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Encyclopedia > Champagne (wine)
Champagne is often consumed as part of a celebration
Champagne is often consumed as part of a celebration

Champagne is a sparkling wine produced by inducing the in-bottle secondary fermentation of wine to effect carbonation. It is produced exclusively within the Champagne region of France, from which it takes its name. While the term "champagne" is used by some makers of sparkling wine in other parts of the world, numerous countries limit the use of the term to only those wines that come from the Champagne appellation. In Europe, this principle is enshrined in the European Union by Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) status. Other countries, such as the United States have recognized the exclusive nature of this name, yet maintain a legal structure that allows longtime domestic producers of sparkling wine to continue to use the term "Champagne" under specific circumstances.[1] Champagne is often consumed as part of a celebration Champagne is a sparkling wine produced by inducing the in-bottle secondary fermentation of wine to effect carbonation. ... Download high resolution version (768x1024, 142 KB) A glass of Champagne. ... Download high resolution version (768x1024, 142 KB) A glass of Champagne. ... A glass of sparkling wine A Sparkling wine cork It has been suggested that Spumante, Frizzante, Sekt and Cremant be merged into this article or section. ... In brewing and wine-making, secondary fermentation is the fermentation some beers and sparkling wines undergo in their final containers, giving natural carbonation. ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... For the chemical reaction forming calcium carbonate, see carbonatation. ... Location of the Champagne province in France Champagne is one of the most traditional provinces of France, a region of France that is best known for the production of the sparkling white wine that bears the regions name. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Protected geographical indications in the European Union. ...

Contents

Origins

Jean François de Troy's 1735 painting Le Déjeuner d'Huîtres (Luncheon with Oysters) is the first known depiction of champagne in painting.
Jean François de Troy's 1735 painting Le Déjeuner d'Huîtres (Luncheon with Oysters) is the first known depiction of champagne in painting.

Wines from the Champagne region were known before medieval times. Churches owned vineyards and monks produced wine for use in the sacrament of Eucharist. French kings were traditionally anointed in Reims and champagne wine was served as part of coronation festivities. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (442x640, 627 KB) Jean François de Troy, The Oyster Lunch , 1735 Musee Conde, Chantilly The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (442x640, 627 KB) Jean François de Troy, The Oyster Lunch , 1735 Musee Conde, Chantilly The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright... A reading of Molière, Jean François de Troy, about 1728 Jean François de Troy (1679-1752) was a French roccoco painter and tapestry designer born on January 27, 1679 in Paris. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ... A common vineyard. ... For other uses, see Monk (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Regents: France and French States be merged into this article or section. ... Reims (alternative English spelling Rheims; pronounced in French) is a city of the Champagne-Ardenne région of northern France, standing 144 km (89 miles) east-northeast of Paris. ... A asses is a ceremony marking the investment of a monarch with regal power through, amongst other symbolic acts, the placement of a crown upon his or her head. ...


Kings appreciated the still, light, and crisp wine, and offered it as an homage to other monarchs in Europe. In the 17th century, still wines of Champagne were the wines for celebration in European countries. The English were the biggest consumers of Champagne wines. (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ...


The first commercial sparkling wine was produced in the Limoux area of Languedoc about 1535. Around 1700, sparkling Champagne, as we know it today, was born. There is documentary evidence that sparkling wine was first intentionally produced by English scientist and physician Christopher Merrett at least 30 years before the work of Dom Perignon who, contrary to legend and popular belief, did not invent sparkling wine [2] [3] Limoux is a village and commune south of Carcassonne, in the French département of Aude, a part of the ancient Languedoc province and the present-day Languedoc-Rousillon region. ... For the language called Langue doc, see Occitan language. ... pie is nice Year 1535 was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Events January 1 - Russia accepts Julian calendar. ... Christopher Merret was a British winemaker who in 1662 presented the Royal Society with a paper called The ordering of wines in which he detailed the secondary fermentation of wine in order to create sparkling wine. ... Dom Perignon was a Benedictine monk frequently credited with the invention of Champagne. ...


Although the French monk Dom Perignon did not invent champagne, it is true he developed many advances in the production of this beverage, including holding the cork in place with a wire collar to withstand the fermentation pressure. It is believed champagne was created accidentally, yet others believe that the first champagne was made with rhubarb but was changed because of the high cost.[citation needed] For other uses see Rhubarb (disambiguation) Species About 60, including: R. nobile R. palmatum Rhubarb is a perennial plant that grows from thick short rhizomes, comprising the genus Rheum. ...


Champagne first gained world renown because of its association with the anointment of French kings. Royalty from throughout Europe spread the message of the unique sparkling wine from Champagne and its association with luxury and power. The leading manufacturers devoted considerable energy to creating a history and identity for their wine, associating it and themselves with nobility and royalty. Through advertising and packaging they sought to associate champagne with high luxury, festivities and rites of passage. Their efforts coincided with an emerging middle class that was looking for ways to spend its money on symbols of upward mobility.


In 1866 the famous entertainer and star of his day, George Leybourne, began a career of making celebrity endorsements for Champagne. The Champagne maker Moët commissioned him to write and perform songs extolling the virtues of Champagne, especially as a reflection of taste, affluence, and the good life. He also agreed to drink nothing but Champagne in public. Leybourne was seen as highly sophisticated and his image and efforts did much to establish Champagne as an important element in enhancing social status. It was a marketing triumph, the results of which endure to this day. Joe Sanders (1842–1884), better known as George Leybourne, was an English music hall performer. ... Logo Moët & Chandon (founded 1743) is one of the worlds largest manufacturers of champagne and one of the best known champagne houses in the world. ...


In the 1800s Champagne was noticeably sweeter than modern Champagne is today, with the Russians preferring Champagne as sweet as 300 grams per litre. The trend towards drier Champagne began when Perrier-Jouët decided not to sweeten his 1846 vintage prior to exporting it to London. The designation Brut Champagne, the modern Champagne, was created for the British in 1876. [4]
For other meanings of gram, see gram (disambiguation). ... The litre or liter (see spelling differences) is a unit of volume. ...


