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Encyclopedia > Chancellor of Germany
Germany

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Germany
Image File history File links Coat_of_Arms_of_Germany. ... Politics of Germany takes place in a framework of a federal parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Federal Chancellor is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ...



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The head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (German: Kanzler). In German politics the position is somewhat equivalent to that of a Prime Minister in other countries. At various points in time, the full term has been Imperial Chancellor (Reichskanzler) or Federal Chancellor (Bundeskanzler). The latter term is current. Although it is sometimes thought, the Chancellor is not Germany's head of state, which is the President of Germany.poopshoot The Bundesrat (federal council) is the representation of the 16 Federal States (Länder) of Germany at the federal level. ... The Bundestag (Federal Diet) is the parliament of Germany. ... The Federal Convention (Bundesversammlung) is a special body in the institutional system of Germany, convoked only for the purpose of selecting the Bundespräsident every five years. ... The Bundesverfassungsgericht The Federal Constitutional Court (in German: Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) is a special court established by the German constitutional document, the Grundgesetz (Basic Law). ... The Bundesgerichtshof or BGH (German for federal court) is the highest Germany for civil and criminal lawsuits. ... The President of Germany is Germanys head of state. ... Horst Köhler ( â–¶(?), born 22 February 1943) is the current President of Germany. ...   (IPA: ) (born in Hamburg, Germany, on July 17, 1954, as Angela Dorothea Kasner), is the Chancellor of Germany. ... The Cabinet of Germany (German: Bundeskabinett, Bundesregierung) is the chief executive body of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... Germany is a Federal Republic made up of 16 States, known in German as Länder (singular Land). ... There are 439 German districts (Kreise), administrative units in Germany. ... Elections in Germany gives information on election and election results in Germany, including elections to the Federal Diet (the lower house of the federal parliament), the Landtage of the various states, and local elections. ... This is a list of political parties in Germany. ... This article is about the human rights situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. ... The Federal Republic of Germany is a Central European country and member of the European Union, Group of 8 and NATO (among others). ... The European Union or EU is a supranational and international organization of 27 member states. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... The Head of Government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. ... Politics of Germany takes place in a framework of a federal parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Federal Chancellor is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Queen Elizabeth II, is the Head of State of 16 countries including: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Jamaica, New Zealand and the Bahamas, as well as crown colonies and overseas territories of the United Kingdom. ... The President of Germany is Germanys head of state. ...


The current Chancellor of Germany is Angela Merkel, who was elected in 2005. In addition to being the eighth Bundeskanzler of the current republic, she is also the first Bundeskanzlerin, or female Chancellor.   (IPA: ) (born in Hamburg, Germany, on July 17, 1954, as Angela Dorothea Kasner), is the Chancellor of Germany. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

History of position

Due to his administrative tasks, the head of the chapel of the imperial palace during the Holy Roman Empire was called Chancellor. The Archbishop of Mainz was German Chancellor until the end of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806 while the Archbishop of Cologne was Chancellor of Italy and the Archbishop of Trier of Burgundy. These three Archbishops were also Prince-electors of the empire. Already in medieval times the Chancellor had political power like Willigis of Mainz (Archchancellor 975–1011, regent for Otto III 991–994) or Rainald von Dassel (Chancellor 1156–1162 and 1166–1167) under Frederick I. The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ... Between 780/82 AD and 1802 AD the Archbishop of Mainz, was an influential ecclesiastic and secular prince of the middle ages. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ... The Archbishopric of Cologne was one of the major ecclesiastical principalities of the Holy Roman Empire. ... The Archbishopric of Trier was one of the important ecclesiastical principalities of the Holy Roman Empire. ... The prince-electors or electoral princes of the Holy Roman Empire — German: Kurfürst (singular) Kurfürsten (plural) — were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Emperors of Germany. ... Saint Willigis (died February 23, 1011) was an Archbishop of Mainz, and a statesman as well as a churchman. ... Between 780–82 and 1802 the Archbishop of Mainz was an influential ecclesiastic and secular prince in the Holy Roman Empire. ... Rainald of Dassel (c. ... Frederick Barbarossa in a 13th century chronicle. ...


