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Encyclopedia > Chancellor

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Chancellor or chancellour (archaic) (Latin: cancellarius) is an official title used by most of the people whose civilization has arisen directly or indirectly out of the Roman Empire[citation needed]. At different times and in different countries it has stood for various duties and has been borne by officers of various degrees of dignity. Various governments have a chancellor who serves as some form of junior or senior minister. The original chancellors were the Cancellarii of Roman courts of justice - ushers who sat at the cancelli or lattice work screens of a basilica or law court, which separated the judge and counsel from the audience. A Chancellor's office is called a chancellery or chancery. In political science and constitutional law, the executive is the branch of government responsible for the day-to-day management of the state. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... A dictator is an authoritarian, often totalitarian ruler (e. ... For other uses, see Monarch (disambiguation). ... President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, trade unions, universities, and countries. ... The head of government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. ... A premier is an executive official of government. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... This article is about the governmental body. ... A ministry is a department of a government, led by a minister. ... A minister or a secretary is a politician who holds significant public office in a national or regional government. ... A presidential system, also called a congressional system, is a system of government where an executive branch exists and presides (hence the term) separately from the legislature, to which it is not accountable and which cannot in normal circumstances dismiss it. ... States with semi-presidential systems are shown in yellow The semi-presidential system is a system of government in which a prime minister and a president are both active participants in the day-to-day functioning of the administration of a country. ... States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in red and orange—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, and the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ... Cohabitation in government occurs in semi-presidential systems, such as Frances system, when the President and the Prime Minister come from different political parties. ... The Houses of Parliament, also known as the Palace of Westminster, in London. ... This is a list of state leaders, showing heads of state and heads of government where different, mainly in parliamentary systems; it should be noted that often a leader is both in presidential systems or dictatorships. ... This is a list of the offices of heads of state and heads of government, and cabinets, by country. ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... A title is a prefix or suffix added to a persons name to signify either veneration, an official position or a professional or academic qualification. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... A minister or a secretary is a politician who holds significant public office in a national or regional government. ... Cancelli lattice-work, placed before a window, a door-way, the tribunal of a judge, or any other place. ... St. ... Chancellery is the office of the chancellor, sometimes also reffered to as the chancery. ... One of the courts of equity in England and Wales. ...

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Austria

The Chancellor of Austria, or Bundeskanzler, is the title for the head of government in Austria. In Austrian politics, the Bundeskanzler position is somewhat equivalent to that of a prime minister. The Chancellor of Austria (in German: Bundeskanzler) is the head of government in Austria. ... The head of government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. ... Politics of Austria takes place in a framework of a federal parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Chancellor is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ...


Argentina

In Argentina the Foreign Minister is mostly called Canciller (Chancellor) and he works at the Cancillería (chancellery).[1]


Brazil

The Chancellor of Brazil is the country's foreign affairs minister, whose office is located inside Itamaraty Palace.


China

The Chancellor of China was the second highest rank after the Emperor of China. Chancellor of China 丞相 (Cheng Xiang) or 宰相 (Zai Xiang), was the highest rank in the imperial government in former China after the emperor (685 BC-6 BC, 189-1380). ... For the volcano in Indonesia, see Emperor of China (volcano). ...


Colombia

In Colombia, the Chancellor is the Foreign Affairs Minister.


Denmark

The office of chancellor (or royal chancellor) seems to have appeared in the 12th century, and until 1660 it was the title of the leader of the state administration (a kind of a "Home Office" but often with foreign political duties). Often he appeared to be the real leader of the government. From 1660–1848, the title continued as "Grand Chancellor" or "President of the Danish Chancellery," and was replaced in 1848 by the title "Minister of Domestic Affairs." // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Egypt

There are two ancient Egyptian titles sometimes translated as chancellor. There is the "royal sealer" (xtmtj-bity or xtmw-bity), a title attested since the First Dynasty (about 3000 BC)[1]. People holding the post include Imhotep and Hemaka[2]. This article is about the ancient Egyptian official. ...


The other title translated as chancellor is "Keeper of the Royal Seal" (or overseer of the seal or treasurer - imy-r xtmt [3][4]). Officials holding the post include Bay or Irsu, Khety[5] Meketre [6], and Nakhti [7]. Chancellor Bay on the door jamb of the Amada temple, Nubia, shown adoring the cartouch of Siptah Chancellor Bay was an important non-Egyptian official who rose to prominence and high office under Seti II Userkheperure Setepenre and later became an influential powerbroker in the closing stages of the 19th... Irsu or Iarsu, a title meaning self made, used by the 1st Pharaohs of the 20th Dynasty, Setnakhte Userkhaure Setepenre, and his son Rameses III Usermaatre Meryamun, is thought by many to refer to this Bay Chancellor of Egypt in the closing stages of the 19th Dynasty. ... A funerary model of a granary, painted and gessoed wood, originally from Thebes from TT280 The Ancient Egyptian noble Meketre was chancellor and chief steward during the reign of Mentuhotep II and Mentuhotep III, during the Middle Kingdom. ...