Champagne and the law

The Champagne appellation highlighted in red

Regardless of the legal requirements for labeling, many consumers regard champagne as a generic term for white sparkling wines, regardless of origin. The laws described here were intended to reverse this tradition and reserve the term as a designation of origin.[5] In the European Union and many other countries, the name Champagne is legally protected by the Treaty of Madrid (1891) designating only the sparkling wine produced in the eponymous region and adhering to the standards defined for it an Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée; the right was reaffirmed in the Treaty of Versailles after World War I. Image File history File links Anbau_champagner. ... Image File history File links Anbau_champagner. ... Location of the Champagne province in France The Champagne wine region (archaic English: ) is a historic province within the Champagne administrative province in the northeast of France. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Protected geographical indications in the European Union. ... The Madrid Agreement concerning the International Registration of Marks is, among other things, the first treaty to give France legal protection of the word champagne. ... Appellation d’origine contrôlée (AOC), which translates as term of controlled origin is the French certification granted to certain French geographical indications for wines, cheeses, butters, and other agricultural products, all under the auspices of the government bureau Institut National des Appellations dOrigine (INAO). ... This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was a peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


Even the term méthode champenoise or champagne method was forbidden consequent to a court decision in 1994[6]. As of 2005, the description most often legally used for wines produced like champagne is méthode traditionnelle. Sparkling wines are produced worldwide, and many producers use special terms to define them: Spain uses Cava, Italy designates it spumante, and South Africa uses Cap Classique. An Italian sparkling wine made from the Muscat grape uses the DOCG Asti. In Germany, Sekt is a common sparkling wine. Other French wine regions cannot use the name Champagne, i.e. Burgundy and Alsace produce Crémant. Yet some Crémant producers label their wines to mislead drinkers to believe they are buying Champagne.[citation needed] This article is about a type of wine; Cava is also an island in Scotland and a part of human anatomy. ... Spumante is a type of Italian wine similar to French Champagne. ... Cap Classique denotes a South African sparkling wine made by the traditional Champagne method. ... The muscat family of grapes of the species Vitis vinifera are widely grown for wine, raisins and table grapes. ... Denominazione di origine controllata is an Italian quality assurance label for food products and especially wines (an appellation). ... Asti is a city and comune in the Piemonte or Piedmont region, in north-western Italy, about 80 kilometres east of Turin in the plain of the Tanaro River. ... SEKT (Semantically Enabled Knowledge Technology) is the name of a European Union research project going from 2004 to 2006. ... Coat of arms of the second Duchy of Burgundy and later of the French province of Burgundy Burgundy (French: ; German: ) is a historic region of France, inhabited in turn by Celts (Gauls), Romans (Gallo-Romans), and various Germanic peoples, most importantly the Burgundians and the Franks; the former gave their... (New region flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Regional President Departments Bas-Rhin Haut-Rhin Arrondissements 13 Cantons 75 Communes 903 Statistics Land area1 8,280 km² (??? mi) km² Population (Ranked 14th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... Crémant is the French name for sparkling wine made in that country outside the region of Champagne. ...


Other sparkling wines not from Champagne sometimes use the term "sparkling wine" on their label, while most countries have labeling laws preventing use of the word Champagne on any wine not from that region. Some – including the United States – permit wine producers to use the name “Champagne” as a semi-generic name. One reason American wine producers are allowed to use European wine names is that the Treaty of Versailles, despite President Wilson's signature, was not ratified by the U.S. Senate. The Treaty of Versailles included a clause limiting the German wine industry and allowing use of the word Champagne only for wines from the Champagne region (the site of WWI battles). As the U.S. Senate did not ratify the Treaty, this agreement was never officially respected in the United States. [citation needed] Semi-generic is a legal term used in Canada and by the United States Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau to refer to wine designations that have essentially no meaning. ... This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was a peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856–February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ...


Current U.S regulations require that what is defined as a semi-generic name (Champagne) shall only appear on a wine's label if the appellation of the actual place of origin appears, in order not to mislead drinkers. Because the quality of American sparkling wines is widely recognized, many American producers of quality sparkling wine now find the term "Champagne" useless in marketing them. Moreover, several key U.S. wine regions such as those in California (Napa, Sonoma Valley, Paso Robles), Oregon, and Washington (Walla Walla) now view semi-generic labeling as harmful to their reputations (c.f. Napa Declaration on Place). Semi-generic is a legal term used in Canada and by the United States Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau to refer to wine designations that have essentially no meaning. ... Places: Napa, California Napa County, California Napa Valley College Other: NAPA - National Automotive Parts Association NAPA - National Asphalt Pavement Association Categories: Disambiguation ... Vineyards of Sonoma Valley Sonoma Valley is the birthplace of the California wine industry. ... Paso Robles (El Paso de Robles) is a city located in San Luis Obispo County, California. ... Official language(s) (none)[1] Capital Salem Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 9th  - Total 98,466 sq mi (255,026 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 2. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... Walla-walla (Traditional Chinese: 嘩啦嘩啦), is an kind of motorboat serving in the Victoria Harbour of Hong Kong. ... The Napa Declaration to Protect Wine Place and Origin, commonly known as the Napa Declaration on Place, is a declaration of joint principles stating the importance of location to wine and the need to protect place names. ...


The Champagne winemaking community, under the auspices of the Comité Interprofessionel du Vin de Champagne, has developed a comprehensive set of rules and regulations for all wine produced in the region to protect its economic interests. They include codification of the most suitable growing places; the most suitable grape types (most Champagne is a blend of up to three grape varieties — chardonnay, pinot noir, and pinot meunier — though five other varietals are allowed); and a lengthy set of requirements specifying most aspects of viticulture. This includes pruning, vineyard yield, the degree of pressing, and the time that wine must remain on its lees before bottling. It can also limit the release of Champagne to market to maintain prices. Only when a wine meets these requirements may it be labelled Champagne. The rules agreed upon by the CIVC are submitted for the INAO's final approval. The Comité Interprofessionel du Vin de Champagne is the French branch of a worldwide committee created for the approval of champagne produced worldwide. ... Oak-aged Chardonnay is particularly popular in the United States. ... Pinot noir (pi no nwar) is a red wine grape variety of the species Vitis vinifera. ... Pinot Meunier, also known as Schwarzriesling or Müllerrebe, is a variety of black wine grape most frequently used in the production of Champagne. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... wine grapes Viticulture (from the Latin word for vine) is the science, production and study of grapes which deals with the series of events that occur in the vineyard. ... Lees refers to deposits of dead yeast or residual yeast and other particles that precipitate, or are carried by the action of fining, to the bottom of a vat of wine after fermentation and aging. ... The Institut National des Appellations dOrigine is the France organization charged with regulating controlled place names. ...


Production

Main article: Champagne production
Le Remueur: 1889 engraving of the man engaged in the laborious daily task of turning each bottle a fraction
Le Remueur: 1889 engraving of the man engaged in the laborious daily task of turning each bottle a fraction

Méthode Champenoise is the traditional method by which Champagne (and some sparkling wine) is produced. After primary fermentation and bottling, a second alcoholic fermentation occurs in the bottle. This second fermentation is induced by adding several grams of yeast (usually Saccharomyces cerevisiae, although each brand has its own secret recipe) and several grams of rock sugar. According to the Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée a minimum of 1.5 years is required to completely develop all the flavour. For years where the harvest is exceptional, a millesimé is declared. This means that the champagne will be very good and has to mature for at least 3 years. Champagne production is the process used in the Champagne region of France to produce the sparkling wine known as Champagne. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A glass of sparkling wine A Sparkling wine cork It has been suggested that Spumante, Frizzante, Sekt and Cremant be merged into this article or section. ... Fermenting must. ... Binomial name Meyen ex E.C. Hansen Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of budding yeast. ... Appellation d’origine contrôlée (AOC), which translates as term of controlled origin is the French certification granted to certain French geographical indications for wines, cheeses, butters, and other agricultural products, all under the auspices of the government bureau Institut National des Appellations dOrigine (INAO). ...