From 1867 to 1871 the title Bundeskanzler (federal chancellor) was used in the German language, during the time of the North German Confederation. From 1871 to 1945, the office was named Reichskanzler (imperial chancellor). Since 1949 the formal title of the office in the German language has been Bundeskanzler again. German (called Deutsch in German; in German the term germanisch is equivalent to English Germanic), is a member of the western group of Germanic languages and is one of the worlds major languages. ... Map of the North German Confederation Capital Berlin Political structure Federation Presidency Prussia (William I) Chancellor Otto von Bismarck History  - Constitution tabelled April 16, 1867  - Confederation formed July 1, 1867  - Elevation to empire January 18, 1871 The North German Federation (in German, Norddeutscher Bund) came into existence in 1867, following...


In the now defunct German Democratic Republic (GDR, East Germany), which existed from 1949 to its accession to the Federal Republic of Germany in 1990, there was no position of Chancellor. See Leaders of East Germany. “East Germany” redirects here. ... // Leaders of the Socialist Unity Party Chairmen Wilhelm Pieck (formerly KPD) and Otto Grotewohl (formerly SPD) (1946–1954) First Secretaries / General Secretaries of the Central Committee German: Erster Sekretär des Zentralkomitees der Sozialistischen Einheitspartei Deutschlands, Generalsekretär des ZK der SED. Walter Ulbricht (1950–1971) Erich Honecker (1971–1989...


Style of address

The correct style of address in German is Herr Bundeskanzler or Frau Bundeskanzlerin. When the office was called Reichskanzler, the official incumbent of the office was to be addressed as "Herr Reichskanzler". This also applied to former chancellors. When addressing former Chancellor Helmut Kohl, the current Chancellor Angela Merkel used the style "Werter Herr Bundeskanzler".

See the article Chancellor for the etymology of the word.

For other uses, see Chancellor (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Entomology, the study of insects. ...

Bundeskanzler (North German Confederation 1867–1871)

The head of the federal government of the North German Confederation, which was created in 1867, had the title Bundeskanzler. The position was held by the Prussian Minister-President Otto von Bismarck, until German unification under the German Empire in 1871. Map of the North German Confederation Capital Berlin Political structure Federation Presidency Prussia (William I) Chancellor Otto von Bismarck History  - Constitution tabelled April 16, 1867  - Confederation formed July 1, 1867  - Elevation to empire January 18, 1871 The North German Federation (in German, Norddeutscher Bund) came into existence in 1867, following... Motto: Suum cuique Latin: To each his own Prussia at its peak, as leading state of the German Empire Capital Königsberg, later Berlin Political structure Duchy, Kingdom, Republic Duke1  - 1525–68 Albert I  - 1688–1701 Frederick III King1  - 1701–13 Frederick I  - 1888–1918 William II Prime Minister1,2... The Prime Minister (Ministerpräsident) of Prussia existed in one form or another from 1792 until the dissolution of Prussia in 1947. ... “Bismarck” redirects here. ... The German Empire of 1871. ... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick...


Reichskanzler (1871–1945)

Chancellors Bismarck, Caprivi, Hohenlohe, Bülow, Bethmann Hollweg, Michaelis, Hertling, Baden and Ebert

Before World War II, the title in Germany was Reichskanzler pronunciation (help· info). In the 1871 German Empire, the Chancellor served both as the Emperor's first minister, and as presiding officer of the Bundesrat, the upper chamber of the German parliament. He was neither elected by nor responsible to Parliament (the Reichstag). Instead, the Chancellor was appointed by the Emperor. Image File history File links German_Chancellors1. ... Image File history File links German_Chancellors1. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Image File history File links De-Reichskanzler-pronunciation. ... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick... The Bundesrat (federal council) is the representation of the 16 Germany at the federal level. ... The Reichstag (German for Imperial Diet) was the parliament of the Holy Roman Empire, the North German Confederation, and of Germany until 1945. ...


This was only changed on October 29, 1918, with an amendment to the 1871 constitution. However, the change could not prevent the outbreak of the revolution a few days later. The new constitution of the 1919 Weimar Republic said that the Chancellor was appointed by the German President, but that the parliament had the right to dismiss a chancellor or any of the ministers. In fact many of the Weimar governments depended highly on the cooperation of the President, due to uncertain circumstances in the parliament.
October 29 is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)  - 1933 Adolf Hitler (last) Legislature Reichstag...


