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Encyclopedia > Chalukya dynasty
चालुक्य राजवंश
ಚಾಲುಕ್ಯ ರಾಜವಂಶ
Chalukya dynasty
Founded 6th century
Founder Pulakesi I
Official Languages Sanskrit , Kannada
Capital Vatapi (Badami)
Government Monarchy
Greatest Ruler Pulakesi II
Preceding state Kadambas
Succeeding state Rashtrakuta
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Virupaksha temple, Pattadakal, built 740
Virupaksha temple, Pattadakal, built 740
Badami Chalukya Territories in the reign of Pulakesi II, c. 640
Badami Chalukya Territories in the reign of Pulakesi II, c. 640

The Chalukya dynasty (Sanskrit/Marathi[1]:चालुक्य राजवंश,Kannada:ಚಾಲುಕ್ಯರು) IPA: [ʧaːɭukjə]) was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th centuries. During this period, they ruled as three closely related, but individual dynasties. The earliest dynasty is known as the Badami Chalukyas who ruled from their capital Badami from the middle of the 6th century. The Badami Chalukyas began to assert their independence at the decline of the Kadamba kingdom of Banavasi and rapidly rose to prominence during the reign of Pulakesi II. After the death of Pulakesi II, the Eastern Chalukyas became an independent kingdom in the eastern Deccan. They ruled from the capital Vengi until about the 11th century. In the western Deccan, the rise of the Rashtrakutas in the middle of 8th century eclipsed the Chalukyas of Badami before being revived by their descendants, the Western Chalukyas in late 10th century. These Western Chalukyas ruled from Basavakalyan till the end of the 12th century. This Buddhist stela from China, Northern Wei period, was built in the early 6th century. ... Pulakesi I (543 – 566 C.E.) established the Chalukya dynasty in then western Deccan and his descendents ruled over an empire that comprised of the entire state of Karnataka and most of Andhra Pradesh. ... An official language is a language that is given a privileged legal status in a state, or other legally-defined territory. ... The Sanskrit language (Skt. ... Kannada (ಕನ್ನಡ ) is one of the major Dravidian languages of southern India and one of the oldest languages in India. ... In politics, a capital (also called capital city or political capital — although the latter phrase has a second meaning based on an alternative sense of capital) is the principal city or town associated with a countrys government. ... The town of Vatapi, better-known today as Badami, is located at the foot of a rugged, red sandstone outcrop that surrounds Agastyatirth water reservoir - an artificial lake - on three sides. ... Badami Cave Temple No 3. ... Places where monarchies maintain rule appear in blue. ... PULAKESI II (C.610-642 A.D.): Pulakesi II ascended the throne in C.610 A. D., and he has been rightly regarded as the ablest monarch in the Chalukyan line. ... Kadambas was an ancient royal dynasty of Karnataka, who ruled from their capital of Banavasi from (345-525AD) later branched into Goa, Hanagal and Chandavar. ... Jain cave in Ellora The Rastrakutas (Sanskrit/Maharashtri Prakrit [1]/Marathi[2][3]:राष्ट्रकूट, Kannada: ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರಕೂಟ) were a dynasty which ruled the southern and the central parts or the Deccan, India during the 8th - 10th century. ... Image File history File links Pattadakal_Virupaksha_temple. ... Image File history File links Pattadakal_Virupaksha_temple. ... Pattadakal is a city in the Indian state of Karnataka famous for its group of monuments that comprise of initial experiments in Hindu temple architecture. ... Events October 26 - An earthquake strikes Constantinople, causing much damage and death. ... Image File history File links Chalukya_territories_lg. ... Image File history File links Chalukya_territories_lg. ... PULAKESI II (C.610-642 A.D.): Pulakesi II ascended the throne in C.610 A. D., and he has been rightly regarded as the ablest monarch in the Chalukyan line. ... Events May 28 - Severinus becomes pope, but dies the same year. ... Sanskrit ( , ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Marathi is one of the widely spoken languages of India, and has a long literary history. ... Kannada - aptly described as sirigannada (known to few as Kanarese) is one of the oldest Dravidian languages and is spoken in its various dialects by roughly 45 million people. ... For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words see here. ... South India is a linguistic-cultural region of India that comprises the four Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu and the Union Territory of Pondicherry, whose inhabitants are collectively referred to as South Indians. ... The geography of India is extremely diverse, with landscape ranging from snow-capped mountain ranges to deserts, plains, hills and plateaus. ... This Buddhist stela from China, Northern Wei period, was built in the early 6th century. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Badami Cave Temple No 3. ... An ancient royal family of Karnataka, who ruled from their capital of Banavasi, later branched into Goa, Hanagal and Chandavar. ... Banavasi ಬನವಾಸಿ is an ancient temple town on the border of Uttara Kannada District and Shimoga district in the south Indian state of Karnataka. ... PULAKESI II (C.610-642 A.D.): Pulakesi II ascended the throne in C.610 A. D., and he has been rightly regarded as the ablest monarch in the Chalukyan line. ... Eastern Chalukyas were a South Indian dynasty whose kingdom was located in the present day Andhra Pradesh. ... The Deccan Plateau is a vast plateau in India, encompassing most of Central and Southern India. ... // Vengi dynasties Vengi kingdom extended from River Godavari in the north to Mount MahendraGiri in the southeast and to just below the southern banks of River Krishna in the south. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... The Rashtrakutas were a dynasty which ruled the Deccan during the 8th-10th centuries. ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... The Western Chalukyas ruled the western Deccan in South India between the tenth and the thirteenth centuries CE. They were related to the Chalukya dynasty of Badami who were a powerful dynasty who reigned over most of the Deccan between the seventh and the eight centuries. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... Basavakalyan is a town in Bidar District of the state of Karnataka, India. ...