During this time the champagne bottle is capped with a crown cap. The bottle is then riddled, so that the lees settles in the neck of the bottle. The neck is then frozen, and the cap removed. The pressure in the bottle forces out the lees, and the bottle is quickly corked to maintain the carbon dioxide in solution. A crown cap from a Heineken beer bottle Pull-off bottle cap The plastic cap and top of a sports water bottle. ... Lees refers to deposits of dead yeast or residual yeast and other particles that precipitate, or are carried by the action of fining, to the bottom of a vat of wine after fermentation and aging. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ...


Champagne producers

An Edwardian English advert for Champagne, listing honours and royal drinkers

There are more than one hundred champagne houses and 15,000 smaller vignerons (vine-growing producers) in Champagne. These companies manage some 32,000 hectares of vineyards in the region and employ more than 10,000 people. The following is a list of the most significant champagne producers. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


Annual sales by all producers total more than 300 million yearly bottles, roughly €4.3 billion. Roughly two-thirds of these sales are made by the large champagne houses with their grandes marques (major brands). Fifty-eight percent (58%) of total production is sold in France, and the remaining 42% exported worldwide – primarily to the UK, the U.S., and Germany. Generally, champagne producers collectively hold stock of about 1 billion bottles being matured, some three years of sales volume.


The type of champagne producer can be identified from the abbreviations followed by the official number on the bottle:

  • NM: Négociant manipulant. These companies (including the majority of the larger brands) buy grapes and make the wine
  • CM: Coopérative de manipulation. Co-operatives that make wines from the growers who are members, with all the grapes pooled together
  • RM: Récoltant manipulant. A grower that also makes wine from its own grapes (a maximum of 5% of purchased grapes is permitted). Note that co-operative members who take their bottles to be disgorged at the co-op can now label themselves as RM instead of RC.
  • SR: Société de récoltants. An association of growers making a shared Champagne but who are not a co-operative
  • RC: Récoltant coopérateur. A co-operative member selling Champagne produced by the co-operative under its own name and label
  • MA: Marque auxiliaire or Marque d'acheteur. A brand name unrelated to the producer or grower; the name is owned by someone else, for example a supermarket
  • ND: Négociant distributeur. A wine merchant selling under his own name

A cooperative (also co-operative or co-op) is an association of persons who join together to carry on an economic activity of mutual benefit, in an egalitarian fashion. ...

Marketing Champagne

Grape-Shot: 1915 English magazine illustration of a woman riding a Champagne cork
Grape-Shot: 1915 English magazine illustration of a woman riding a Champagne cork

The popularity of Champagne is attributed to the success of Champagne producers in marketing the wine. Champagne houses promoted the wine's image as a royal and aristocratic drink. Laurent-Perrier's advertisements in late 1890 boasted their Champagne was the favorite of King Leopold II of Belgium, George I of Greece, Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Margaret Cambridge, Marchioness of Cambridge, and John Lambton, 3rd Earl of Durham, among other nobles, knights, and military officers. Despite this royal prestige, Champagne houses also portrayed Champagne as a luxury enjoyable by anyone, for any occasion. [7] This strategy worked, and, by the turn of the twentieth century, the majority of Champagne drinkers were middle class. [8] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Aristocracy is a form of government in which rulership is in the hands of an upper class known as aristocrats. ... Leopold II (Léopold Louis Philippe Marie Victor (French) or Leopold Lodewijk Filips Marie Victor (Dutch) (April 9, 1835 – December 17, 1909) was King of the Belgians. ... George I, King of the Hellenes (Greek: , Georgios A Vasileus ton Ellinon; December 24, 1845 – March 18, 1913) was King of Greece from 1863 to 1913. ... Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Alfred Ernest Albert; 6 August 1844 – 30 July 1900) was the third Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha between 1893 and 1900. ... Margaret Evelyn Cambridge, Marchioness of Cambridge (8 April 1873–27 March 1929), was the sixth child and third daughter of the 1st Duke of Westminster and the wife of the 1st Marquess of Cambridge. ... John George Lambton (June 19, 1855–September 18, 1928) was the 3rd Earl of Durham and grandson of famous British statesman and colonial administrator, John Lambton, 1st Earl of Durham. ... The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ...


In the 19th century, Champagne producers made a concentrated effort to market their wine to women. This was in stark contrast to the traditionally "male aura" that the wines of France had—particularly Burgundy and Bordeaux. Laurent-Perrier again took the lead in this area with advertisements touting their wine's favour with the Countess of Dudley, the wife of the 9th Earl of Stamford, the wife of the Baron Tollemache, and the opera singer Adelina Patti. Champagne labels were designed with images of romantic love and marriage as well as other special occasions that were deemed important to women, such as the baptism of a child. [9] Burgundy wine (in French, Bourgogne) is wine made in the Burgundy AOC region of France. ... Bordeaux with sub-wine regions A Bordeaux wine is any wine produced in the Bordeaux region of France. ... Lord Dudley William Humble Ward, 2nd Earl of Dudley (25 May 1867 - 29 June 1932), Lord Lieutenant of Ireland and fourth Governor-General of Australia, was born in London and was educated at Eton. ... The title Earl of Stamford is an extinct title in the Peerage of England. ... Baron Tollemache is a peerage title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. ... Patti as Marguerite in Faust, 1875. ... This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ...


In some advertisements, the Champagne houses catered to political interest such as the labels that appeared on different brands on bottles commemorating the centennial anniversary of the French Revolution of 1789. On some labels there were flattering images of Marie-Antoinette that appealed to the conservative factions of French citizens that viewed the former queen as a martyr. On other labels there were stirring images of Revolutionary scenes that appealed to the liberal left sentiments of French citizens. As World War I loomed, Champagne houses put images of soldiers and countries' flags on their bottles, customizing the image for each country to which the wine was imported. During the Dreyfus Affair, one Champagne house released a Champagne Antijuif with anti-Semitic advertisements to take advantage the wave of anti-Semitism that hit France. [10] The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Marie Antoinette Maria Antonia Josefa Johanna von Habsburg-Lothringen (November 2, 1755 – October 16, 1793), known to history as Marie Antoinette (pronounced ), was born an Archduchess of Austria, and later became Queen of France. ... For other uses, see Martyr (disambiguation). ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The Dreyfus affair was a political scandal with anti-Semitic overtones which divided France from the 1890s to the early 1900s. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ...


