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Encyclopedia > Chameleon
Chameleon

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Squamata
Suborder: Iguania
Family: Chamaeleonidae
Genera

Bradypodion
Calumma
Chamaeleo
Furcifer
Kinyongia
Nadzikambia
Brookesia
Rieppeleon
Rhampholeon Look up chameleon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Charmeleon , Lizardo in original Japanese language versions) is one of the 493 fictional species of Pokémon creatures from the Pokémon media franchise. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 567 pixelsFull resolution (2816 × 1996 pixel, file size: 1. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Reptilia redirects here. ... Suborders Lacertilia- Lizards Serpentes - Snakes Amphisbaenia - Worm lizards This article is about the Squamata order of reptiles. ... Iguania is the suborder of Squamata that contains the iguanas, anoles, etc. ... Bradypodion (meaning slow-footed) is one of six genera of chameleons within the subfamily of Chamaeleoninae, true or typical chameleons. They are native to southeastern Africa, and are sometimes collectively called South African dwarf chameleons. ... Classification of genus Calumma Calumma andringitraensis Calumma boettgeri Calumma brevicornis Calumma capuroni Calumma cucullata Calumma fallax Calumma furcifer Calumma gallus Calumma gastrotaenia Calumma glawi Calumma globifer Calumma guibei Calumma guillaumeti Calumma hilleniusi Calumma linota Calumma malthe Calumma marojezensis Calumma nasuta Calumma oshaughnessyi Calumma parsonii Calumma peyrierasi Calumma tigris Calumma tsaratananensis... Mellers Chameleon () Veiled Chameleon (Chamaeleo calyptratus) Flap-necked Chameleon (Chamaeleo dilepis) Ethiopian Highland Chameleon, Chamaeleo affinis African Chameleon, Chamaeleo africanus Angola Chameleon, Chamaeleo anchietae Arabian Chameleon, Chamaeleo arabicus Bale Mountains Two-horned Chameleon, Chamaeleo balebicornatus Side-striped Chameleon, Chamaeleo bitaeniatus Awash Chameleon, Chamaeleo calcaricarens Veiled Chameleon, Chamaeleo calyptratus Cameroon... Angels Chameleon , Furcifer angeli White-lined Chameleon, Furcifer antimena Rainforest Chameleon, Furcifer balteatus Belalanda Chameleon, Furcifer belalandaensis Two-horned Chameleon, Furcifer bifidus Madagascar Forest Chameleon, Furcifer campani Comoro Islands Chameleon, Furcifer cephalolepis Labords Chameleon, Furcifer labordi Carpet Chameleon, Furcifer lateralis South-central Chameleon, Furcifer minor One-horned Chameleon... Ituri Chameleon, Kinyongia adolfifriderici Carpenters Chameleon, Kinyongia carpenteri Mt. ... Mlanje Mountain Chameleon, Nadzikambia mlanjense Category: ... Brookesia is a genus of chameleons found in Madagascar, considered to be the worlds smallest chameleons. ... Rieppeleon brachyurus Rieppeleon brevicaudatus Rieppeleon kerstenii Category: ... Rhampholeon acuminatus Rhampholeon beraduccii Boulengers Pygmy Chameleon, Rhampholeon boulengeri Rhampholeon chapmanorum Marshalls Pygmy Chameleon, Rhampholeon marshalli Rhampholeon moyeri Pitless Pygmy Chameleon, Rhampholeon nchisiensis Rhampholeon platyceps platyceps Rhampholeon platyceps carri Spectral Pygmy Chameleon, Rhampholeon spectrum Rosette-Nosed Chameleon, Rhampholeon spinosus Usambara Pitted Pygmy Chameleon, Rhampholeon temporalis Uluguru Pygmy Chameleon...

Chameleons (family Chamaeleonidae) are squamates that belong to one of the best-known lizard families. The word is the Latinized form of the Ancient Greek χαμαιλέων (khamaileon), from χαμαί (khamai) "on the earth, on the ground" + λέων (leon) "lion", translating the Akkadian nēš qaqqari, "ground lion".[1] Suborders Lacertilia- Lizards Serpentes - Snakes Amphisbaenia - Worm lizards This article is about the Squamata order of reptiles. ... For other uses, see Lizard (disambiguation). ... Beginning of Homers Odyssey The Ancient Greek language is the historical stage of the Greek language[1] as it existed during the Archaic (9th–6th centuries BC) and Classical (5th–4th centuries BC) periods in Ancient Greece. ... Akkadian (lišānum akkadÄ«tum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ...