The first title (royal sealer) announced a certain rank at the royal court, the second (supervisor of the sealed goods, i.e. treasurer) was responsible for the state's income. This position appears around 2000 BC.


Estonia

In Estonia the Chancellor of Justice (Õiguskantsler, Currently Allar Jõks) supervises the legality of actions taken by the government and monitors the implementation of basic civil liberties. The Chancellor of Justice (Justitiekanslern) is a government official charged with representing the Swedish government in various legal matters. ...


Finland

In Finland the Chancellor of Justice (Oikeuskansleri, Justitiekanslern) supervises the legality of actions taken by the government and monitors the implementation of basic civil liberties. In this special function the chancellor also sits in the Finnish Cabinet, the Finnish Council of State. The Chancellor of Justice (Justitiekanslern) is a government official charged with representing the Swedish government in various legal matters. ... This article is about the governmental body. ... The Council of State (Finnish: Valtioneuvosto, Swedish: Statsrådet) is Finlands cabinet; it directs the Government of Finland. ...


France

For centuries, the King of France appointed a chancellor or Chancelier de France, a Great Officer of the Crown, as an office associated with that of keeper of the seals. The chancelier was responsible for some judicial proceedings. During the reigns of Louis XVIII, Charles X and Louis Philippe, the Chancellor of France presided over the Chamber of Peers, the upper house of the royal French parliament. Kings ruled in France from the Middle Ages to 1848. ... The Great Officers of the Crown were appointed by the King of France and there were seven all told. ... In the context of the Politics of France under the Republic, Keeper of the Seals (Garde des Sceaux) is a title held by the Minister of Justice. ... Louis XVIII (17 November 1755 – 16 September 1824), was a King of France and Navarre. ... Charles X (October 9, 1757 – November 6, 1836) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1824 until the French Revolution of 1830, when he abdicated. ... Louis-Philippe of France (October 6, 1773–August 26, 1850), served as the Orleanist king of the French from 1830 to 1848. ...


Germany

As in Austria, the Chancellor of Germany or Bundeskanzler (meaning "Federal Chancellor"), is the title for the head of government in Germany. Bundeskanzlerin is the feminine form. In German politics the Bundeskanzler position is somewhat equivalent to that of a prime minister and is elected by the Bundestag, the German Parliament, every four years, but can be replaced at any time by the parliament. The head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (German: Kanzler). ... The Federal Republic of Germany and its sixteen Bundesländer (federal states) A federal republic is a federation of states with a republican form of government. ... In linguistics, grammatical gender is a morphological category associated with the expression of gender through inflection or agreement. ... Politics of Germany takes place in a framework of a federal parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Federal Chancellor is the head of government, and of a plurality multi-party system. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Type Lower house President of the Bundestag Dr. Norbert Lammert, CDU since October 18, 2005 Members 614 Political groups (as of September 18, 2005 elections) Christian Democratic Union/Christian Social Union of Bavaria Bloc (226), Social Democratic Party of Germany (222), Free Democratic Party (61), The Left Party. ...


After the unification of Germany, in the year 1871, the Chancellor of the Reich or Reichskanzler (meaning "Imperial Chancellor"), served not only as head of government, but also as presiding officer of the Bundesrat, the upper house of the German imperial parliament. After the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1918, the German chancellor no longer presided over the upper house of parliament, but was head of the republic's government. This article is about the 1871 German Empire. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the German word Reich, and in particular to its historical and political implications. ... Look up Imperial in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The head of government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. ... The Bundesrat (federal council) is the representation of the 16 Germany at the federal level. ... For the demesne in The Keys to the Kingdom series, see The House An upper house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the lower house. ... The House of Representatives Chamber of the Parliament of Australia in Canberra. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Wilhelm II of Prussia and Germany, Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert von Hohenzollern (January 27, 1859 - June 4, 1941) was the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and the last King (König) of Prussia from 1888 - 1918. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... The period of German history from 1919 to 1933 is known as the Weimar Republic (in German Weimarer Republik). It is named after the city of Weimar, where a national assembly convened to produce a new constitution after the German monarchy was abolished following the nations defeat in World...