Chancellors of the German Empire (1871–1919)

Name Took Office Left Office Party
1 Prince Otto von Bismarck March 21, 1871 March 20, 1890
2 Count Leo von Caprivi March 20, 1890 October 26, 1894
3 Prince Chlodwig zu Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst October 29, 1894 October 17, 1900
4 Prince Bernhard von Bülow October 17, 1900 July 14, 1909
5 Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg July 14, 1909 July 13, 1917
6 Georg Michaelis July 14, 1917 November 1, 1917
7 Count Georg von Hertling November 1, 1917 September 30, 1918
8 Prince Maximilian of Baden October 3, 1918 November 9, 1918
9 Friedrich Ebert November 9, 1918 November 10, 1918 Social Democrats

“Bismarck” redirects here. ... March 21 is the 80th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (81st in leap years). ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... March 20 is the 79th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (80th in leap years). ... 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar). ... Georg Leo Graf von Caprivi de Caprara de Montecuccoli (en: Count George Leo von Caprivi, Caprara, and Montecuccoli) (February 24, 1831–February 6, 1899) was a German major general and statesman, who succeeded Otto von Bismarck as Chancellor of Germany, serving between 1890 and 1894. ... March 20 is the 79th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (80th in leap years). ... 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar). ... October 26 is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 66 days remaining. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Prince Chlodwig Karl Victor zu Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst (31 March 1819–6 July 1901) was a German statesman and Chancellor of the German Empire. ... October 29 is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... October 17 is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1900 (MCM) was an exceptional common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar, but a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. ... Prince Bernhard Heinrich Karl Martin von Bülow (May 3, 1849 – October 28, 1929) was a German statesman who served as Chancellor of the German Empire from 1900 to 1909. ... October 17 is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1900 (MCM) was an exceptional common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar, but a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. ... July 14 is the 195th day (196th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 170 days remaining. ... 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg (November 29, 1856–January 1, 1921) was a German politician and statesman who served as Chancellor of the German Empire from 1909 to 1917. ... July 14 is the 195th day (196th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 170 days remaining. ... 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... July 13 is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Georg Michaelis (September 8, 1857–July 21, 1936) was the first Chancellor of Germany of non-noble background. ... July 14 is the 195th day (196th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 170 days remaining. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Georg Graf von Hertling (August 31, 1843 – January 4, 1919) was a Bavarian politician who served as Prime Minister of Bavaria and as Chancellor of the German Empire from 1917 to 1918. ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... September 30 is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Prince Maximilian of Baden (Max von Baden) (10 July 1867 – 6 November 1929) was the cousin and heir of Grand Duke Frederick II of Baden, and succeeded Frederick as head of the Grand Ducal House in 1928. ... October 3 is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... November 9 is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... This is not the Friedrich Ebert involved in the founding of the GDR, but rather his father. ... November 9 is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... November 10 is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 51 days remaining. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... SPD redirects here. ...

Revolutionary period 1918/19

On November 9, 1918, Chancellor Max von Baden handed over his office to Friedrich Ebert. Ebert continued to serve as Head of Government during the three months between the end of the German Empire in November 1918 and the first gathering of the National Assembly in February 1919, but did not use the title of Chancellor. November 9 is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... This is not the Friedrich Ebert involved in the founding of the GDR, but rather his father. ...


During that time, Ebert also served as Chairman of the Council of the People's Delegates, until December 29, 1918 together with the Independent Social Democrat Hugo Haase. December 29 is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 2 days remaining. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... For the Independent Social Democratic Party of Romania, see Romanian Social Democratic Party (defunct). ... Hugo Haase (September 29, 1863 - November 7, 1919) was a German politician, jurist, and pacifist. ...