Contents

Description

Tongue structure
Tongue structure

Chameleons vary greatly in size and body structure, with total length from approximately 1 inch (2.5 cm) in Brookesia minima, to 31 inches (79 cm) in the male Furcifer oustaleti.[2] There is a species, thought to be unique to Malawi's Mount Mulanje, which is 0.6 in (1 cm) across when fully grown[citation needed]. Many have head or facial ornamentation, such as nasal protrusions, or horn-like projections in the case of Chamaeleo jacksonii, or large crests on top of their head, like Chamaeleo calyptratus. Many species are sexually dimorphic, and males are typically much more ornamented than the female chameleons. Image File history File links Chameleon_gab_fbi. ... Image File history File links Chameleon_gab_fbi. ... Binomial name Furcifer oustalet The Oustalets or Malagasy Giant Chameleon (Furcifer oustaleti) is found in Madagascar and is listed by CITES as an endangered species. ... The Mulanje Massif, also known as Mount Mulanje, is a large isolated block of mountains in southern Malawi near the city of Blantyre, rising sharply from the surrounding plains of the tea-growing Thyolo district. ... Binomial name Boulenger, 1896 Chamaeleo jacksonii (common names Jacksons Chameleon or Three-horned Chameleon) is an African chameleon belonging to the chameleon family (Chamaeleonidae). ... Binomial name Chamaeleo calyptratus Duméril & Bibron, 1851 The Veiled Chameleon (Chamaeleo calyptratus), is a large species of chameleon found in the mountain regions of Yemen and Saudi Arabia. ... Female (left) and male Common Pheasant, illustrating the dramatic difference in both color and size, between the sexes Sexual dimorphism is the systematic difference in form between individuals of different sex in the same species. ...


Chameleon species have in common their foot structure, eyes, lack of ears, and tongue.


Chameleons are zygodactylic: on each foot the five toes are fused into a group of two and a group of three, giving the foot a tongs-like appearance. These specialized feet allow chameleons to grip tightly to narrow branches. Each toe is equipped with a sharp claw to gain traction on surfaces such as bark when climbing. The claws make it easy to see how many toes are fused into each part of the foot: two toes on the outside of each front foot and three on the inside, and the reverse pattern on each hind foot. Chameleons have a long tail that is able to curl up. It is used to balance on tree limbs. Sometimes it is used as a weapon. A chameleon uses its tail almost like a fifth leg. In biology, dactyly is the arrangement of digits (fingers and toes) on the hands, feet, or sometimes wings of an animal. ... Tongs used for cooking or serving food Tongs are gripping and lifting tools, of which there are many forms adapted to their specific use. ...


Their eyes are the most distinctive among the reptiles. The upper and lower eyelids are joined, with only a pinhole large enough for the pupil to see through. They can rotate and focus separately to observe two different objects simultaneously. It in effect gives them a full 360-degree arc of vision around their body. When prey is located, both eyes can be focused in the same direction, giving sharp stereoscopic vision and depth perception. Binocular vision (also referred to as stereoscopic vision) is a type of visual system common in many kinds of animals where both the eyes produce only a single image in the brain. ... Depth perception is the visual ability to perceive the world in three dimensions. ...


They lack a vomeronasal organ. Also, like snakes, they do not have an outer or a middle ear. This suggests that chameleons might be deaf, although it should be noted that snakes can hear using a bone called the quadrate to transmit sound to the inner ear. Furthermore, some or maybe all chameleons, can communicate via vibrations that travel through solid material like branches. The vomeronasal organ (VNO) or Jacobsons organ is an auxiliary olfactory sense organ in some tetrapods. ... For other uses, see Snake (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ear (disambiguation). ... The word deaf can have very different meanings depending on the background of the person speaking or the context in which the word is used. ... The quadrate is a jaw bone in all jawed vertebrates except mammals (in whom it has become a middle-ear bone, the incus). ...