Varieties

Champagne is a single Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée. Grapes must be the white Chardonnay, or the black Pinot Noir or Pinot Meunier. Also permitted but rare in usage are Pinot Blanc, Arbane and Petit Meslier. Appellation d’origine contrôlée (AOC), which translates as term of controlled origin is the French certification granted to certain French geographical indications for wines, cheeses, butters, and other agricultural products, all under the auspices of the government bureau Institut National des Appellations dOrigine (INAO). ... Oak-aged Chardonnay is particularly popular in the United States. ... Pinot noir (pi no nwar) is a red wine grape variety of the species Vitis vinifera. ... Pinot Meunier, also known as Schwarzriesling or Müllerrebe, is a variety of black wine grape most frequently used in the production of Champagne. ... Pinot Blanc is a white wine grape. ... Petit Meslier is a rare white wine grape that is a minor component of some Champagne blends. ...


The black Pinot Noir and Pinot Meunier give the wine its length and backbone. They are predominantly grown in two areas - the Montagne de Reims and the Valée de la Marne. The Montagne de Reims run east-west to the south of Reims, in northern Champagne. They are notable for north-facing chalky slopes that derive heat from the warm winds rising from the valleys below. The River Marne runs west-east through Champagne, south of the Montagne de Reims. The Valée de la Marne contains south-facing chalky slopes. Chardonnay gives the wine its acidity and biscuit flavour. The majority of Chardonnay is grown in a north-south-running strip to the south of Epernay, called the Côte des Blanc, including the villages of Avize, Oger and Le Mesnil-Sur-Oger. These are east-facing vineyards, with terroir similar to the Côte de Beaune. The various terroirs account for the differences in grape characteristics and explain the appropriateness of blending juice from different grape varieties and geographical areas within Champagne, to get the desired style for each Champagne house. Pinot noir (pi no nwar) is a red wine grape variety of the species Vitis vinifera. ... Pinot Meunier, also known as Schwarzriesling or Müllerrebe, is a variety of black wine grape most frequently used in the production of Champagne. ... Oak-aged Chardonnay is particularly popular in the United States. ... Épernay is a town and commune of northern France. ... Chardonnay vineyards in the south of the Côte de Beaune surrounding the town of Meursault. ...


Most Champagnes are made from a blend of Chardonnay and Pinot Noir, for example 60%/40%. Blanc de blanc (white of white) Champagnes are made from 100% Chardonnay. Possibly the most exquisite, and definitely the most expensive of these is grown in a single Premier cru vineyard in Le Mesnil-Sur-Oger for Salon. Blanc de noir (white of black) Champagne is pressed from 100% Pinot Noir or black grapes, using a special quick-pressing, so that the black colour of the skin does not stain the vin de presse (pressed grape juice). Oak-aged Chardonnay is particularly popular in the United States. ... Pinot noir (pi no nwar) is a red wine grape variety of the species Vitis vinifera. ... Oak-aged Chardonnay is particularly popular in the United States. ... First Growth (French Premier Cru) status refers to the greatest wines of the Bordeaux region. ... Pinot noir (pi no nwar) is a red wine grape variety of the species Vitis vinifera. ...


Champagne is typically light in color even if it is produced with red grapes, because the juice is extracted from the grapes using a gentle process that minimizes the amount of time the juice spends in contact with the skins, which is what gives red wine its colour. Rosé wines are produced throughout France by allowing white wine to macerate with black grapes. Rosé Champagne is notable as it is the only wine that produces Rosé by adding a small amount of red wine during blending. This ensures a predictable and reproducible colour, allowing a constant Rosé colour from year-to-year. The amount of sugar (dosage) added after the second fermentation and aging also varies, from brut zéro or brut natural, where none is added, through brut, extra-dry, sec, demi-sec and doux. The most common is brut, although throughout the 19th century and into the early 20th century Champagne was generally much sweeter than what we see today. This article is about the beverage. ... For the song by The Feeling, see Rosé (song). ... For the song by The Feeling, see Rosé (song). ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely traded commodity. ...


Most Champagne is non-vintage, produced from a blend of years (the exact blend is only mentioned on the label by a few growers), while that produced from a single vintage is labelled with the year and Millésimé. The Vintagers, after a miniature of the Dialogues de Saint Gregoire (thirteenth century)—manuscript of the Royal Library of Brussels. ...


Many Champagnes are produced from bought-in grapes by well known brands such as Veuve Clicquot or Mumm. Veuve Clicquot Ponsardin is a brand of champagne, easily recognized by its distinctive bright yellow bottle labels. ... Mumm, situated in Reims in northern France, is one of the large champagne producers worldwide. ...


Blanc de noirs

Blanc de noirs is a French term (literally "white of blacks") for a white wine produced entirely from black grapes. It is often encountered in Champagne, where a number of houses have followed the lead of Bollinger's prestige cuvée Vieilles Vignes Françaises in introducing a cuvée made from either Pinot Noir, Pinot Meunier or a blend of the two (these being the only two black grapes permitted within the Champagne AOC appellation). Although Bollinger's wine is famed for its intense richness and full-bodied nature, this has more to do with the way the grapes are planted and when they are harvested than any intrinsic property of blanc de noirs Champagne, which is often little different from cuvées including a proportion of Chardonnay. Bollinger Champagne Bollinger is a brand of champagne (see all other Bollingers). ... Example of a label on a bottle of Zinfandel indicating Cuvee XXVIII Cuvée (or Cuvee on some English language labels) is a French term used on wine labels to denote wine of a specific blend or batch. ... An appellation in its broadest sense is a name or designation. ...


Prestige cuvée

A prestige cuvée, or cuvée de prestige, is a proprietary blended wine (usually a Champagne) that is considered to be the top of a producer's range. Famous examples include Louis Roederer's Cristal, Laurent-Perrier's Grand Siècle, Moët & Chandon's Dom Pérignon, and Pol Roger's Cuvée Sir Winston Churchill. Example of a label on a bottle of Zinfandel indicating Cuvee XXVIII Cuvée (or Cuvee on some English language labels) is a French term used on wine labels to denote wine of a specific blend or batch. ... Louis Roederer is one of the largest remaining independent Champagne Houses, owned by the same family since it was founded in 1776. ... A bottle of Louis Roederer Cristal (1993). ... Logo Moët & Chandon is the leading brand and manufacturer of champagne. ... Dom Perignon is a famous and expensive Champagne produced by Moët et Chandon. ... Pol Roger et Cie is a notable champagne house. ...


The original prestige cuvée was Moët & Chandon's Dom Pérignon, launched in 1936 with the 1921 vintage. Until then, Champagne houses produced different cuvées of varying quality, but a top-of-the-range wine produced to the highest standards (and priced accordingly) was a new idea. In fact, Louis Roederer had been producing Cristal since 1876, but this was strictly for the private consumption of the Russian tsar. Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ...