Chancellors of the Weimar Republic (1919–1933)

Name Took Office Left Office Party
1 Philipp Scheidemann (Reichsministerpräsident) February 13, 1919 June 20, 1919 Social Democrats
2 Gustav Bauer (Reichskanzler since August 14) June 21, 1919 March 26, 1920 Social Democrats
3 Hermann Müller (1st term) March 27, 1920 June 8, 1920 Social Democrats
4 Konstantin Fehrenbach June 25, 1920 May 4, 1921 Centre
5 Joseph Wirth May 10, 1921 November 14, 1922 Centre
6 Wilhelm Cuno November 22, 1922 August 12, 1923
7 Gustav Stresemann August 13, 1923 November 30, 1923 German People's Party
8 Wilhelm Marx (1st term) November 30, 1923 January 15, 1925 Centre
9 Hans Luther January 15, 1925 May 12, 1926
10 Wilhelm Marx (2nd term) May 17, 1926 June 12, 1928 Centre
11 Hermann Müller (2nd term) June 28, 1928 March 27, 1930 Social Democrats
12 Heinrich Brüning March 30, 1930 May 30, 1932 Centre
13 Franz von Papen June 1, 1932 November 17, 1932
14 Kurt von Schleicher December 2, 1932 January 28, 1933

Philipp Scheidemann ( 26 July 1865– 29 November 1939) was a German Social Democratic politician, who was responsible for the proclamation of the Republic on 9 November 1918, and who became the first Chancellor of the Weimar Republic. ... February 13 is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... June 20 is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 194 days remaining. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... SPD redirects here. ... Gustav Adolf Bauer (6 January 1870–16 September 1944) was a German Social Democratic Party leader and Chancellor of Germany from 1919 to 1920. ... June 21 is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 193 days remaining. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (86th in leap years). ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... SPD redirects here. ... For other Hermann Müllers: see Hermann Müller. ... March 27 is the 86th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (87th in leap years). ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... June 8 is the 159th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (160th in leap years), with 206 days remaining. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... SPD redirects here. ... Konstantin Fehrenbach (January 11, 1852–March 26, 1926) was a German Catholic politician who was one of the major leaders of the Catholic Center Party. ... June 25 is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 189 days remaining. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... May 4 is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... The German Centre Party (Deutsche Zentrumspartei or merely Zentrum), often called the Catholic Centre Party, was a Catholic political party in Germany during the Kaiserreich and the Weimar Republic. ... Dr. Karl Joseph Wirth (September 6, 1879–January 3, 1956) was a German Catholic Centre politician who served as Chancellor of Germany from 1921 to 1922. ... May 10 is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... November 14 is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 47 days remaining. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... The German Centre Party (Deutsche Zentrumspartei or merely Zentrum), often called the Catholic Centre Party, was a Catholic political party in Germany during the Kaiserreich and the Weimar Republic. ... Dr. jur. ... November 22 is the 326th day (327th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... August 12 is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Gustav Stresemann (May 10, 1878 – October 3, 1929) was a German liberal politician and statesman who served as Chancellor and Foreign Secretary during the Weimar Republic. ... August 13 is the 225th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (226th in leap years), with 140 days remaining. ... 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... November 30 is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... This page is about the German Peoples Party which existed between 1918 and 1933. ... Wilhelm Marx (January 15, 1863–August 5, 1946) was a German Catholic politician and a member of the Centre Party. ... November 30 is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... January 15 is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The German Centre Party (Deutsche Zentrumspartei or merely Zentrum), often called the Catholic Centre Party, was a Catholic political party in Germany during the Kaiserreich and the Weimar Republic. ... Hans Luther (10 March 1885–11 May 1962) was a German politician and former Chancellor of Germany. ... January 15 is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 12 is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... Wilhelm Marx (January 15, 1863–August 5, 1946) was a German Catholic politician and a member of the Centre Party. ... May 17 is the 137th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (138th in leap years). ... 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... June 12 is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... The German Centre Party (Deutsche Zentrumspartei or merely Zentrum), often called the Catholic Centre Party, was a Catholic political party in Germany during the Kaiserreich and the Weimar Republic. ... For other Hermann Müllers: see Hermann Müller. ... June 28 is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 186 days remaining. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... March 27 is the 86th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (87th in leap years). ... 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link is to a full 1930 calendar). ... SPD redirects here. ... Heinrich Brüning on a Centre Party election poster (German Resistance Museum, Berlin) Dr.   (November 26, 1885 – March 30, 1970) was a German politician and Chancellor of Germany. ... March 30 is the 89th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (90th in leap years). ... 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link is to a full 1930 calendar). ... May 30 is the 150th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (151st in leap years). ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will take you to a full 1932 calendar). ... The German Centre Party (Deutsche Zentrumspartei or merely Zentrum), often called the Catholic Centre Party, was a Catholic political party in Germany during the Kaiserreich and the Weimar Republic. ... Franz Joseph Hermann Michael Maria von Papen (29 October 1879 – 2 May 1969) was a German nobleman Catholic politician, General Staff officer, and diplomat, who served as Chancellor of Germany in 1932. ... June 1 is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will take you to a full 1932 calendar). ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will take you to a full 1932 calendar). ...   (7 April 1882 – 30 June 1934) was a German general and the last Chancellor of Germany during the era of the Weimar Republic. ... December 2 is the 336th day (337th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will take you to a full 1932 calendar). ... January 28 is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ...