Chameleons have very long tongues (sometimes longer than their own body length) which they are capable of rapidly extending out of the mouth. The tongue extends out faster than human eyes can follow, at around 26 body lengths per second. The tongue hits the prey in about 30 thousandths of a second.[3] The tongue has a sticky tip on the end, which serves to catch prey items. The tongue's tip is a bulbous ball of muscle, and as it hits its prey, it rapidly forms a small suction cup. Once the tongue sticks to a prey item, it is drawn quickly back into the mouth, where the chameleon's strong jaws crush it and it is consumed. Even a small chameleon is capable of eating a large locust or mantis. Chameleons also have no teeth. For other uses, see Tongue (disambiguation). ... Desert locust Nymph of Locust Schistocera americana with distinct wing-rudiments Locust nymph from the Philippines Egyptian grasshopper Anacridium aegyptum Locust from the 1915 Locust Plague For other uses, see Locust (disambiguation). ... Mantis is Greek for prophet. ...


Ultraviolet light is part of the visible spectrum for chameleons.[4] Chameleons exposed to ultraviolet light show increased social behavior and activity levels, are more inclined to bask and feed and are also more likely to reproduce as it has a positive effect on the pineal gland. Note: Ultraviolet is also the name of a 1998 UK television miniseries about vampires. ... The pineal gland (also called the pineal body or epiphysis) is a small endocrine gland in the brain. ...


Distribution and habitat

A male chameleon at Madagascar
A male chameleon at Madagascar

More than 160 species of Chameleons are known, arranged in nine genera. The main distribution of Chameleons is in Africa and Madagascar, and other tropical regions, although some species are also found in parts of southern Europe and Asia. There are introduced, feral populations of veiled and Jackson's chameleons in Hawaii and isolated pockets of feral Jackson's chameleons have been reported in California and Florida. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 531 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1360 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 531 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1360 pixel, file size: 1. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ...


Chameleons inhabit all kinds of tropical and montane rain forests, savannas and sometimes semi-deserts and steppes. They are mostly arboreal and are often found in trees or occasionally on smaller bushes. Some smaller species live on the ground under foliage. A noontime scene from the Philippines on a day when the Sun is almost directly overhead. ... A rainforest is a forested biome with high annual rainfall. ... Savannah redirects here. ... This article is about arid terrain. ... This article is about the ecological zone type. ... The kinkajou is an arboreal mammal. ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ...


Reproduction

West Usambara Two-Horned Chameleon (Kinyongia multituberculata) in the Usambara mountains, Tanzania.
West Usambara Two-Horned Chameleon (Kinyongia multituberculata) in the Usambara mountains, Tanzania.

Chameleons are mostly oviparous, some being ovoviviparous. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x766, 246 KB) Summary Author: ales. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x766, 246 KB) Summary Author: ales. ... Usambara Mountains The Usambara Mountains are a mountain range in North-East Tanzania, approximately 70 miles (110 km) long and ranging from 20 to 40 miles (30-60 km) in width. ... Ovoviviparous animals develop within eggs that remain within the mother up until they hatch or are about to. ...


The oviparous species lay eggs after a 3-6 week gestation period. The female will climb down to the ground and begin digging a hole, anywhere from 4-12  inches (10-30 cm) deep depending on the species. The female turns herself around at the bottom of the hole and deposits her eggs. Once finished, the female buries the eggs and leaves the nesting site. Clutch sizes vary greatly with species. Small Brookesia species may only lay 2-4 eggs, while large Veiled chameleons (Chamaeleo calyptratus) have been known to lay clutches of 80-100 eggs. Clutch sizes can also vary greatly among the same species. Eggs generally hatch after 4-12 months, again depending on species. The eggs of Parson's Chameleon (Calumma parsonii), a species which is rare in captivity, are believed to take upwards of 24 months to hatch. The Gestation period in a viviparous animal refers to the length of its pregnancy. ... Brookesia is a genus of chameleons found in Madagascar, considered to be the worlds smallest chameleons. ... Binomial name Chamaeleo calyptratus Duméril & Bibron 1851 The Veiled Chameleon, is a large species of chameleon found in the mountain regions of Yemen and Saudi Arabia. ... Binomial name Three forms of Parsons chameleon (Calumma parsonii) are recognised, from different regions of eastern Madagascar. ...


