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Encyclopedia > Chandigarh
  ?Chandigarh
India
Nickname: City Beautiful
The Open Hand Monument
The Open Hand Monument
Coordinates: 30°45′N 76°47′E / 30.75, 76.78
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
Area
Elevation
114 km² (44 sq mi)
• 350 m (1,148 ft)
Capital Chandigarh
Largest city Chandigarh
District(s) 1
Population
Density
900,635[1] (29)
• 7,900 /km² (20,461 /sq mi)
Language(s) Punjabi, Hindi, English
Established 1966
Codes
Telephone

• +172
ISO abbreviation IN-CH
The city of Chandigarh comprises all of the union territory's area.
Seal of Chandigarh
Seal of Chandigarh

Coordinates: 30°45′N 76°47′E / 30.75, 76.78 Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Locator_Dot. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Location of Mirzapur and the 82. ... The geography of India is diverse, with landscape ranging from snow-capped mountain ranges to deserts, plains, rainforests, hills, and plateaus. ... Elevation histogram of the surface of the Earth – approximately 71% of the Earths surface is covered with water. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude and geographical regions, we list here areas between 100 km² and 1000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... Andhra Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Assam Bihar Chhattisgarh National Capital Territory of Delhi Goa Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu and Kashmir Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu Tripura Uttarakhand Uttar Pradesh West Bengal Andaman and Nicobar Islands Chandigarh Dadra and Nagar... The divisions of a district. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Andhra Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Assam Bihar Chhattisgarh National Capital Territory of Delhi Goa Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu and Kashmir Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu Tripura Uttarakhand Uttar Pradesh West Bengal Andaman and Nicobar Islands Chandigarh Dadra and Nagar... -1... Punjabi redirects here. ... Hindi (हिन्दी) is a language spoken mainly in North and Central India. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For the past decade or so, telecommunication activities have gained momentum in India. ... ISO 3166-2 is the second part of the ISO 3166 standard. ... ISO 3166-2 for India (ISO 3166-1 : IN) The purpose of this family of standards is to establish a worldwide series of short abbreviations for places, for use on package labels, containers and such. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


Chandigarh,Chandigarh.ogg  (Punjabi: ਚੰਡੀਗੜ੍ਹ, Hindi: चंडीगढ़) also called City Beautiful, is a city in India that serves as the capital of two states, Punjab and Haryana, and is a union territory of India. The name translates from Hindi to English as "the fort of Chandi", Chandi being a Hindu Goddess. Image File history File links Chandigarh. ... Punjabi redirects here. ... Hindi (हिन्दी) is a language spoken mainly in North and Central India. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... India is a federal republic comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. ... This article details the Indian state of Punjab. ... For the town in Hoshiarpur district, see Hariana. ... A Union Territory is an administrative division of India. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Known internationally for its architecture and urban planning, Chandigarh is home to numerous architectural projects of Le Corbusier, Pierre Jeanneret, Matthew Nowicki, and Albert Mayer. The city boasts a high standard of living with the highest per capita income in the country and tops the list of Indian States and Union Territories with a Human Development Index of 0.674.[2] Charles-Édouard Jeanneret-Gris, who chose to be known as Le Corbusier (October 6, 1887 – August 27, 1965), was a Swiss-born architect, designer, urbanist, writer and also painter, who is famous for his contributions to what now is called Modern Architecture. ... Pierre Jeanneret (1896-1967) was a Swiss architect who collaborated with his more famous cousin Charles Edouard Jeanneret (who assumed the pseudonym Le Corbusier) for about twenty years. ... India is subdivided into 28 states, 6 union territories and a national capital territory. ... A union territory is an administrative division of India. ...

Contents

History

The Rock Garden, Chandigarh. One of many scenic spots in Chandigarh.

After the partition of British India into the two nations of India and Pakistan in 1947, the region of Punjab was also split between India and Pakistan. The Indian state of Punjab required a new capital city to replace Lahore, which became part of Pakistan during the partition. After several plans to make additions to existing cities were found to be infeasible for various reasons, the decision to construct a new and planned city was undertaken. The city derives its name from Chandi Mandir, a temple of goddess Chandi, located in nearby Panchkula District of Haryana. The word Chandigarh literally means "the fort of Chandi". Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (600x800, 142 KB) Summary http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (600x800, 142 KB) Summary http://www. ... Nek Chand Saini is an Indian self-taught artist, famous for building the Rock Garden of Chandigarh, a forty-acre (160,000 m²) sculpture garden in the city of Chandigarh, India. ... This article is under construction. ... Anthem God Save The Queen/King British India, circa 1860 Capital Calcutta (1858-1912), New Delhi (1912-1947) Language(s) Hindi, Urdu, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1877-1901 Victoria  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - January-December 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... Location: 15 kms from the city on the Chandigarh - Kalka road Dedicated to: Chandi, the goddess of power Chandigarh chandi mandir is a very famous temple located at a distance of about 15 kms from the city of gardens. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Panchkula is the newly formed 17th district of Haryana State in India. ...