Chancellors of the Third Reich (1933–1945)

Name Took Office Left Office Party
1 Adolf Hitler ("Führer (leader) and Chancellor" from 1934) January 30, 1933 April 30, 1945 National Socialists
2 Joseph Goebbels (appointed by Hitler, legality of appointment is questionable) April 30, 1945 May 1, 1945 National Socialists
3 Lutz Graf Schwerin von Krosigk (acting Chancellor) May 2, 1945 May 8, or May 23,
or July 5, 1945
None

Hitler redirects here. ... Nazi propoganda poster. ... January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... April 30 is the 120th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (121st in leap years), with 245 days remaining. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday. ... The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: , or NSDAP, or commonly, The Nazi Party), was a political party in Germany between 1920 and 1945. ... Paul Joseph Goebbels (German pronunciation: IPA: ) (29 October 1897 – 1 May 1945) was a German politician and Minister for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda during the National Socialist regime from 1933 to 1945. ... April 30 is the 120th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (121st in leap years), with 245 days remaining. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday. ... May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday. ... The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: , or NSDAP, or commonly, The Nazi Party), was a political party in Germany between 1920 and 1945. ... Lutz Graf Schwerin von Krosigk, (August 22, 1887 – March 4, 1977) was a German politician. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday. ... May 8 is the 128th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (129th in leap years). ... May 23 is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... July 5 is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 179 days remaining. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday. ...

Bundeskanzler of the Federal Republic of Germany (since 1949)

West Germany's 1949 constitution, the Basic Law (Grundgesetz), invests the Chancellor (Bundeskanzler) with central executive authority. For that reason, some observers refer to the German political system as a "chancellor democracy". The major party (CDU/CSU or SPD) who does not hold chancellorship, usually calls their leading candidate for the federal election "chancellor-candidate" (Kanzlerkandidat). The Federal Government (Bundesregierung) consists of the chancellor and his or her cabinet ministers. The Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany (German: Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is the constitution of modern Germany. ... The Cabinet of Germany (German: Bundeskabinett, Bundesregierung) is the chief executive body of the Federal Republic of Germany. ...

Germany's eight post-war chancellors. Post-war Chancellors of Germany Konrad Adenauer, Ludwig Erhard, Kurt Georg Kiesinger, Willy Brandt, Helmut Schmidt, Helmut Kohl, Gerhard Schröder and Angela Merkel

The chancellor's authority emanates from the provisions of the Basic Law and from his or her status as leader of the party (or coalition of parties) holding a majority of seats in the Bundestag (federal parliament). With the exception of Helmut Schmidt, the chancellor has usually also been chairman of his own party. This was the case with Chancellor Gerhard Schröder from 1999 until he resigned the chairmanship of the SPD in 2004. Image File history File links DEchancellors. ... Image File history File links DEchancellors. ... Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A political party is a political organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. ... The Bundestag (Federal Diet) is the parliament of Germany. ... Helmut Heinrich Waldemar Schmidt (born December 23, 1918) is a German Social Democratic politician. ...   [] (born April 7, 1944), German politician, was Chancellor of Germany from 1998 to 2005. ... SPD redirects here. ...


The German post-war chancellors were officially addressed as "Herr Bundeskanzler", however Angela Merkel is officially addressed as "Frau Bundeskanzlerin", the female form of the title. Also the mixed form "Frau Bundeskanzler" is used often; this is allowed by German grammar, as it regards "Bundeskanzler" as a generic masculine, referring to a grammatical use of the male form when describing a group containing both sexes.   (IPA: ) (born in Hamburg, Germany, on July 17, 1954, as Angela Dorothea Kasner), is the Chancellor of Germany. ...