Cristal was made publicly available with the 1945 vintage. Then came Taittinger's Comtes de Champagne (first vintage 1952), and Laurent-Perrier's Grand Siècle 'La Cuvée' in 1960, a blend of three vintages (1952, 1953, and 1955). In the last three decades of the twentieth century, most Champagne houses followed these with their own prestige cuvées, often named after notable people with a link to that producer (Veuve Clicquot's La Grande Dame, the nickname of the widow of the house's founder's son; Pol Roger's Cuvée Sir Winston Churchill, named for the British prime minister; and Laurent-Perrier's Cuvée Alexandra rosé, to name just three examples), and presented in non-standard bottle shapes (following Dom Pérignon's lead with its eighteenth-century revival design). The Taittinger family are a French family who are famous producers of champagne. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ...


The Comité Interprofessionnel du Vin de Champagne

Main article: Comité Interprofessionnel du Vin de Champagne

All of the over 15,000 growers, cooperatives and over 300 houses that are central to producing Champagne are members of the Comite Interprofessionel du Vin de Champagne (CIVC), established in 1941 under the auspices of the French government (now represented by the Ministry of Agriculture). This organization has a system in which both the houses and the growers are represented at all levels. This includes a co-presidency where a grower representative and a representative of the houses share the running of the organization. This system is designed to ensure that the CIVC's primary mission, to promote and protect Champagne and those who produce it, is done in a manner that represents the interests of all involved. This power structure has played an important role in the success of Champagne worldwide and the integrity of the appellation itself. The Comite Interprofessionnel du Vin de Champagne (CIVC) was established in 1941 as an organization grouping Champagne growers, cooperatives and merchants under the direction of the government. ...


Bubbles

See also: Carbonation
Bubbles from rosé champagne
Bubbles from rosé champagne

An initial burst of effervescence occurs when the champagne contacts the dry glass on pouring. These bubbles may form on imperfections in the glass that facilitate nucleation or on cellulose fibres left over from the wiping/drying process as shown by Gérard Liger-Belair, Richard Marchal, and Philippe Jeandel with a high-speed video camera.[11][12] . However, after the initial rush, these naturally occurring imperfections are typically too small to consistently act as nucleation points as the surface tension of the liquid smooths out these minute irregularities. For the chemical reaction forming calcium carbonate, see carbonatation. ... Image File history File links Rose_Champagne_Bubbles. ... Image File history File links Rose_Champagne_Bubbles. ... This article is about the material. ... Video cameras are used primarily in two modes. ...

"Contrary to a generally accepted idea, nucleation sites are not located on irregularities of the glass itself. The length-scale of glass and crystal irregularities is far below the critical radius of curvature required for the non-classical heterogeneous nucleation." G. Liger-Belair et al [13]

The nucleation sites that act as a source for the ongoing effervescence are not natural imperfections in the glass, but actually occur where the glass has been etched by the manufacturer or the customer. This etching is typically done with acid, a laser, or a glass etching tool from a craft shop to provide nucleation sites for continuous bubble formation (note that not all glasses are etched in this way)


Dom Perignon was originally charged by his superiors at the Abbey of Hautvillers to get rid of the bubbles since the pressure in the bottles caused many of them to burst in the cellar. [14] As sparkling wine production increased in the early 1700s, cellar workers would have to wear heavy iron mask that resembled a baseball catcher's mask to prevent injury from spontaneously bursting bottles. The disturbance caused by one bottle's disintegration could cause a chain reaction, with it being routine for cellars to lose 20-90% of their bottles to instability. The mysterious circumstance surrounding the then unknown process of fermentation and carbonic gas caused some critics to call the sparkling creations "The Devil's Wine". [15] Dom Perignon was a Benedictine monk frequently credited with the invention of Champagne. ... Bold textTHIS IS THE PAGE THAT A.S. REALLY NEEDS!! THIS IS NOW MARKED!!! ] ps i like A.O. This article is about an abbey as a Christian monastic community. ... The position of the catcher Catcher is also a general term for a fielder who catches the ball in cricket. ...


Champagne bottles

For more details on this topic, see Wine bottle.
Side-by-side comparison of champagne bottles. (L to R) On ladder: magnum (1.5 litres), full (0.75 litre), half (0.375 litre), quarter (0.1875 litre). On floor: Balthazar (12 litres), Salmanazar (9 litres), Methuselah (6 litres), Jeroboam (3 litres)
Side-by-side comparison of champagne bottles. (L to R) On ladder: magnum (1.5 litres), full (0.75 litre), half (0.375 litre), quarter (0.1875 litre). On floor: Balthazar (12 litres), Salmanazar (9 litres), Methuselah (6 litres), Jeroboam (3 litres)

Champagne is mostly fermented in two sizes of bottles, standard bottles (750 mL), and magnums (1.5 L). In general, magnums are thought to be higher quality, as there is less oxygen in the bottle, and the volume to surface area favors the creation of appropriately-sized bubbles. However, there is no hard evidence for this view. Other bottle sizes, named for Biblical figures, are generally filled with Champagne that has been fermented in standard bottles or magnums. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Veuve Clicquot bottle size display. ... Veuve Clicquot bottle size display. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up magnum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Balthazar (also spelled Balthasar), is a traditional name for one of the anonymous Three Wise Men in the Gospel of Matthew. ... A Salmanazar is the name given to an over-sized bottle of French wine consisting of 12 standard bottles (8 litres), particularly used in reference to bottles of Champagne of that size. ... Methuselah or Metushélach (Hebrew: / Standard  / Tiberian  /  ; Man of the dart, or alternatively when he dies/died, it will be sent/has been sent) is the oldest person whose age is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. ... The United Kingdom of Solomon breaks up, with Jeroboam ruling over the Northern Kingdom of Israel (in green on the map). ... The millilitre is the equivalent of a cubic centimetre. ... The litre or liter (see spelling differences) is a unit of volume. ...


Sizes larger than Jeroboam (3.0 L) are rare. Primat sized bottles (27 L) - and as of 2002 Melchizedek sized bottles (30 L) - are exclusively offered by the House Drappier. The same names are used for bottles containing wine and port; however Jeroboam, Rehoboam and Methuselah refer to different bottle volumes. On occasion unique sizes have been made for special occasions and people, the most notable example perhaps being the 20 fluid ounce / 60 cL. bottle (Imperial pint) made specially for Sir Winston Churchill by Pol Roger. In order to see a side-by-side comparisen, see this site: Champagne sizes


Champagne corks

Corking a Champagne Bottle: 1855 engraving of the manual method
Corking a Champagne Bottle: 1855 engraving of the manual method

Champagne corks are built from several sections and are referred to as aglomerated corks. The mushroom shape that occurs in the transition is a result of the bottom section, which is in contact with the wine, being composed of two stacked discs of pristine cork, cemented to the upper portion which is a conglomerate of ground cork and glue. Prior to insertion, a sparkling wine cork is almost 50% larger than the opening of the bottle. Originally they start as a cylinder and are compressed prior to insertion into the bottle. Over time their compressed shape becomes more permanent and the distinctive "mushroom" shape becomes more apparent. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


The aging of the champagne post disgorgement can to some degree be told by the cork, as the longer it has been in the bottle the less it returns to its original cylinder shape.