Of all the new town schemes in independent India, the Chandigarh project quickly assumed prime significance, because of the city's strategic location as well as Jawaharlal Nehru's (the first Prime Minister of independent India) personal interest in it. Commissioned by Nehru to reflect the new nation's modern, progressive outlook, Nehru famously proclaimed Chandigarh to be "unfettered by the traditions of the past, a symbol of the nation's faith in the future." Several buildings and layouts in Chandigarh were designed by the Swiss-born French architect and planner, Le Corbusier, in the 1950s. Le Corbusier was in fact the second architect of the city, after the initial master plan was prepared by the American architect-planner Albert Mayer who was working with the Polish-born architect Matthew Nowicki. It was only after Nowicki's untimely death in 1950 that Le Corbusier was pulled into the project. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru (Hindi: , IPA: (November 14, 1889 – May 27, 1964) was a major political leader of the Congress Party, a pivotal figure in the Indian independence movement and the first Prime Minister of independent India. ... Swiss may be: Related to Switzerland: the Swiss Confederation Swiss people Swiss cheese Swiss corporations Switzerland-related topics Named Swiss: Swiss, Missouri Swiss, North Carolina Swiss, West Virginia Swiss, Wisconsin Swiss International Air Lines Swiss Re SWiSS is also used as a disparaging nickname for the Socialist Workers Student Society. ... For other uses, see Architect (disambiguation). ... Urban planning is concerned with the ordering and design of settlements, from the smallest towns to the worlds largest cities. ... Charles-Édouard Jeanneret-Gris, who chose to be known as Le Corbusier (October 6, 1887 – August 27, 1965), was a Swiss-born architect, designer, urbanist, writer and also painter, who is famous for his contributions to what now is called Modern Architecture. ...


On 1 November 1966, the newly-formed Indian state of Haryana was carved out of the eastern portion of the Punjab, in order to create Haryana as a majority Hindi speaking state, while the western portion of Punjab retained a mostly Punjabi-speaking majority and remained as the current day Punjab. However, the city of Chandigarh was on the border, and was thus created into a union territory to serve as capital of both these states. Chandigarh was due to be transferred to Punjab in 1986, in accordance with an agreement signed in August 1985 by Rajiv Gandhi, the Prime Minister of India at that time, with Sant Harchand Singh Longowal of the Akali Dal. This was to be accompanied by the creation of a new capital for Haryana, but the transfer has been delayed pending an agreement on which some villages in southern districts of Punjab, should be transferred to Haryana in exchange and punjabi speaking parts of Haryana such as Jind, Sirsa, Fatehabad, Ambala etc. and Ganganagar of Rajasthan should be transferred to Punjab. is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... For the town in Hoshiarpur district, see Hariana. ... -1... Punjabi (also Panjabi; in Gurmukhī, Panjābī in Shāhmukhī) is the language of the Punjab regions of India and Pakistan. ... , This article is about the Indian state of Punjab. ... A Union Territory is an administrative division of India. ... Rajiv Ratna Gandhi राजीव गाधीं (IPA: ), born in Mumbai, (August 20, 1944 – May 21, 1991), the eldest son of Indira and Feroze Gandhi, was the 7th Prime Minister of India (and the 2nd from the Gandhi family) from his mothers death on 31 October 1984 until his resignation on December 2... Akali Dal, also termed as Shiromani Akali Dal, is a Sikh political party mainly based in India. ...


On 15 July 2007, Chandigarh became the first Indian city to go smoke-free[citation needed]. Smoking at public places has been strictly prohibited and considered as a punishable act by Chandigarh Administration. is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


The other planned cities in India: Lutyen's New Delhi, Bhubaneshwar in Orissa, Gandhinagar in Gujrat and Navi Mumbai in Maharashtra, were built close to existing old cities (Delhi, Cuttack, Ahmedabad and Mumbai respectively). Edwin Lutyens Sir Edwin Landseer Lutyens, OM, KCIE, PRA (29 March 1869 – 1 January 1944) was a leading 20th century British architect who is known for imaginatively adapting traditional architectural styles to the requirements of his era. ... , This article is about the capital city of India. ... Bhubaneswarଭୂବନେଶ୍୊଒଍୅ଵର is the capital of the state of Orissa (ancient Kalinga). ... , Orissa   (Oriya: ଓଡ଼ିଶା), is a state situated on the east coast of India. ... Gandhinagar   (Gujarati: ગાંધીનગર, Hindi: गाँधीनगर) is the capital of Gujarat State, India. ... Gujrat (Urdu/Punjabi: گجرات) is a city in Pakistan and is the capital of Gujrat District and the Gujrat Tehsil subdivision in the Punjab Province[1]. A person living in Gujrat is called Gujrati. ... , Navi Mumbai (Marathi: नवी मुंबई, IAST: ), formerly known as New Bombay, is a twin city of Mumbai, India. ... , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA  , translation: Great Nation) is Indias third largest state in area and second largest in population after Uttar Pradesh. ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... , Cuttack   (Oriya: କଟକ ),(Hindi: कटक ) (derived from the Sanskrit word Kataka, which signifies a military camp or a fort or a Government seat protected by an army) is one of the oldest cities in India and the Business/Commerial Capital of Orissa. ... , Ahmedabad (Gujarati: , Hindi: अहमदाबाद ) is the largest city in the state of Gujarat and the seventh-largest urban agglomeration in India, with a population of 56 lakhs (5. ... , Bombay redirects here. ...