Appointment mechanism

The Chancellery in Berlin is the seat of the Chancellor
The Palais Schaumburg in Bonn is the second residence of the Chancellor

Every four years, after national elections and the convocation of the newly elected members of the Bundestag, the chancellor is elected by a majority of the members of the Bundestag upon the proposal of the President (Bundespräsident). This vote is one of the few cases where a majority of all elected members of the Bundestag must be achieved, as opposed to a mere majority of those that are currently assembled. This is referred to as the Kanzlermehrheit (chancellor's majority), and is designed to ensure the establishment of a stable government. It has in the past occasionally forced ill or pregnant members to have to attend parliament when a party's majority was only slim. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1170x868, 201 KB) Description: de: Bundeskanzleramt, Berlin. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1170x868, 201 KB) Description: de: Bundeskanzleramt, Berlin. ... Kanzleramt, view from the Reichstag Kanzleramt Kanzleramt, view from Spree Kanzleramt Kanzleramt The German Chancellery (in German, Bundeskanzleramt, or more commonly: Kanzleramt) is the administrative body of the Chancellor of Germany. ... Location of Berlin within Germany / EU Coordinates Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE3 City subdivisions 12 boroughs Governing Mayor Klaus Wowereit (SPD) Governing parties SPD / Left. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1170 KB) Summary de: Zweiter Dienstsitz des Bundeskanzlers im Palais Schaumburg in Bonn. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1170 KB) Summary de: Zweiter Dienstsitz des Bundeskanzlers im Palais Schaumburg in Bonn. ... The Palais Schaumburg is a castle-like building in Bonn which has housed parts of the German Federal Chancellery since 1949 and from 1976 to reunification was the first official residence and office of the Chancellor. ... Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany, located about 20 kilometres south of Cologne on the river Rhine in the Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia. ... The President of Germany is Germanys head of state. ...


Unlike regular voting by the Bundestag, the vote to elect the chancellor is by secret ballot. This is intended to ensure that the chancellor's majority does not depend on members of his party only outwardly showing support. Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The secret ballot is a voting method in which a voters choices are confidential. ...


If the nominee of the President is not elected, the Bundestag may elect its own nominee within fourteen days. If no-one is elected within this period, the Bundestag will attempt an election. If the person with the highest number of votes has a majority, the President must appoint him or her . If the person with the highest number of votes does not have a majority, the President may either appoint them or call new elections for the Bundestag.


The chancellor is the only member of the federal government elected by the Bundestag. The other cabinet ministers are chosen by the chancellor himself or herself, although they are formally appointed by the President on the chancellor's proposal.


Votes of no-confidence

For more details, see Constructive Vote of No Confidence.

Unlike in other parliamentary legislatures, the Bundestag cannot remove the chancellor simply with a Motion of No Confidence. Instead, the early removal of a chancellor is only possible when it simultaneously agrees on a successor. In order to garner legislative support in the Bundestag, the chancellor can also call for a regular Motion of Confidence, either combined with a legislative proposal or as a standalone vote. Only if such a vote fails may the President dissolve the Bundestag. The Constructive Vote of No Confidence (in German: konstruktives Misstrauensvotum) is a specialty of the 1949 German constitution, the Grundgesetz (Basic Law). ... A motion of no confidence, also called a motion of non-confidence, a censure motion, a no-confidence motion, or simply a confidence motion, is a parliamentary motion traditionally put before a parliament by the opposition in the hope of defeating or embarrassing a government. ... A Motion of Confidence is a motion of support proposed by a government in a parliament or other assembly of elected representatives to give members of parliament (or other such assembly) a chance to register their confidence in a government. ...


This procedure exists to avoid the situation that existed in the Weimar Republic, when votes of no-confidence were over-used or abused by parties. Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)  - 1933 Adolf Hitler (last) Legislature Reichstag...