The rise of the Chalukyas marks an important milestone in the history of South India and a golden age in the history of Karnataka. The political atmosphere in South India shifted from smaller kingdoms to large empires with the rise of Badami Chalukyas. For the first time in history, a South Indian kingdom took control and consolidated the entire region between the Kaveri and the Narmada rivers. The rise of this empire also saw the birth of efficient administration, rise in overseas trade and commerce and the development of new style of architecture called Vesara. Around the 9th century, it also saw the growth of Kannada as a language of literature in the Jaina Puranas, Veerashaiva Vachanas and Brahminical traditions. The 11th century saw the birth of Telugu literature under the patronage of the Eastern Chalukyas. South India is a linguistic-cultural region of India that comprises the four Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu and the Union Territory of Pondicherry, whose inhabitants are collectively referred to as South Indians. ... Karnātakā   (Kannada: ಕನಾ೯ಟಕ) (IPA: ) is one of the four southern states of India. ... The Cauvery (sometimes written as Kaveri) is one of the major rivers of southern India. ... The Narmada or Nerbudda is a river in central India. ... Vesara is a type of Indian architecture primarily used in temples. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was that century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... Kannada (ಕನ್ನಡ ) is one of the major Dravidian languages of southern India and one of the oldest languages in India. ... JAIN is an activity within the Java Community Process, developing APIs for the creation of telephony (voice and data) services. ... Purana (Sanskrit पुराण, purāṇa, meaning ancient or old) is the name of a genre (or a group of related genres) of Indian written literature (as distinct from oral literature). ... Virasaivism is a religious movement of Hinduism in India. ... Vachanas are a form of Kannada poetry and, according to the 20th century scholars, closely linked to the social revolution lead by Basaveshvara, Allama Prabhu and Akka Mahadevi. ... A Brahmin (anglicised from the Sanskrit word IAST ; Devanagari ), also known as Vipra, Dvija, Dvijottama (best of the Dvijas), (god on Earth) is a member of an upper caste within Hindu society. ... Telugu may refer to: Telugu language Telugu literature Telugu people Telugu script Telugu films Look up Telugu in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Contents

Origin of Chalukyas

Marathi Kshatriyas

Noted historian C.V.Vaidya in his book Medieval India states that Chalukya are pure Maratha kshatriyas. Dr.Bhandarkar also agrees to this theory. Chalukyas were the residents of Maharashtra and their most marriages happened in Maharashtra with Maratha empires like Pallavs, Kadambas, Sendriks and Rashtrakutas. According to Vaidya, Chalukyas are the Aryans which came from North here and (later named as Marathas) in ancient times. This theory of C.V.Vaidya is confirmed by the various inscriptions and written proofs which include Satavahanas inscription in Nashik dated 100 A.D, Shabar Bhashya dated 400 A.D) and Chinese traveller Hyun-Tsang (640 A.D) who specifically describes Chalukya king Pulakeshi as King of Maharashtra and Kshatriya. But the most important proof is of Kumarilbhatta (700 A.D) [2] This article is about the term Aryan. For Arian, a follower of the ancient Christian sect, See Arianism. ... Extent of the Maratha Confederacy ca. ... Approximate extent of the Satavahana Empire, circa 150 CE. The Sātavāhanas, also known as the Andhras, were a dynasty which ruled in Southern and Central India starting from around 230 BCE. Although there is some controversy about when the dynasty came to an end, the most liberal estimates... Nashik (Marathi: ) ( ) or Nasik (Marathi: ) is a city in Indias Maharashtra state. ...