Feeding habits

Chameleons generally eat locusts, mantids, crickets, grasshopper and other insects, but larger chameleons have been known to eat small birds and other lizards. A few species, such as Chamaeleo calyptratus will consume small amounts of plant matter. Chameleons prefer running water to still water. Desert locust Nymph of Locust Schistocera americana with distinct wing-rudiments Locust nymph from the Philippines Egyptian grasshopper Anacridium aegyptum Locust from the 1915 Locust Plague For other uses, see Locust (disambiguation). ... Families Chaeteessidae Metallyticidae Mantoididae Amorphoscelidae Eremiaphilidae Hymenopodidae Mantidae Empusidae The order Mantodea (or Praying mantis) consists of between 1,800 and 2,000 species, of which a majority are in Mantidae. ... Subfamilies See Taxonomy section Crickets, family Gryllidae (also known as true crickets), are insects somewhat related to grasshoppers and more closely related to katydids or bush crickets (family Tettigoniidae). ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ...


Change of color

This Mediterranean Chameleon (Chamaeleo chamaeleon) turned black after being frightened by a dog
This Mediterranean Chameleon (Chamaeleo chamaeleon) turned black after being frightened by a dog

All chameleon species are able to change their skin color. Changing color is an expression of the physical and physiological condition of the lizard.[5] The color also plays a part in communication. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1016x880, 174 KB) Chamaeleo chamaeleon (Mediterranean Chameleon) after being saved from our dogs. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1016x880, 174 KB) Chamaeleo chamaeleon (Mediterranean Chameleon) after being saved from our dogs. ...


Different chameleon species are able to change different colors which can include pink, blue, red, orange, green, black, brown and yellow. [6][7] Chameleons are naturally coloured for their surroundings as a camouflage. However, recent research has indicated that Chameleons may use colour changes as a method of communication, including to make themselves more attractive to potential mates.[8]


Chameleons have specialized cells, collectively called chromatophores, that lie in layers under their transparent outer skin. The cells in the upper layer, called xanthophores and erythrophores, contain yellow and red pigments respectively. Below these is another layer of cells called iridophores or guanophores, and they contain the colourless crystalline substance guanine. These reflect, among others, the blue part of incident light. If the upper layer of chromatophores appears mainly yellow, the reflected light becomes green (blue plus yellow). A layer of dark melanin containing melanophores is situated even deeper under the reflective iridophores. The melanophores influence the 'lightness' of the reflected light. All these pigment cells can rapidly relocate their pigments, thereby influencing the colour of the chameleon. Zebrafish chromatophores mediate background adaptation on exposure to dark (top) and light environments (bottom). ... Xanthophores are chromatophores that produce yellow pigments in the form of carotenoids. ... Erythrophores are chromatophores that contain reddish pigments found in carotenoids and pteridines. ... Natural Ultramarine pigment in powdered form. ... Iridophores are a type of chromatophore cell found in the skin of many cephalopods, fish and reptiles. ... Guanine is one of the five main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA; the others being adenine, cytosine, thymine, and uracil. ... For other uses, see Light (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Green (disambiguation). ... This article is about the colour. ... A yellow Tulip. ... Broadly, melanin is any of the polyacetylene, polyaniline, and polypyrrole blacks and browns or their mixed copolymers. ...

Meller’s Chameleon Chamaeleo melleri
Meller’s Chameleon Chamaeleo melleri

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 579 pixel Image in higher resolution (1951 × 1411 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 579 pixel Image in higher resolution (1951 × 1411 pixel, file size: 1. ...

Video

Image File history File links Camaleón_-_Calidad-_5. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Dictionary.com entry for "chameleon"
  2. ^ Glaw, Frank; Vences, Miguel (1994). A Field Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of Madagascar 2nd edition. Köln: M. Vences & F. Glaw Verlags GbR. ISBN 3-929449-01-3. 
  3. ^ A Lethal Lashing Tongue
  4. ^ Chameleon News, August 2004
  5. ^ Harris, Tom. How Animal Camouflage Works. How Stuff Works. Retrieved on 2006-11-13.
  6. ^ National Geographic. May 2007. P. 10.
  7. ^ http://magma.nationalgeographic.com/ngexplorer/0210/articles/mainarticle.html
  8. ^ Stuart-Fox, D., & Moussalli, A. (2008). Selection for social signalling drives the evolution of chameleon colour change. Public Library of Science Biology, 6, e25.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikispecies has information related to:

Image File history File links Wikispecies-logo. ... Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation that aims to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species (including animalia, plantae, fungi, bacteria, archaea, and protista). ...


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