Serving Champagne

Champagne is usually served in a champagne flute, whose characteristics include a long stem with a tall, narrow bowl and opening. The wider, flat champagne cup (pronounced coupe), which has a saucer-shaped bowl and is commonly associated with Champagne, is no longer preferred by connoisseurs because it does not preserve the bubbles and aroma of the wine as well. The champagne flute is a piece of stemware with unique characteristics. ... Champagne flute and bottle Champagne stemware refers to the flute and coupe stemware used in the enjoyment of champagne, other sparkling wines, and certain beers. ...


Alternatively, when tasting Champagne, a big red wine glass (i.e. a glass for Bordeaux) can be used, as the aroma spreads better in the larger volume of the glass. Glasses should not be overfilled: flutes should be filled only to ⅔ of the glass, and big red wine glasses not more than ⅓ of the glass.


Champagne is always served cold, and is best drank at a temperature of around 7 to 9 °C (43 to 48 °F). Often the bottle is chilled in a bucket of ice and water before and after opening. Champagne buckets are made specifically for this purpose, and often have a larger volume than standard wine-cooling buckets (to accommodate the larger bottle, and more water and ice).


Champagne Etiquette

Contrary to what is often shown in film and television, is it very impolite to allow the cork to make a loud "pop" sound. The cork should be slowly and carefully turned for removal. This same rule applies to regular wines; a waiter who opens a bottles loudly is seen as uncultured and rude.[citation needed] In Australia, Champagne and other sparkling wine, is often served with a cut or whole strawberry inside the flute, thought to enhance the flavor. In France, an alcoholic fruit liquor such as crème de Cassis, or blackcurrant liqueur, is added to create kir royal. For other uses, see Strawberry (disambiguation). ... Kir Kir is a cocktail made with a measure of crème de cassis (blackcurrant liquor) topped up with white wine. ...


Opening Champagne bottles

Champagne corks, showing various Champagne house insignias and effects of bottle ageing to their shape.
Champagne corks, showing various Champagne house insignias and effects of bottle ageing to their shape.

The deliberate spraying of Champagne has become an integral part of some sports trophy presentations, such as the famous podium presentation at the conclusion of a Formula 1 Grand Prix. However, this opening will waste much of the champagne. To reduce the risk of spilling Champagne and/or turning the cork into a dangerous projectile, a Champagne bottle can be opened by holding the cork and rotating the bottle (rather than the cork). By using a 45 degree angle, the surface of the champagne has the maximum surface area, thus minimizing the excessive bubbling. The cork can ease out with a sigh or a whisper rather than a pop. The flavor will be largely the same, irrespective of the method used, but the volume left in the bottle will differ. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x624, 131 KB) Summary Description: 6 Champagne Corks. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x624, 131 KB) Summary Description: 6 Champagne Corks. ... For other uses, see Cork. ... Formula One, abbreviated to F1 and also known as Grand Prix racing, is the highest class of single-seat open-wheel auto racing. ... Grand Prix motor racing has its roots in organised automobile racing that began in France as far back as 1894. ... A projectile is any object sent through space by the application of a force. ... For the supervillain, see Onomatopoeia (comics). ...


A sabre can be used to open a Champagne bottle with great ceremony. This technique is called sabrage. French naval officers sabre of the 19th Century From left to right: two bayonets, a short curved infantry or artillery briquet, a straight infantry officers sabre, and a carbine. ... // Sabrage; Sabering the Champagne bottle. ...


Health benefits

In April 2007, the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry published the results of a recent joint study by the University of Reading and University of Cagliari that showed moderate consumptions of Champagne may help the brain cope with the trauma of stroke, Alzheimer's, and Parkinson's disease. The research noted that the high amount of the antioxidant polyphenols in sparkling wine can help prevent deterioration of brain cells due to oxidative stress. During the study scientist exposed two groups of mice with blanc de blancs (100% Chardonnay composition) and blanc de noir (Pinot Noir and Pinot Meunier based) and a control group with no exposure to Champagne. All groups were then subjected to high levels of neurotoxicity similar to what the human brain experiences during inflammatory conditions. The study found that the groups pretreated with exposure to Champagne had the highest level of cell restoration compared to the group that wasn't. The study's co-authors noted that it was too early to conclusively say that drinking Champagne is beneficial to brain health but that the study does point researchers to more exploration in this area.[16] Whiteknights Lake Whiteknights Lake in winter The University Great Hall, on the London Road Campus The University of Reading is a university in the English town of Reading, Berkshire. ... The University of Cagliari (Italian: Università degli Studi di Cagliari) is a university located in Cagliari, Italy. ... The human brain controls the central nervous system (CNS), by way of the cranial nerves and spinal cord, the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and regulates virtually all human activity. ... For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ... Alzheimers disease (AD) or senile dementia of Alzheimers type is a neurodegenerative disease which results in a loss of mental functions due to the deterioration of brain tissue. ... Space-filling model of the antioxidant metabolite glutathione. ... Polyphenols are a group of vegetable chemical substances, characterized by the presence of more than one phenolic group. ... Neurons (also called nerve cells) are the primary cells of the nervous system. ... Oxidative stress is a medical term for damage to animal or plant cells (and thereby the organs and tissues composed of those cells) caused by reactive oxygen species, which include (but are not limited to) superoxide, singlet oxygen, peroxynitrite or hydrogen peroxide. ... Mice may refer to: An abbreviation of Meetings, Incentives, Conferencing, Exhibitions. ... Neurotoxicity occurs when the exposure to natural or manmade toxic substances ,which are called neurotoxins, alters the normal activity of the nervous system. ... Inflammation is the first response of the immune system to infection or irritation and may be referred to as the innate cascade. ...


Alcohol absorption

It is a common perception that people become drunk more quickly on champagne. It has been shown that alcohol is more rapidly absorbed when mixed with carbonated water, and this may explain this anecdotal assertion.[17]


See also

The Champagne Riots of 1911 resulted from a series of problems faced by grape growers in the Champagne area of France. ... Wikibooks Bartending has a page on the topic of Cocktails A cocktail is a style of mixed drink made predominantly with a distilled beverage, such as vodka, gin, whiskey, rum, or tequila, mixed with another drink other than water. ... // Sabrage; Sabering the Champagne bottle. ... Wine fraud has probably existed since the earliest trading and commerce in wine, but it appears to increase when there is widespread prosperity and the prices of some wines become very high. ... Louis Bohne (b?-1821), born in Mannheim, Germany, was the legendary sales agent for Veuve Clicquot whose exploits during the French invasion of Russia and subsequent fall of Napoleon substantially increased the popularity of Champagne in Russia during the 19th century. ... Coteaux Champenois is a wine Appellation dOrigine Contrôlée (AOC) in the Champagne province of France. ...