Geography

Sukhna Lake
Sukhna Lake

Chandigarh is located near the foothills of the Shivalik range of the Himalayas in Northwest India. It covers an area of approximately 114 km². and shares its borders with the states of Haryana in the south and Punjab in the north. The exact cartographic co-ordinates of Chandigarh are 30.74° N 76.79° E.[3] It has an average elevation of 321 metres (1053 feet). The Siwalik Hills (sometimes spelled Shiwalik, Shivalik, or Sivalik) are a sub-Himalayan mountain range running 1,600 km long from the Tista River, Sikkim, through Nepal and India, into northern Pakistan. ... Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ...


The surrounding districts are of Mohali and Ropar in Punjab and Panchkula in Haryana. The boundary of the state of Himachal Pradesh are not too far from its north. Chandigarh has a sub-tropical continental monsoon climate characterized by a seasonal rhythm: hot summers, slightly cold winters, unreliable rainfall and great variation in temperature (-1 °C to 46.5 °C). In winter, frost sometimes occurs during December and January. The average annual rainfall is 1110.7 mm. The city also receives occasional winter rains from the west.


Average temperature

  • Summer: The temperature in summer may rise to a maximum of 46.5°C. Temperatures generally remain between 35°C to 42°C.
  • Autumn: In autumn, the temperature may rise to a maximum of 36°C. Temperatures usually remain between 16° to 27° in autumn. The minimum temperature is around 13°C.
  • Winter: Winters are quite cool and it can sometimes get quite chilly in Chandigarh. Average temperatures in winter (November to February) remain at (max) 7°C to 20 °C and (min) -2°C to 5°C.
  • Spring: The climate remains quite pleasant during the spring season. Temperatures vary between (max) 16°C to 25°C and (min) 9°C to 18°C.

Architecture and urban planning

Le Corbusier's plan of modern Chandigarh

Taking over from Albert Mayer, Le Corbusier produced a plan for Chandigarh that conformed to the modernist city planning principles of CIAM, in terms of division of urban functions, an anthropomorphic plan form, and a hierarchy of road and pedestrian networks. Charles-Édouard Jeanneret-Gris, who chose to be known as Le Corbusier (October 6, 1887 – August 27, 1965), was a Swiss-born architect, designer, urbanist, writer and also painter, who is famous for his contributions to what now is called Modern Architecture. ... Charles-Édouard Jeanneret-Gris, who chose to be known as Le Corbusier (October 6, 1887 – August 27, 1965), was a Swiss-born architect, designer, urbanist, writer and also painter, who is famous for his contributions to what now is called Modern Architecture. ... For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ... The Congrès International dArchitecture Moderne (CIAM) (or International Congress of Modern Architecture), founded in 1928 and disbanded in 1959, was the think tank of the modern movement (or international style) in architecture. ... 7th millennium BC anthropomorphized rocks, with slits for eyes, found in modern-day Israel. ...


This vision of Chandigarh, contained in the innumerable conceptual maps on the drawing board together with notes and sketches had to be translated into brick and mortar. Le Corbusier retained many of the seminal ideas of Mayer and Nowicki, like the basic framework of the master plan and its components: the Capitol, City Center, besides the University, Industrial area, and linear parkland. Even the neighborhood unit was retained as the basic module of planning. However, the curving outline of Mayer and Nowicki was reorganized into a mesh of rectangles, and the buildings were characterized by an "honesty of materials". Exposed brick and boulder stone masonry in its rough form produced unfinished concrete surfaces, in geometrical structures. This became the architectural form characteristic of Chandigarh, set amidst landscaped gardens and parks.


The initial plan had two phases: the first for a population of 150,000 and the second taking the total population to 500,000. Le Corbusier divided the city into units called "sectors", each representing a theoretically self-sufficient entity with space for living, working and leisure. The sectors were linked to each other by a road and path network developed along the line of the 7 Vs, or a hierarchy of seven types of circulation patterns. At the highest point in this network was the V1, the highways connecting the city to others, and at the lowest were the V7s, the streets leading to individual houses. Later a V8 was added: cycle and pedestrian paths.