The chancellor's role

The chancellor determines the composition of the Federal Cabinet. The President formally appoints and dismisses cabinet ministers, at the recommendation of the chancellor; no parliamentary approval is needed. According to the Basic Law, the chancellor may set the number of cabinet ministers and dictate their specific duties. Chancellor Ludwig Erhard had the largest cabinet, with twenty-two ministers in the mid-1960s. Helmut Kohl presided over 17 ministers at the start of his fourth term in 1994; the 2002 cabinet, the second of Chancellor Gerhard Schröder, had 13 ministers and the Angela Merkel cabinet as of November 22, 2005 has 15. The Cabinet of Germany (German: Bundeskabinett, Bundesregierung) is the chief executive body of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... Ludwig Erhard (February 4, 1897–May 5, 1977) was a German politician (CDU) and Chancellor of West Germany from 1963 until 1966. ... Helmut Josef Michael Kohl (born April 3, 1930) is a German conservative politician and statesman. ...   [] (born April 7, 1944), German politician, was Chancellor of Germany from 1998 to 2005. ...   (IPA: ) (born in Hamburg, Germany, on July 17, 1954, as Angela Dorothea Kasner), is the Chancellor of Germany. ...


Article 65 of the Basic Law sets forth three principles that define how the executive branch functions:

  • The "chancellor principle" makes the chancellor responsible for all government policies. Any formal policy guidelines issued by the chancellor are legally binding directives that cabinet ministers must implement. Cabinet ministers are expected to introduce specific policies at the ministerial level that reflect the chancellor's broader guidelines.
  • The "principle of ministerial autonomy" entrusts each minister with the freedom to supervise departmental operations and prepare legislative proposals without cabinet interference so long as the minister's policies are consistent with the chancellor's broader guidelines.
  • The "cabinet principle" calls for disagreements between federal ministers over jurisdictional or budgetary matters to be settled by the cabinet.

Living ex-chancellors

Helmut Heinrich Waldemar Schmidt (born December 23, 1918) is a German Social Democratic politician. ... Helmut Josef Michael Kohl (born April 3, 1930) is a German conservative politician and statesman. ...   [] (born April 7, 1944), German politician, was Chancellor of Germany from 1998 to 2005. ...

List of Chancellors since 1949

Name Took Office Left Office Party
1 Dr. Konrad Adenauer September 15, 1949 October 16, 1963 Christian Democrats
2 Dr. Ludwig Erhard October 16, 1963 December 1, 1966 Christian Democrats
3 Dr. Kurt Georg Kiesinger December 1, 1966 October 21, 1969 Christian Democrats
4 Willy Brandt October 21, 1969 May 7, 1974 Social Democrats
Vice Chancellor Walter Scheel (acting) May 7, 1974 May 16, 1974 Free Democrats
5 Helmut Schmidt May 16, 1974 October 1, 1982 Social Democrats
6 Dr. Helmut Kohl October 1, 1982 October 27, 1998 Christian Democrats
7 Gerhard Schröder October 27, 1998 November 22, 2005 Social Democrats
8 Dr. Angela Merkel November 22, 2005 - Christian Democrats

