonara or Alahakone was a Tamil name and some how he was ruling Kotte and Arya Chakaravarthi was attacking Kotte. The Pandyan kingdom பாண்டியர் was an ancient Tamil state in South India of unknown antiquity. ... Korkai is a small village in the Srivaikuntam taluk of Thoothukudi district in Tamil Nadu, India. ... Arya Chakaravarthi is a name of a dynasty of Hindu Kings of the Jaffna Kingdom in Sri Lanka. ...


The only Sinhala king is then left in Kandy. Thus rest of the country became a colony ruled by all kind of foreigners. Thus when the Portuguese came Ceylon became an easy prey.


The Portuguese colonialism was harsh and were liberated by the Dutch invasion in collaboration with the Ceylonese. With the Napoleonic Wars Ceylon became a part of England as the Dutch king had no other choice. Making Kotte as the capital of Ceylon made the country a colony for the next 500 years. Ceylon became a country which was constantly under imperialism.


This had a domino effect on India. The neighboring Hindu kingdoms in India were weakened and run over initially by the Muslims and then by the Imperialism.


See also

Jaffna Kingdom The remains of the facade of a Dutch building. ...


Sinhala place-names The Place Names in the North and Eastern province(s) of Sri Lanka contain many Tamil sounding names whose etymologies lead to Sinhala language. ...


References

  1. ^ International Tamil Language Foundation (2000). The Handbook of Tamil Culture and Heritage. Chicago: International Tamil Language Foundation, p. 877. 
  2. ^ a b Sastri, K.A. Nilakanta (1949). South Indian Influences in the Far East. Bombay: Hind Kitab Ltd., pp. 28 & 48. 
  3. ^ Sastri, K.A. Nilakanta [1935] (2000). Cholas, fifth printing, Chennai: University of Madras, pp. 86 & 318. 
  4. ^ Sastri, K.A. Nilakanta (1949). South Indian Influences in the Far East. Bombay: Hind Kitabs Ltd., p. 82 & 84. 
  5. ^ a b Arokiaswamy, Celine W.M. (2000). Tamil Influences in Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines, p. 41. 

 
 

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