The Palace Assembly, designed by Le Corbusier
The Palace Assembly, designed by Le Corbusier

The city plan is laid down in a grid pattern. The whole city has been divided into rectangular patterns, forming identical looking sectors, each sector measures 800 m x 1200 m. The sectors were to act as self-sufficient neighbourhoods, each with its own market, places of worship, schools and colleges - all within 10 minutes walking distance from within the sector. The original two phases of the plan delineated sectors from 1 to 47, with the exception of 13 (Number 13 is considered unlucky). The Assembly, the secretariat and the high court, all located in Sector - 1 are the three monumental buildings designed by Le Corbusier in which he showcased his architectural genius to the maximum. The city was to be surrounded by a 16 kilometer wide greenbelt that was to ensure that no development could take place in the immediate vicinity of the town, thus checking suburbs and urban sprawl. Charles-Édouard Jeanneret-Gris, who chose to be known as Le Corbusier (October 6, 1887 – August 27, 1965), was a Swiss-born architect, designer, urbanist, writer and also painter, who is famous for his contributions to what now is called Modern Architecture. ... The grid plan is a type of city plan in which streets run at right angles to each other, forming a grid. ... For other uses of the word Greenbelt, see Greenbelt (disambiguation). ...


While leaving the bulk of the city's architecture to other members of his team, Le Corbusier took responsibility for the overall master plan of the city, and the design of some of the major public buildings including the High Court, Assembly, Secretariat, the Museum and Art Gallery, School of Art and the Lake Club. Le Corbusier's most prominent building, the Court House, consists of the High court, which is literally higher than the other, eight lower courts. Most of the other housing was done by Le Corbusier's cousin Pierre Jeanneret, the English husband and wife team of Maxwell Fry and Jane Drew, along with a team of nine Indian architects -- M. N. Sharma, A. Ar. Prabhawalkar, B. P. Mathur, Piloo Moody, U. E. Chowdhury, N. S. Lamba, J. L. Malhotra, J. S. Dethe and Aditya Prakash. Pierre Jeanneret (1896-1967) was a Swiss architect who collaborated with his more famous cousin Charles Edouard Jeanneret (who assumed the pseudonym Le Corbusier) for about twenty years. ... Impington Village College Edwin Maxwell Fry, usually known as Maxwell Fry (born 2 August 1899; died 3 September 1987) was an English modernist architect. ...


The city in its final form, while not resembling his previous city projects like the Ville Contemporaine or the Ville Radieuse, was an important and iconic landmark in the history of town planning. It continues to be an object of interest for architects, planners, historians and social scientists. Chandigarh has two satellite cities: Panchkula and Mohali. Sometimes, the triangle of these three cities is collectively called the Chandigarh Tricity. City for three million inhabitants (1922) The Ville Contemporaine or Contemporary City was an unrealised project to house three million inhabitants designed by the French-Swiss architect Le Corbusier in 1922. ... This article is about artificial satellites. ... , Panchkula (Hindi: , Punjabi: ) is a planned city in Panchkula District, Haryana, India. ... , Mohali (Punjabi: , ) is a city adjacent to Chandigarh, 18th District in Punjab, India. ... The Union Territory of Chandigarh along with its two satellite cities - Panchkula and Mohali - is collectively called as the Chandigarh Tricity. ...


Chandigarh UT Administration

The Open Hand, the official logo of Chandigarh
The Open Hand, the official logo of Chandigarh

Chandigarh Administration is under the control of the Administrator who is appointed under the provisions of Art 239 of the Constitution. The administrative control of Chandigarh is under the Ministry of Home Affairs. The Governor of Punjab is the Administrator of Chandigarh. The Adviser to the Administrator, a very senior officer belonging to one of the All India Services, is second in command after the Administrator. He generally belongs to the AGMU cadre of the Indian Administrative Service. All India Services are the supreme civil administrative services of India. ...

The above three officers are from AGMU cadre or Punjab cadre or Haryana cadre of the All India Services. The Deputy Commissioner (DC) or District Magistrate (DM) or District Collector is the head of the revenue administration of an Indian district. ... The (IAS) is one of the three All India Services of the Government of India; other two services being the Indian Police Service (IPS) and the Indian Forest Service (IFS). ... A Superintendent of Police or Senior Superintendent of Police or Deputy Commissioner of Police is an officer belonging to the elite Indian Police Service. ... The Indian Police Service (IPS) is one of the three All India Services of the Government of India; other two services being the Indian Administrative Service (IAS) and the Indian Foreign Service (IFS). ... A Deputy Conservator of Forests or Divisional Forest Officer is an officer belonging to the elite Indian Forest Service. ... The Indian Forest Service (IFS) is one of the important All India Services of the Government of India. ... All India Services are the supreme civil administrative services of India. ...