Natives of Karnataka

Old Kannada inscription, Virupaksha Temple, Pattadakal, 745
Old Kannada inscription, Virupaksha Temple, Pattadakal, 745

While opinions vary regarding the origins of the Chalukyas, the consensus is that they were native to the Karnataka region.[3][4][5][6] An alternate argument is that the Chalukya were descendants of the "Seleukia" tribe of Iraq and that their conflict with the Pallava of Kanchi was, but a continuation of the conflict between ancient Seleukia and "Parthians", the proposed ancestors of Pallavas. However, this theory has been rejected as it seeks build lineages based simply on similar sounding clan names.[7] A third theory that they were descendants of a chieftain called Kandachaliki Remmanaka, a feudatory of the Andhra Ikshvaku was put forward but this has failed to explain the difference in lineage. The Kandachaliki feudatory call themselves Vashisthiputras of the Hiranyakagotra where as Chalukya inscriptions address themselves as Harithiputras of Manavyasagotra, which incidentally is the same as their early overlords, the Kadambas of Banavasi. This makes them descendants of the Kadambas. The Chalukyas took control of the territory formerly ruled by the Kadambas.[8] Another record of Eastern Chalukyas conforms to the northern origin theory and claims one ruler of Ayodhya came south, defeated the Pallavas and married a Pallava princess. She had a child called Vijayaditya who is claimed to be the Pulakesi I's father. However, there is inscriptional evidence that the father of Pulakesi I was Ranaranga.[9][10] Image File history File links Badami_Chalukya_Kannada_Inscription. ... Image File history File links Badami_Chalukya_Kannada_Inscription. ... Kannada - aptly described as sirigannada (known to few as Kanarese) is one of the oldest Dravidian languages and is spoken in its various dialects by roughly 45 million people. ... Pattadakal is a city in the Indian state of Karnataka famous for its group of monuments that comprise of initial experiments in Hindu temple architecture. ... Events Births November 10 - Musa al-Kazim, Shia Imam (d. ... Karnātakā   (Kannada: ಕನಾ೯ಟಕ) (IPA: ) is one of the four southern states of India. ... ... Pallavas were a South Indian dynasty. ... Reproduction of a Parthian warrior as depicted on Trajans Column The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Origins Bust of Parthian soldier, Esgh-abad Museum, Turkmenia. ... The Pallavas were hereditary Hindu rulers who dominated southeastern India between the 4th and 9th centuries. ... Ikshvaku Ikshu (Sea of sugar cane) Ikshvaku (Son of Manu and father of Kukshi; the founder of the Suryavanshi dynasty, reigning at Ayodhya at the commencement of the Treta Yuga. ... Kadambas was an ancient royal dynasty of Karnataka, who ruled from their capital of Banavasi from (345-525AD) later branched into Goa, Hanagal and Chandavar. ... Pulakesi I (543 – 566 C.E.) established the Chalukya dynasty in then western Deccan and his descendents ruled over an empire that comprised of the entire state of Karnataka and most of Andhra Pradesh. ...


The Chalukya inscriptions are in Kannada and Sanskrit. Their inscriptions call them Karnatas and their names use indigenous Kannada titles such as Priyagallam and Noduttagelvom. The names of some Chalukya kings end with the pure Kannada term arasa (meaning "king" or "chief").[11][12] The Rashtrakuta inscriptions speak of Chalukyas of Badami as Karnataka Bala (Power of Karnataka). Scholars have proposed that the word Chalukya originated from Salki or Chalki which is a Kannada word for an agricultural implement.[13]
Kannada - aptly described as sirigannada (known to few as Kanarese) is one of the oldest Dravidian languages and is spoken in its various dialects by roughly 45 million people. ... Sanskrit ( , ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Jain cave in Ellora The Rastrakutas (Sanskrit/Maharashtri Prakrit [1]/Marathi[2][3]:राष्ट्रकूट, Kannada: ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರಕೂಟ) were a dynasty which ruled the southern and the central parts or the Deccan, India during the 8th - 10th century. ...