References

  1. ^ "Section 5388(c) of Title 26 of the United States Code"
  2. ^ Christopher Merrett Biographical Information. Royal Society Web site
  3. ^ Liger-Belair, Gérard (2004). Uncorked: The Science of Champagne. Princeton University Press, pg.12-13. ISBN 978-0-691-11919-9
  4. ^ R. Phillips A Short History of Wine pg 242 Harper Collins 2000 ISBN 0066212820
  5. ^ Ahvenainen P. Korbel Responds
  6. ^ Judgment of the Court of 13 December 1994., SMW Winzersekt GmbH v Land Rheinland-Pfalz., Preliminary reference - Assessment of validity - Description of sparkling wines - Prohibition of reference to the method of production known as "méthode champenoise".. Retrieved on 2007-01-23.
  7. ^ R. Phillips A Short History of Wine pg 245 Harper Collins 2000 ISBN 0066212820
  8. ^ R. Phillips A Short History of Wine pg 243 Harper Collins 2000 ISBN 0066212820
  9. ^ R. Phillips A Short History of Wine pg 246 Harper Collins 2000 ISBN 0066212820
  10. ^ R. Phillips A Short History of Wine pg 244 Harper Collins 2000 ISBN 0066212820
  11. ^ (French) G. Liger-Belair (2002). "La physique des bulles de champagne". Annales de Physique 27 (4): 1-106. 
  12. ^ G. Liger-Belair et al (2002). "Close-up on Bubble Nucleation in a Glass of Champagne". American Society for Enology and Viticulture 53 (2): 151-153.  PDF abstract
  13. ^ G. Liger-Belair et al (2002). "Effervescence in a glass of champagne: A bubble story". Europhysics News 33 (1). 
  14. ^ D. & P. Kladstrup Champagne pg 25 Harper Collins Publisher ISBN 0060737921
  15. ^ D. & P. Kladstrup Champagne pp 46-47 Harper Collins Publisher ISBN 0060737921
  16. ^ J. Gaffney "Champagne Protects Brain Cells From Injury, Study Finds The Wine Spectator pg 18 July 31st, 2007
  17. ^ Roberts C, Robinson SP (2007). "Alcohol concentration and carbonation of drinks: The effect on blood alcohol levels". J Forensic Legal Med 14: 398–405. doi:10.1016/j.jflm.2006.12.010. 

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

Further reading

  • Tom Stevenson (2003) World Encyclopedia of Champagne and Sparkling Wine. Wine Appreciation Guild ISBN 1-891267-61-2
  • Tom Stevenson (1998) The Millennium Champagne & Sparkling Wine Guide. Élan Press ISBN 1-55144-196-9
  • Serena Sutcliffe (1988) Champagne: The History and Character of the World's Most Celebrated Wine. Mitchell Beazley Publishers ISBN 0-671-66672-X
  • Gérard Liger-Belair (2004) Uncorked: The Science of Champagne. Princeton University Press ISBN 0-691-11919-8
  • Dr. Tran Ky and Dr. F. Drouard (2006) The Healing Power of Champagne. Savoir-Boire Ltd ISBN 0-9554105-0-9
  • Guy, Kolleen. When Champagne became French: Wine and the Making of a National Identity. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003.
  • Robinson, Jancis (Ed.) The Oxford Companion to Wine. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, second edition, 1999.
  • Prial, Frank J. Decantations. New Yrk: St. Maritin's and grifin Publishers, 2001, p. 24.

Serena Sutcliffe, MW, (1945 - ) is the head of Sothebys international wine department, as well as a prominent writer on wine. ...

External links

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Champagne (drink)