Demographics

Hindu Temple on the outskirts of the city
Hindu Temple on the outskirts of the city

As of 2001 India census,[4] Chandigarh had a population of 900,635, making for a density of about 7900 persons per square kilometre. Males constitute 56% of the population and females 44%. The sex ratio is 777 females for every 1,000 males – which is the lowest in the country. Chandigarh has an average literacy rate of 73%, higher than the national average of 59.5%; with male literacy of 76% and female literacy of 68%. About 12% of the population is under 6 years of age. The main religions in Chandigarh are Hinduism (78.6%), Sikhism (16.1%), Islam (3.9%), and Christianity (0.8%).[5] Punjabi and Hindi are the main languages spoken in Chandigarh, but English is also quite prevalent. People speaking Tamil form the third biggest linguistic group in Chandigarh. (Census of India 1991). A small number of people also speak Urdu. However, the most common language for informal communication, especially among the youth of the city is a combination of Hindi and English. 2001 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and also: The International Year of the Volunteer The United Nations Year of Dialogue Among Civilizations Events January January 1 - A black monolith measuring approximately nine feet tall appears in Seattles Magnuson Park, placed by an anonymous... Image:1870 census Lindauer Weber 01. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ), founded on the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev and nine successive gurus in fifteenth century Northern India, is the fifth-largest religion in the world. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Punjabi redirects here. ... -1... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Tamil ( ; IPA: ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people, originating on the Indian subcontinent. ... The phrase Zaban-e Urdu-e Mualla written in Urdu Urdu () is an Indo-European language of the Indo-Aryan family that developed under Persian, Turkish, Arabic, Hindi, and Sanskrit influence in South Asia during the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire (1200-1800). ...


A significant percentage of the population of Chandigarh consists of people who had moved here from the neighboring states of Punjab, Haryana and Himachal Pradesh to fill up the large number of vacancies in various government departments that were established in Chandigarh.


Economy

The government is a major employer in Chandigarh with three governments having their base here. A significant percentage of Chandigarh’s population therefore consists of people who are either working for one of these governments or have retired from government service. For this reason, Chandigarh is often called a “Pensioner's Paradise”. There are about 15 medium to large industrial including two in the Public sector. In addition Chandigarh has over 2500 units are registered under small scale sector. The important industries are paper manufacturing, basic metals and alloys and machinery. Other industries are relating to food products, sanitary ware, auto parts, machine tools, pharmaceuticals and electrical appliances. Yet, with a Per Capita Income of Rs. 67,370, Chandigarh is the richest city in India.[6] Chandigarh's gross state domestic product for 2004 is estimated at $2.2 billion in current prices. Per capita income means how much each individual receives, in monetary terms, of the yearly income generated in their country. ...


Chandigarh has a well developed market and banking infrastructure. Nearly all the major banks in the country have registered their presence in Chandigarh. Most banks with a pan India presence have their zonal/regional offices present in Chandigarh. The Bank Square in Sector 17 in Chandigarh has a large presence of such offices all in one section of the commercial sector.


Three major trade promotion organizations have their offices in Chandigarh. These are: Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce & Industry, (FICCI) the PHD Chamber of Commerce and Industry (PHDCCI) and the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) which has its regional headquarters at Sector 31, Chandigarh. The Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) is a non-government, not-for-profit, industry led and industry managed organisation, playing a proactive role in India’s development process. ...

An IT Park in Chandigarh

The defence forces have a significant presence in Chandigarh, apart from the Indian Airforce base in Sector 31 and the nearby Cantonment in Chandimandir, the city is the base for sourcing supplies for the Leh Ladhak and Siachen region of defence operations. The Indian Air Force (भारतीय वायु सेना : Bharatiya Vayu Sena) is the air-arm of the Military of India and has the prime responsibility of conducting air-based warfare and securing Indian airspace. ... Chandimandir Cantonment is a cantonment located in Panchkula city of India. ...


Chandigarh IT Park (also Chandigarh Technology Park) is the city's attempt to break into the IT world. Chandigarh's infrastructure, proximity to Delhi, Punjab and Haryana, and the IT talent pool attracts IT businesses looking for office space in the area. Major Indian firms and multinational corporations including Second Foundation (India) Pvt Ltd. (Now Fidelity Information Services),FCS Software Solutions Ltd., Quark, Infosys, Dell, IDS Infotech Limited,Miracle Studios, Webart Softech, and Netsoft Informatics have offices in the city and it's suburbs. According to a recent Global Services Survey conducted by Cyber Media, Chandigarh is ranked 9th in the top 50 cities identified globally as ‘emerging outsourcing and IT services destinations.’[7] Information and communication technology spending in 2005 Information Technology (IT), as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA), is the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware. ... multinational corporation (or transnational corporation) (MNC/TNC) is a corporation or enterprise that manages production establishments or delivers services in at least two countries. ... Quark, Inc. ... Infosys Software Development Center in Pune. ... Dell Inc. ...