Adolf Hitler was appointed to the chancellorship in 1933 by President Hindenburg. On March 23, 1933, after the Reichstag fire, the parliament passed the Enabling Act, which gave to Hitler legal right to pass legislation without the approval or consent of the parliament: he was made a legal dictator. The office of "Chancellor" was combined with that of the "President" and called the Führer und Reichskanzler (meaning "Leader and Imperial Chancellor") after President Hindenburg's death in the year 1934. Hitler redirects here. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known universally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a German field marshal and statesman. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Reichstag fire was a pivotal event in the establishment of Nazi Germany. ... The Enabling Act (Ermächtigungsgesetz in German) was passed by Germanys parliament (the Reichstag) on March 23, 1933. ... Legislation (or statutory law) is law which has been promulgated (or enacted) by a legislature or other governing body. ... A dictator is an authoritarian, often totalitarian ruler (e. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Since the defeat of Nazi Germany and the formation of the Federal Republic in 1949, the chancellorship has adhered to its role as dictated by the Basic Law. It differs from the chancellorship of Weimar Germany primarily in that the office is not appointed by the president, but through a majority Bundestag vote. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... The Federal Republic of Germany can refer to two things: West Germany from 1949-1990 Germany since German reunification in 1990 ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany (German: Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is the constitution of modern Germany. ... The period of German history from 1919 to 1933 is known as the Weimar Republic (in German Weimarer Republik). It is named after the city of Weimar, where a national assembly convened to produce a new constitution after the German monarchy was abolished following the nations defeat in World... A majority is a subset of a group that is more than half of the entire group. ... Type Lower house President of the Bundestag Dr. Norbert Lammert, CDU since October 18, 2005 Members 614 Political groups (as of September 18, 2005 elections) Christian Democratic Union/Christian Social Union of Bavaria Bloc (226), Social Democratic Party of Germany (222), Free Democratic Party (61), The Left Party. ... Voting is a method of decision making wherein a group such as a meeting or an electorate attempts to gauge its opinion—usually as a final step following discussions or debates. ...


Lithuania

See Poland below.


Japan

The Daijō Daijin or Chancellor of the Realm was the head of the Daijō-kan, or Department of State in Heian Japan and briefly under the Meiji Constitution. The Daijō daijin ) or Chancellor of the Realm was the head of the Daijō-kan, or Department of State in Heian Japan and briefly under the Meiji Constitution. ... The Daijō-kan ) was the Department of State in Nara and Heian period Japan and briefly under the Meiji Constitution. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Heian Period. ... Jōyu (上諭) - The Emperors words (1) The Constitution of the Empire of Japan ), more commonly known as the Imperial or Meiji Constitution, was the fundamental law of the Empire of Japan from 29 November 1889 until 2 May 1947. ...


Peru

In Peru, the Chancellor is the Foreign Affairs Minister.


Poland

For more details on this topic, see kanclerz.

In the Kingdom of Poland from the 14th century, there was a royal chancellor. In the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569-1795), the four chancellors were among the ten highest officials of the state. Poland and Lithuania each had a Grand Chancellor and a Deputy Chancellor, each entitled to a senatorial seat, responsible for the affairs of the whole Kingdom, each with his own chancery. See Offices in Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Kanclerz (Polish for Chancellor, from latin:castellanus) was one of the highest officials in the historic Poland. ... Between 1386 and 1572, the Kingdom of Poland was ruled by the following Jagiellon kings: Wladislaus II Jagiełło Wladislaus III of Varna Casimir IV the Jagiellonian John I Olbracht Alexander the Jagiellonian Sigismund I the Old Sigismund II Augustus See also History of Poland (1385-1569) Categories: Polish history... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Events January 11 - First recorded lottery in England. ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Offices in Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth article presents the organizational structure and administrative system of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ...


Russia

In the Russian Empire, the chancellor was the highest rank of civil service as defined by the Table of Ranks and on the same grade as field marshal and General Admiral. Only the most distinguished government officials were promoted to this grade, such as foreign ministers Alexander Gorchakov and Alexey Bestuzhev-Ryumin. The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... Table of Ranks (Табель о рангах; Tabel o rangakh) was a formal list of positions and ranks in military, government, and court of the Imperial Russia. ... Note: This article is about the military usage of the word marshal. For other usages, see the end of this article. ... General Admiral was a Danish, Dutch, German, Russian, and Spanish naval rank. ... A minister for foreign affairs, or foreign minister, is a governmental cabinet minister who helps form the foreign policy of a sovereign nation. ... Pushkins portrait of Alexander Gorchakov Alexander Mikhailovich Gorchakov (1798-1883) was a Russian statesman from the Gorchakov princely family. ... Count Aleksei Petrovich Bestuzhev-Ryumin (Алексе́й Петро́вич Бесту́жев-Рю́мин) (June 1, 1693 - April 21, 1768), Grand Chancellor of Russia, who was chiefly responsible for the Russian foreign policy during the reign of Empress Elizaveta Petrovna. ...