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Comité Interprofessionel du Vin de Champagne is the French branch of a worldwide committee created for the approval of champagne produced worldwide. ... An industry trade group is generally a public relations organization funded, founded and formed by corporations that operate in a specific industry. ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... For the song by The Feeling, see Rosé (song). ... A glass of sparkling wine A Sparkling wine cork It has been suggested that Spumante, Frizzante, Sekt and Cremant be merged into this article or section. ... Dessert wines (or pudding wines) are sweet wines typically served with dessert, such as Sauternes and Tokaji Aszú. Despite the name, they are often best appreciated alone, or with fruit or bakery sweets. ... A fortified wine is a wine to which additional alcohol has been added, most commonly in the form of brandy (a spirit distilled from wine). ... Fruit wines are wine-like beverages made from fruits other than grapes. ... Grapes for ice wine, still frozen on the vine. ... Albariño (ahl-bar-EEN-yoh – Galician) or Alvarinho (ahl-vah-REE-nyoh – Portuguese) is a variety of white wine grape grown in Galicia (northwest Spain) and northern Portugal, where it is used to make varietal white wines. ... Oak-aged Chardonnay is particularly popular in the United States. ... Chenin Blanc (or often simply Chenin) is a widely grown wine grape variety, also known as Steen in South Africa, Pineau de la Loire in the Loire region of France. ... Gewürztraminer grapes on the vine Gewürztraminer (IPA: , sounds like guh-VERTS-truh-MEE-ner; IPA: in German; Croatian: ; Hungarian: ), sometimes referred to as Gewürz or Traminer, is a white wine grape variety that performs best in cooler climates. ... For other uses, see Muscat (disambiguation). ... Pinot Blanc is a white wine grape. ... Pinot Gris (or Tokay Pinot Gris) is a white wine grape of species Vitis vinifera related to Pinot noir which goes by a lot of other names: Pinot Grigio (Italy) Pinot Beurot (Loire Valley, France) Ruländer (Austria and Germany, Romania, sweet) Grauburgunder or Grauer burgunder (Austria and Germany, dry... Riesling is a white grape variety and varietal appellation of wines grown historically in Germany (see German wine), Alsace (France), Austria, and northern Italy. ... Sauvignon blanc is a green-skinned grape variety which originates from the Bordeaux region of France. ... Sémillon is a golden-skinned grape used to make dry and sweet white wines, most notably in France and Australia. ... Viognier (pronounced vee-own-YAY[1]) is a white wine grape. ... Barbera is a wine grape variety from Monferrato in Piemonte, Italy. ... Cabernet Franc is a red wine grape variety similar to and a parent of Cabernet Sauvignon. ... Old vine Cabernet Sauvignon at Chateau Montelena in Napa Valley. ... For the Spanish wine region, see Cariñena (DO). ... Dolcetto is a well-known wine grape variety widely grown in Piedmont region of Italy. ... A California Gamay Gamay is a purple-colored grape variety used to make red wines, most notably grown in Beaujolais. ... Grenache is a sweet red grape variety grown primarily for the making of wine. ... Malbec is a black, mellow grape variety originally grown in France, in the Loire Valley and Cahors. ... Merlot grapes on the vine. ... Mourvèdre is a variety of wine grape grown around the world, and is Spains second-most important red wine grape after Garnacha, and was once Provences most popular grape. ... Nebbiolo is the most important wine grape variety of Italys Piedmont region. ... Durif (or Duriff) is a minor variety of red wine grape grown in France, California and Australia. ... Petit verdot is a variety of red wine grape, principally in classic Bordeaux blends. ... Pinot noir (pi no nwar) is a red wine grape variety of the species Vitis vinifera. ... Pinotage is a wine grape that is a cross between Pinot Noir and Cinsault (called Hermitage in South Africa and parts of Europe, hence the portmanteau name of this grape variety). ... Sangiovese (synonyms: Sangiovese grosso, Brunello, Uva brunella, Morellino, Prugnolo, Prugnolo gentile, Sangioveto, Tignolo and Uva Canina) is a red wine grape variety originating in Italy where it is now recognised as a superior variety. ... Shiraz grapes have a characteristically deep purple color that is reflected in their wine. ... Tempranillo is a variety of vitis vinifera, the red grape used commonly in winemaking. ... Zinfandel, also known as Zin, is a red-skinned wine grape popular in California for its intense fruitiness and lush texture. ... Amarone della Valpolicella is an often powerful Italian wine made from dried grapes of the Corvina, Rondinella, and Molinara varieties. ... Asti is a DOCG sparkling wine produced in the Asti region in Piedmont, Italy. ... A classic northern Italian wine, Barbaresco is a powerful wine that is made purely from the Nebbiolo grape. ... Barbera dAsti Superiore DOC Tre Vescovi 2003 Vinchio e Vaglio Barbera dAsti is a red wine variety. ... Castle and Village of Barolo. ... It has been suggested that Barossa Shiraz be merged into this article or section. ... A Beaujolais label Beaujolais is a historical province and a wine-producing region in France. ... Bordeaux with sub-wine regions A Bordeaux wine is any wine produced in the Bordeaux region of France. ... Burgundy wine (in French, Bourgogne) is wine made in the Burgundy AOC region of France. ... The Chablis wine region is the northernmost sector of Burgundy, France, and also the name of a town located there. ... Valdelsa (part of Chianti Colli Fiorentini sub-area). ... Commandaria is an amber-colored dessert wine made from the indigenous Mavro and Xynistery varieties of red grapes in the Commandaria region of Cyprus (centered near the city of Kolossi). ... Dão Wine (or Vinho do Dão) is from the Região Demarcada do Dão, a region demarcated in 1908, but already in 1390 there were taken some measures to protect this wine. ... Egri Bikavér (Bulls Blood) is one of the most reputed and traditional Hungarian wines besides the Tokaji wines. ... Madeira is a fortified wine made in the Madeira Islands of Portugal, which is prized equally for drinking and cooking; the latter use including the dessert plum in Madeira. ... Marsala is the name for a wine produced in the region surrounding the Italian city of Marsala in Sicily. ... Mosel is a German wine-growing region (Anbaugebiet) that takes its name from the river Mosel (or Moselle). ... Muscadet is a type of dry French white wine. ... A glass of tawny port. ... Retsina is a Greek resinated white (or rosé) wine dating back at least 2700 years. ... Rheingau valley with the River Rhein The Rheingau (in English: Rhine District) is the hill country on the north side of the Rhine River between Wiesbaden and Rüdesheim near Frankfurt, reaching from the western Taunus to the Rhine. ... Rheinhessen (in English: Rhenish Hesse) refers to the part of the former Grand Duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt located west of the Rhine river and now part of Rhineland-Palatinate. ... The Rhône wine region is first divided into north and south. ... Rioja Wine Rioja is a wine from a region named after the Rio Oja in Spain, a tributary of the Ebro. ... Sancerre is one of the most famous white wines in France named from the town Sancerre. ... A half bottle of Sauternes from Château dYquem Sauternes is a type of dessert wine made from Sémillon, Sauvignon Blanc, and Muscadelle grapes that have been affected by Botrytis cinerea, also known as noble rot. ... Sherry solera For other uses, see Sherry (disambiguation). ... Tokaj cellar Tokaji, meaning of Tokaj in Hungarian, is used to label wines from the wine region of Tokaj-Hegyalja in Hungary. ... Valpolicella is a zone of the province of Verona, Italy, east of Lake Garda. ... It has been suggested that Punt e mes be merged into this article or section. ... Vinho Verde is Portuguese and literally means Green Wine. There are red, white and, more rarely, rosé varieties of the appellation Vinho Verde, but only the white wines are exported. ... Vouvray, from the region of the same name is made through the vinification of the Chenin Blanc grape. ... The Glossary of wine terms lists the definitions of many terms used within the wine industry. ... This is a list of varieties of cultivated grapes, whether used for wine, or eating as a Table grape, fresh or dried (raisin, currant, sultana). ... This list of wine-producing regions catalogues significant growing regions where vineyards are planted. ... The following is a list of wine-producing countries and their volume of wine production for the year 2005 in metric tonnes. ... Natural wine is wine made with as little chemical and technological intervention as possible, either in the way the grapes are grown or the way they are made into wine. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into wine. ... Polyphenols are a group of chemical substances found in plants, characterized by the presence of more than one phenol group per molecule. ... Varietal describes wines made from a single named grape variety. ... A Wine accessory is generally any equipment that may be used in the storing or serving of wine. ... This is a list of varieties of cultivated grapes, whether used for wine, or eating as a Table grape, fresh or dried (raisin, currant, sultana). ... Winemakers often use carboys like these to ferment smaller quantities of wine Winemaking, or vinification, is the process of wine production, from the selection of grapes to the bottling of finished wine. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Champagne (beverage) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2417 words)
Champagne is typically a white wine even if it is produced with red grapes, because the juice is extracted from the grapes using a gentle process that minimizes the amount of time the juice spends in contact with the skins, which is what makes red wine red.
Most Champagne is non-vintage, produced from a blend of years (the exact blend is only mentioned on the label by a few growers), while that produced from a single vintage is labelled with the year and Millésimé.
Champagne is usually served in a champagne flute, whose characteristics include a long stem with a tall, narrow bowl and opening.
Champagne (wine) - definition of Champagne (wine) in Encyclopedia (1188 words)
Champagne is a sparkling wine produced by inducing the secondary fermentation of wine.
In the 17th century, flat wines of Champagne were the chosen wines for celebration in European countries.
Champagne is traditionally served in a champagne flute, whose characteristics include a long stem with a tall, narrow bowl and opening.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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