Rajiv Gandhi Chandigarh Technology Park (RGCTP), was conceived in 2001 by Chandigarh administration this was to promote and provide planned facilities to the IT companies and young entrepreneurs. Located in the foothills of Shivaliks, close to Sukhna lake.[8] The Department of Information Technology Chandigarh is this official department under Chandigarh administration dealing with IT policies and promotion of IT park.[9]


Education

Main article: List of educational institutions in Chandigarh
Gandhi Bhavan built by Pierre Jeanneret for Punjab University
Gandhi Bhavan built by Pierre Jeanneret for Punjab University

Chandigarh is known for its quality school education.[citation needed] The schools are affiliated to different types of school curricula. The colleges in Chandigarh include, DAV College (Sector 10), MCM DAV College (Sector 36), Government College for Girls (Sector 11 and 42), Government College for Men (Sector 11), Home Science College for Girls (Sector 10) , Guru Gobind Singh College (Sector 26), GGDSD College (Sector 32), Government Teacher Training College (Chandigarh, India) and Government Teacher Training College. There are model schools set up by the government in various sectors, originally aimed to cater the needs of each sector. It is a major study hub for students all over Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, J&K and Uttaranchal, and also for the students from South-East Asia. Pierre Jeanneret (1896-1967) was a Swiss architect who collaborated with his more famous cousin Charles Edouard Jeanneret (who assumed the pseudonym Le Corbusier) for about twenty years. ... Punjab University can refer to one of the following: In Pakistan: University of the Punjab, Lahore In India: Panjab University, Chandigarh This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... International Curriculum Schools The schools having IGCSE / IB Programme from Pre-primary to Grade 10 and IGCSE / IB from Grade 11 to Grade 12. ...


Chandigarh also houses many prominent institutes of higher learning, such as:

Punjab University Fine Art Museum
Punjab University Fine Art Museum

Some other notable institutes include: Punjab Engineering College (Hindi:पंजाब इंजिनियरिंग कॉलेज), or PEC for short, is Indias premier engineering institute located in the city of Chandigarh in North India. ... Punjab University (officially spelt as Panjab University) is one of the oldest reputed universities in north west India. ... Government Medical College and Hospital is a teaching hospital located in Sector 32, Chandigarh, India. ... University Institute of Engineering and Technology is an engineering college in the Panjab University campus offering degree courses in Biotechnology, Computer Science, Electronics, Mechanical, Information Technology and Electrical fields. ... Punjab University can refer to one of the following: In Pakistan: University of the Punjab, Lahore In India: Panjab University, Chandigarh This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ...

  • National Institute of Technical Teachers Training and Research (NITTTR)
  • Canadian Institute for International Studies
  • Indo Swiss Training Centre (CSIO), Sector 30

Also located in neighboring Mohali, Chandigarh College of Education for Women (CCEW),SASIITR, Chandigarh College of Pharmacy (CCP) and Chandigarh College of Hotel Management and Catering Technology (CCHM). The National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER) located in nearby Mohali is the first national level institute in pharmaceutical sciences with a proclaimed objective of becoming a center of excellence for advanced studies and research in pharmaceutical sciences. Chandigarh's satellite town of Mohali is home for Center for Development of Advanced Computing's northmost branch C-DAC Mohali that is engaged in research on state of the art topics including Telemedicine. Also, the Canadian Institute for International Studies (CIIS) offers Canadian and New Zealand post-secondary degrees and diplomas for Indian students.[10]


Transport

Punbus connects the city to other parts of Punjab
Punbus connects the city to other parts of Punjab

Chandigarh has the largest number of vehicles per capita.[11] Wide, well maintained roads and ample parking space all over the city, make it convenient to use private vehicles for local transport. , This article is about the Indian state of Punjab. ...


Public buses run by the Chandigarh Transport Undertaking (CTU), an undertaking of the Chandigarh Administration, provide local transport as well as inter-state transport services.[12]


The Chandigarh Traffic Police oversees the implementation of the traffic rules, and is widely credited for a fairly orderly traffic system. The Traffic Park in Sector 23 introduces children, rickshaw-pullers and new drivers to traffic safety.[13]


Rickshaws are common for traveling short distances, especially by school-going children, housewives and the elderly. Auto-rickshaws are limited, and most often ply to and from the ISBT. Most heavy traffic roads now have rickshaw lanes, which the rickshaw-pullers must adhere to compulsorily.


Chandigarh is well connected by road. The two main National Highways (NH) connecting Chandigarh with the rest of the country are: NH 22 (Ambala - Kalka - Shimla - Kinnaur) and NH 21 (Chandigarh - Leh). Chandigarh has two Inter-State Bus Terminus (ISBT), one for the North, East and South located in Sector 17, which has regular bus services to most major cites in Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, and Uttarakhand, as well as the national capital Delhi, which is about 240 km away. And a second in Sector 43 for the Western section, mainly Punjab, some parts of Himachal and Jammu and Kashmir. , Himachal Pradesh (Hindi: हिमाचल प्रदेश, IPA:  ) is a state in the north-west of India. ... , Uttarakhand (Hindi: उत्तराखण्ड or उत्तराखंड), is a state located in the northern part of India. ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ...