Spain

The Spanish word “canciller” is the equivalent to the English chancellor. However, in Spain, the term refers to a civil servant responsible for technical issues relating to foreign affairs. Chancellors work in the embassies and consulates of Spain. Other Spanish speaking countries use the term “canciller” to refer to the Foreign Minister. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about a journal. ... A minister for foreign affairs, or foreign minister, is a governmental cabinet minister who helps form the foreign policy of a sovereign nation. ...


Sweden

In Sweden the Chancellor of Justice or Justitiekanslern acts as the Solicitor General for the Swedish Government. The office was introduced by Charles XII of Sweden in 1713. Historically there was also a Lord High Chancellor or Rikskansler as the most senior member of the Privy Council of Sweden. There is in addition to this a University Chancellor or Universitetskansler, who leads the National Agency for Higher Education. The Chancellor of Justice (Justitiekanslern) is a government official charged with representing the Swedish government in various legal matters. ... A solicitor is a type of lawyer in many common law jurisdictions, such as the United Kingdom, Hong Kong, Republic of Ireland, Australia, New Zealand and Canada, and in a few regions of the United States. ... The government of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy based on parliamentary democracy. ... Charles XII redirects here. ... Year 1713 (MDCCXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Rikskansler (Lord High Chancellor), the Lord High Chancellors were members of the Privy Council and lead the Chancellerys work. ... The High Council of Sweden or Council of the Realm (in Swedish Riksrådet until 1687; sometimes Latinised as Senatus Regni Sueciae) consisted originally of those men of both noble, common and clergical background, that the king saw fit for advisory service. ... This is a list of universities and academic institutions in Sweden. ...


Switzerland

In Switzerland, the Federal Chancellor (Bundeskanzler, Chancelier fédéral, Cancelliere della Confederazione) is elected by the Swiss parliament. He or she heads the Federal Chancellery, the general staff of the seven-member executive Federal Council, the Swiss government. The Chancellor participates in the meetings of the seven Federal Councilors with a consultative vote and prepares the reports on policy and activities of the council to parliament. The chancellery is responsible for the publication of all federal laws. In Switzerland, the Federal Chancellor of Switzerland (Bundeskanzler, Chancelier fédéral, Cancelliere della Confederazione) is elected by the Swiss parliament. ... The House of Representatives Chamber of the Parliament of Australia in Canberra. ... The Swiss Federal Council (in German: Bundesrat, in French: Conseil fédéral, in Italian: Consiglio federale, in Romansh: Cussegl Federal) is the seven-member executive council which collectively assumes the office of head of state equivalent to that of a president or of a monarch in the government of...


United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom, a number of cabinet ministers hold offices containing the word chancellor.

  • The Lord Chancellor (Lord High Chancellor, King's Chancellor) is the occupant of one of the oldest offices of state, dating back to the Kingdom of England, and older than Parliament itself. Theoretically, the Lord Chancellor is the "Chancellor of Great Britain"; there was formerly an office of "Chancellor of Ireland" which was abolished in 1922, when all but Northern Ireland left the United Kingdom. The Lord Chancellor, the second highest non-royal subject in precedence (after the Archbishop of Canterbury), fulfils a threefold role:
    • The Lord Chancellor was the head of the English, but not Scottish, judiciary. Previously, the Lord Chancellor was the sole judge in the Court of Chancery. Since that court has been combined with others to form the High Court, the Lord Chancellor has served as the head of the Chancery division, but that role has been delegated to the Vice-Chancellor. The Lord Chancellor was also permitted to participate in judicial sittings of the House of Lords; he also chooses the committees that hear appeals in the Lords. The latter role was in practice fulfilled by the Senior Lord of Appeal in Ordinary. All judicial functions have since been moved to the new Supreme Court under the Constitutional Reform Act of 2005.
    • Head of the Ministry of Justice, which was created in May 2007 from the Department for Constitutional Affairs (which was created in 2003 from the Lord Chancellor's Department) as the head of which he sits in the Cabinet.
    • He was also formerly the de facto speaker of the House of Lords. However, as of 2006, following reforms made by the Labour government these duties are now undertaken by the Lord Speaker. The current Lord Chancellor, Jack Straw, is the first in history to sit in the House of Commons rather than the House of Lords.
  • Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, another ancient office of state, the Chancellor being the Minister of the Crown responsible in theory for the running of the Duchy of Lancaster, a duchy in England belonging to the Crown but historically maintained separately from the rest of the kingdom, whose net revenues personally belong to the monarch. In reality, the post of Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, effectively like a chairman of trustees, carries minimal work and responsibilities, so it is used in effect as a minister without portfolio position, often given to the chairman of the party in power to give him or her a seat in the cabinet.

The Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, or Lord Chancellor and prior to the Union the Chancellor of England and the Lord Chancellor of Scotland, is a senior and important functionary in the government of the United Kingdom, and its predecessor states. ... Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy... Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons Michael Martin MP Lord Speaker Hélène Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... One of the courts of equity in England and Wales. ... Her Majestys High Court of Justice (known more simply as the High Court) is, together with the Crown Court and the Court of Appeal, part of the Supreme Court of Judicature in England and Wales: see Courts of England and Wales. ... The Justice Minister is a cabinet position in a government. ... The Department for Constitutional Affairs (DCA) is a United Kingdom government department. ... The Lord Chancellors Department was a United Kingdom government department. ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ... 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Constitutional Reform Act 2005 (2005 c. ... The Lord Speaker (or Lady Speaker) will be a new position in the British Parliament created once the Constitutional Reform Acts provisions about the Speakership of the House of Lords comes into effect. ... For other uses, see Jack Straw (disambiguation). ... Type Lower House Speaker Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Leader Harriet Harman, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader Theresa May, (Conservative) since May 5, 2005 Members 659 Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the title held by the British Cabinet minister responsible for all economic and financial matters. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The finance minister is a cabinet position in a government. ... The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the finance minister of the Federal Government of the United States. ... Downing Street Downing Street gates Downing Street is the street in London which contains the buildings that have been, for over two hundred years, the official residences of two of the most senior British cabinet ministers, the First Lord of the Treasury, an office held by the Prime Minister of... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster is, in modern times, a sinecure office in the British government. ... A Minister without Portfolio is a government minister with no specific responsibilities. ... This article is about the governmental body. ...

United States

In the United States, the only "chancellor" established by the federal government is the Chancellor of the Smithsonian Institution, a largely ceremonial office held by the Chief Justice of the United States. As the Smithsonian is a research and museum system, its use of the title is perhaps best thought of as akin to a university's chancellor. The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Chief Justice of the United States is the head of the judicial branch... A Chancellor is the head of a university. ...


State Chancellors

Some U.S. states, like Delaware, still maintain a separate Court of Chancery with jurisdiction over equity cases. Judges who sit on those courts are called chancellors. Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... This article is about the U.S. State of Delaware. ... One of the courts of equity in England and Wales. ... The Court of Chancery, London, early 19th century This article is about the concept of equity in the jurisprudence of common law countries. ...


Among the states that once had the judicial office of chancellor, but have now abolished it, is New York State. In 1789, after George Washington had been elected the first President of the United States, he traveled to the temporary national capital, New York City, to be sworn in to office. By tradition, the presidential oath is administered by the Chief Justice of the United States except in cases of emergency. Of course, at the time Washington took office there was no chief justice or any other federal judges, as there was not yet a president to appoint them. Therefore, the oath of office was administered to Washington by the highest-ranking judge available, Robert Livingston, the chancellor of New York State. George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Chief Justice of the United States is the head of the judicial branch... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


New York City

The title of the head of the New York City Department of Education is chancellor. The Official Seal of the City of New York The New York City Department of Education is the branch of municipal government in New York City that manages the citys public school system. ...


References

  1. ^ Toby A. H. Wilkinson, Early Dynastic Egypt, Routledge 1999, p.131
  2. ^ Michael Rice, Who's Who in Ancient Egypt, Routledge 2001, p.63
  3. ^ pBerlin 10035 in U. Luft, Urkunden zur Chronologie der späten 12. Dynastie, Briefe aus Illahun, Wien 2006, 69 ff.
  4. ^ pLouvre 3230 B in E. Wente, Letters from Ancient Egypt, Atlanta, 1990, 92
  5. ^ Memoirs, Egypt Exploration Society - 1958, p.7
  6. ^ Serdab of the Chancellor Meketre
  7. ^ Michael Rice, Who's Who in Ancient Egypt, Routledge 2001

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