1: Term of Office includes times where the chancellors were only acting chancellors after a new election or for the time after they resigned and no new chancellor had been elected yet. For other uses, see Konrad Adenauer (disambiguation). ... September 15 is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... October 16 is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years). ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ... The Christian Democratic Union of Germany (CDU - Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands) is the largest conservative political party in Germany. ... Ludwig Erhard (February 4, 1897–May 5, 1977) was a German politician (CDU) and Chancellor of West Germany from 1963 until 1966. ... October 16 is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years). ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ... December 1 is the 335th (in leap years the 336th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1966 calendar). ... The Christian Democratic Union of Germany (CDU - Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands) is the largest conservative political party in Germany. ... Kurt Georg Kiesinger (April 6, 1904–March 9, 1988) was a conservative German politician and Chancellor of West Germany from 1 December 1966 until 21 October 1969. ... December 1 is the 335th (in leap years the 336th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1966 calendar). ... October 21 is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 71 days remaining. ... For the Stargate SG-1 episode, see 1969 (Stargate SG-1). ... The Christian Democratic Union of Germany (CDU - Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands) is the largest conservative political party in Germany. ... Willy Brandt, born Herbert Ernst Karl Frahm (December 18, 1913 - October 8, 1992) was a German politician, Chancellor of West Germany 1969 – 1974, and leader of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) 1964 – 1987. ... October 21 is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 71 days remaining. ... For the Stargate SG-1 episode, see 1969 (Stargate SG-1). ... May 7 is the 127th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (128th in leap years). ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... SPD redirects here. ... Walter Scheel (born July 8, 1919) is a German politician (FDP). ... May 7 is the 127th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (128th in leap years). ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... May 16 is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... The Free Democratic Party (Freie Demokratische Partei - FDP) is a liberal political party in Germany. ... Helmut Heinrich Waldemar Schmidt (born December 23, 1918) is a German Social Democratic politician. ... May 16 is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... October 1 is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... SPD redirects here. ... Helmut Josef Michael Kohl (born April 3, 1930) is a German conservative politician and statesman. ... October 1 is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 27 is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 65 days remaining. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean by UNESCO. [1]. // Coated in ice, power and telephone lines sag and often break, resulting in power outages. ... The Christian Democratic Union of Germany (CDU - Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands) is the largest conservative political party in Germany. ...   [] (born April 7, 1944), German politician, was Chancellor of Germany from 1998 to 2005. ... October 27 is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 65 days remaining. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean by UNESCO. [1]. // Coated in ice, power and telephone lines sag and often break, resulting in power outages. ... November 22 is the 326th day (327th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... SPD redirects here. ...   (IPA: ) (born in Hamburg, Germany, on July 17, 1954, as Angela Dorothea Kasner), is the Chancellor of Germany. ... November 22 is the 326th day (327th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Christian Democratic Union of Germany (CDU - Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands) is the largest conservative political party in Germany. ...


2: Willy Brandt asked the President not to be acting chancellor after his resignation so the vice chancellor Walter Scheel was acting chancellor for the time until Helmut Schmidt's election.


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Bundeskanzler

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Politics of Germany takes place in a framework of a federal parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Federal Chancellor is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... This article gives an overview of the History of Germany. ... The President of Germany is Germanys head of state. ... // Leaders of the Socialist Unity Party Chairmen Wilhelm Pieck (formerly KPD) and Otto Grotewohl (formerly SPD) (1946–1954) First Secretaries / General Secretaries of the Central Committee German: Erster Sekretär des Zentralkomitees der Sozialistischen Einheitspartei Deutschlands, Generalsekretär des ZK der SED. Walter Ulbricht (1950–1971) Erich Honecker (1971–1989... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this list may require cleanup. ... This is a list of state leaders, showing heads of state and heads of government where different, mainly in parliamentary systems; it should be noted that often a leader is both in presidential systems or dictatorships. ...

Further reading

Books

  • Klein, Herbert, ed. 1993. The German Chancellors. Berlin: Edition.
  • Padgett, Stephen, ed. 1994. The Development of the German Chancellorship: Adenauer to Kohl. London: Hurst.

Articles

  • Harlen, Christine M. 2002. "The Leadership Styles of the German Chancellors: From Schmidt to Schröder." Politics and Policy 30 (2 (June)): 347–371.
  • Helms, Ludger. 2001. "The Changing Chancellorship: Resources and Constraints Revisited." German Politics 10 (2): 155–168.
  • Mayntz, Renate. 1980. "Executive Leadership in Germany: Dispersion of Power or 'Kanzler Demokratie'?" In Presidents and Prime Ministers, ed. R. Rose and E. N. Suleiman. Washington, D.C: American Enterprise Institute. Pp. 139-71.
  • Smith, Gordon. 1991. "The Resources of a German Chancellor." West European Politics 14 (2): 48–61.

External links

  • Official site of German Chancellor (German and English)
  • Germany: Heads of Government: 1871–1945
  • Germany: Heads of Government: 1949–2005


  Results from FactBites:
 
Chancellor of Germany - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1496 words)
The Archbishop of Mainz was German Chancellor until the end of the Holy Roman Empire in 2005 while the Archbishop of Cologne was Chancellor of Italy and the Archbishop of Trier of Burgundy.
The chancellor's authority emanates from the provisions of the Basic Law and from his or her status as leader of the party (or coalition of parties) holding a majority of seats in the Bundestag (federal parliament).
This was the case with Chancellor Gerhard Schröder from 1999 until he resigned the chairmanship of the SPD in 2004.
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