Chandigarh has a small railway station located about 10 km. away from the ISBT. Regular train connections are available to the national capital New Delhi and to some other junctions like Kalka, Ambala, Amritsar, Bhiwani, Howrah, Mumbai, Chennai, Trivandrum and Sri Ganganagar. Chandigarh also has a domestic airport located nearly 12 kilometers from the ISBT. Its name is Chandigarh Airport.Jet Airways, JetLite,Air India, and Kingfisher Airlines operate regular flights from Chandigarh to New Delhi and Mumbai. The airport is also negotiating with several airlines including SilkAir and Kingfisher for interntaional flights to Singapore and Bangkok, among other South East Asian countries [14] , This article is about the capital city of India. ... Kalka is an important town in Panchkula district of Haryana, India. ... , Ambala (Hindi: अम्बाला, Punjabi ਅੰਬਾਲਾ , Telugu: అంబాల ) is a city and a municipal council in Ambala district in the state of Haryana, India. ... , Amritsar (Punjabi: , Hindi: ), meaning: The Ocean of the Nectar of Immortality,[1] is the administrative headquarter of the Amritsar District in Punjab, India. ... , Bhiwani is a city and a municipal council in Bhiwani district in the state of Haryana, India. ... Howrah (also spelled Haora) is an industrial city in West Bengal, India. ... , Bombay redirects here. ... Madras redirects here. ... Indian Coffee House Thiruvananthapuram or Thiruvanathapuram (formerly known as Trivandrum) is the capital (population - 889,191 (2001)) of the state of Kerala, India. ... Ganganagar, also called Sri Ganganagar, is a city in Rajasthan state of western India. ... Chandigarh Airport (IATA: IXC, ICAO: VICG) is located in the Union Territory of Chandigarh, India. ... Jet Airways (India) Ltd. ... Air Sahara (Hindi: एअर सहारा) is an airline based in New Delhi, India. ... Air India (Hindi: ) is the national flag carrier of India with a worldwide network of passenger and cargo services. ... Kingfisher Airlines Limited is an airline based in Bangalore, India. ... SilkAir (Singapore) Private Limited is an airline based in Singapore. ...


In the near future, the city will also see a Metro Rail[15], and an international airport. They are both approved by the governments, and are now at the design step to finalize the project design.


Sporting venues

Football field in the city
Football field in the city
  • P.C.A (Punjab Cricket Accociation) Cricket Stadium, Mohali
  • Chandigarh Cricket Stadium, (Sector- 16)
  • Chandigarh Golf Club, Sector 6
  • Panchkula Golf Club, Sector 3
  • Hockey Stadium, Sector 42
  • Carrom Stadium (Chandigarh Carrom Association), St. Stephens School, Sec - 46
  • Roller Skating Rink, Sector 10
  • Badminton Hall, Sector 7
  • Swimming Pool Sector 23
  • Shooting Range, Patiali Rao
  • Athletic Club, Sector 7

, Mohali (Punjabi: , ) is a city adjacent to Chandigarh, 18th District in Punjab, India. ... Chandigarh Golf Club is an exclusive private members only golf club in Chandigarh, India. ...

Gardens

The winning flower from Rose Fest 2006
The winning flower from Rose Fest 2006
  • Rose Garden, Sector 16
  • Bougenvilla Garden, Sector 3
  • Japanese Garden, Sector 16
  • Topiary Garden, Sector 35
  • Fragrance Garden, Sector 36
  • Leisure Valley, Sector 10
  • Musical Fountain Park, Sector 33
  • Sukhna Lake Park, Sector 6
  • Cactus Garden, Panchkula
  • Rock Garden, Sector 1
  • Rajendra Park, Sector 1
  • Botanical Garden, Lahora Khuda
  • Bamboo Valley, Sector 23

Nek Chand Saini is an Indian self-taught artist, famous for building the Rock Garden of Chandigarh, a forty-acre (160,000 m²) sculpture garden in the city of Chandigarh, India. ...

Media

Newspapers

English

A radio tower, modeled on the Eiffel Tower in Paris
  1. The Tribune - Punjab's oldest newspaper [Circulated in the Chandigarh,Panchkula,Mohali,Ludhiana,Bathinda,Jalandhar,Amritsar, Delhi,Himachal regions]
  2. The Indian Express - National daily published from Chandigarh.
  3. Hindustan Times - National daily published from Chandigarh.
  4. The Times of India - National Daily.(Sub-Circulatories - The Times Of Chandigarh), The Economic Times , The Business Times]
  5. The Pioneer- National daily published from Chandigarh.
  6. Business Line- Business daily newspaper.
  7. The Hindu- National daily.
  8. The Economic Times - Business daily newspaper.

Punjabi The Eiffel Tower (French: , ) is an iron tower built on the Champ de Mars beside the Seine River in Paris. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... The Tribune, now published from Chandigarh and Delhi, started publication on February 2, 1881, in Lahore (now in Pakistan). ... The Indian Express is an Indian newspaper owned by Ramnath Goenka. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Times of India (TOI) is a leading English-language broadsheet daily newspaper in India. ... The Economic Times, launched in 1961, is Indias largest financial daily and the worlds second largest financial daily after The Wall Street Journal, with a daily readership of over 650,000 copies. ... The Business Times , also known as the BT, is the name of two financial newspapers published in South East Asia: The Business Times of Singapore is an English language newspaper published since 1976 and online news service since 1995. ... Logo of the Pioneer Daily The Pioneer is an English language newspaper in India. ... Business Line or The Hindu Business Line is an Indian business newspaper published by Kasturi and Sons, publishers of the The Hindu newspaper. ... For followers of Hinduism, see Hindu. ... The Economic Times, launched in 1961, is Indias largest financial daily and the worlds second largest financial daily after The Wall Street Journal, with a daily readership of over 650,000 copies. ...

  1. Punjabi Tribune - Punjabi edition of The Tribune.
  2. Desh Sewak - Punjab newspaper associated with political party CPI(M).
  3. Rozana Spokesman - Punjabi newspaper.New entrant.
  4. Jagbani - Punjabi edition of Punjab Kesari
  5. Apna Punjab - a popular Punjabi newspaper also published in the USA (first started from New York)

Hindi

  1. Dainik Bhaskar - National Hindi daily published from Chandigarh.
  2. Amar Ujala - National Hindi daily published from Chandigarh.
  3. Dainik Tribune - Hindi edition of The Tribune.
  4. Punjab Kesari - National Hindi Daily
  5. Hindustan - National Hindi daily published from Chandigarh.

Dainik Bhaskar is a Hindi-language daily newspaper of India. ... Amar Ujala is one of leading Hindi Newspaper of North India. ... The term Hindustan (Hindi: हिन्दुस्तान [Hindustān], Urdu: [Hindustān], from the (Persian) Hindu + -stān, often formerly rendered Hindoostan) and the adjective Hindustani may relate to various aspects of three geographical areas (see Names of India): The modern Republic of India. ...

Notable residents

Neerja Bhanot (September 7, 1964 - September 5, 1986) was an Indian flight attendant for Pan Am airlines who was killed by Islamic terrorists in 1986. ... Pan American World Airways Pan Am Flight 73 was hijacked on September 5, 1986, by four armed men of the Abu Nidal Organization. ... Jeev Milkha Singh (b. ... This list of golf players, known as golfers includes the most notable players of the sport, who are almost exclusively professionals in the sport. ... The PGA European Tour is a top-level professional mens golf tour. ... Kapil Dev Ramlal Nikhanj[1] (कपिल देव) ( ) (born 6 January 1959, Chandigarh), better known as Kapil Dev, is a former Indian cricketer regarded as one of the greatest all-rounders to have played cricket. ... This article is about the sport. ... Milkha Singh was (born in Lyallpur (now Faisalabad) on 8 October 1935) is a Sikh athlete, who represented India in the 1960 Summer Olympics in Rome and the 1964 Summer Olympics in Tokyo. ... Nek Chand Saini is an Indian self-taught artist, famous for building the Rock Garden of Chandigarh, a forty-acre (160,000 m²) sculpture garden in the city of Chandigarh, India. ... Yograjsingh Bhagsingh Bhundel, popularly known as Yograj Singh (born 25 March 1958, in Chandigarh, Punjab, India) was an Indian cricketer who played one Test and six ODIs for India as a right-arm fast-medium bowler. ... Yuvraj Singh  {Punjabi:ਯੁਵਰਾਜ ਿਸੰਘ} (born 12 December 1981 in Chandigarh, India) is a cricketer from India, and the son of former Indian fast bowler and Punjabi movie star Yograj Singh. ... Jaspal Bhatti, the most popular social satirist in India. ... Babbu Maan is a well-established Indian Punjabi pop singer, actor, lyricist, composer and playback singer. ...

References

  1. ^ Census India
  2. ^ The Tribune
  3. ^ Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Chandigarh
  4. ^ Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns. (Provisional). Census Commission of India. Retrieved on 2007-09-03.
  5. ^ http://www.censusindia.net/religiondata/ 2001 Indian Census Data
  6. ^ Chandigarh's the richest of 'em all
  7. ^ The Hindu Business Line
  8. ^ Department of Information Technology An Official Website of Department of IT
  9. ^ Department of IT, Chandigarh
  10. ^ C.I.I.S. - Canadian Institute for International Studies
  11. ^ http://www.deccanherald.com/deccanherald/jun132006/national181232006612.asp
  12. ^ CITCO
  13. ^ Chandigarh traffic police, promoting road safety, traffic safety, India road signs & rules, safe responsible driving, first aid India
  14. ^ City Beautiful to get its first international flight in August - ExpressIndia.Com
  15. ^ Deccan Herald - Metro comes to Chandigarh

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

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Wikitravel is a project to create an open content, complete, up-to-date, and reliable world-wide travel guide. ...


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