Sources of history

Inscriptions are the main source of information about the Badami Chalukya history. Important among them, the Badami cave inscriptions (578) of Mangalesa, Kappe Arabhatta record of 700, Peddavaduguru inscription of Pulakesi II, the Kanchi Kailasanatha inscription and Pattadakal Virupaksha Temple inscriptions of Vikramaditya II all in Kannada provide more evidence of the Chalukya language.[14][15] The earliest inscription of the Badami cliff dated 543 of Pulakesi I, the Mahakuta Pillar inscription (595) of Mangalesa and the Aihole inscription dated 634 of Pulakesi II are examples of Sanskrit inscriptions written in old Kannada script.[16][17][18] The reign of the Chalukyas saw the arrival of Kannada as the predominant language of inscriptions along with Sanskrit, in areas of the Indian peninsula outside what is known as Tamilaham (Tamil country).[19] Several coins of the early Chalukyas with Kannada legends have been found indicating usage of Kannada at the highest administrative levels.[20] Inscriptions of the Chalukyas have been translated and recorded by historians of the Archaeological Survey of India.[21] Badami Cave Temple No 3. ... Events Tiberius II Constantine succeeds Justin II as Byzantine Emperor Births Deaths July 30 - Jacob Baradaeus, bishop of Edessa October 5 - Justin II, Roman emperor Northern Zhou Wu Di, Chinese ruler John Malalas, Byzantine chronicler Categories: 578 ... Kappe Arabhatta (Kannada:ಕಪ್ಪೆ ಆರಭಟ್ಟ) was a Kannada poet of 7th century, and is famous for his inscription written in 700 CE during Chalukyas rule in Badami. ... // Events Saint Adamnan convinces 51 kings to adopt Cáin Adomnáin defining the relationship between women and priests. ... PULAKESI II (C.610-642 A.D.): Pulakesi II ascended the throne in C.610 A. D., and he has been rightly regarded as the ablest monarch in the Chalukyan line. ... Kanchipuram, Kanchi, or Kancheepuram (also sometimes Conjeevaram) is the name of a temple town and the headquarters of Kanchipuram district in Tamil Nadu, India. ... Pattadakal is a city in the Indian state of Karnataka famous for its group of monuments that comprise of initial experiments in Hindu temple architecture. ... Vikaramaditya II was a son of Vijayaditya. ... Kannada - aptly described as sirigannada (known to few as Kanarese) is one of the oldest Dravidian languages and is spoken in its various dialects by roughly 45 million people. ... Events The doctrine of apocatastasis is condemned by the Synod of Constantinople. ... Mahakuta Pillar (Kannada: ಮಹಾಕೂಟ ಸ್ತಂಭ) in the town of Mahakuta in present day Bagalkot district of Karnataka state is the source of an important Badami Chalukya inscription called Mahakuta pillar inscription ascribed to king Mangalesa, second son of Pulakesi I. It is made of fine grained sandstone. ... Events The first mention of the state of Karantania on monuments. ... Mangalesa ( C.596 – 610 C. E.) succeeded Kirtivarman I to the Chalukya throne. ... Aihole (Kannada ಐಹೊಳೆ)is in the Bagalkot district of Karnataka, India. ... Events The Arabs invade Palestine. ... The Kannada script is an abugida of the Brahmic family, primarily to write the Kannada language, one of the Dravidian languages in India. ... The ancient Tamil country of the classical era extended from River Krishna to the Cape Comorin(Kanyakumari). ...

Portrait of Hiuen Tsiang
Portrait of Hiuen Tsiang

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (250x698, 27 KB) A depiction of the Chinese monk Xuanzang on his journey to India. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (250x698, 27 KB) A depiction of the Chinese monk Xuanzang on his journey to India. ... A portrait of Xuanzang Xuanzang (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsüan-tsang; CantoneseIPA: jyn4tsɔŋ1; CantoneseJyutping: jyun4zong1) (602-644/664) was a famous Chinese Buddhist monk. ...

Foreign notes

Hiuen-Tsiang, a Chinese traveller had visited the court of Pulakesi II. At the time of this visit, as mentioned in the Aihole record, Pulakesi II had divided his empire into three Maharashtrakas or great provinces comprising of 99,000 villages each. This empire possibly covered present day Karnataka, Maharashtra and coastal Konkan. Hiuen-Tsang, impressed with the governance of the empire observed that the benefits of king's efficient administration was felt far and wide.[22][23] Later, Persian emperor Khosrau II exchanged ambassadors with Pulakesi II.[24] A portrait of Xuanzang Xuanzang (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsüan-tsang; CantoneseIPA: jyn4tsɔŋ1; CantoneseJyutping: jyun4zong1) (602-644/664) was a famous Chinese Buddhist monk. ... PULAKESI II (C.610-642 A.D.): Pulakesi II ascended the throne in C.610 A. D., and he has been rightly regarded as the ablest monarch in the Chalukyan line. ... Aihole (Kannada ಐಹೊಳೆ)is in the Bagalkot district of Karnataka, India. ... Karnātakā   (Kannada: ಕನಾ೯ಟಕ) (IPA: ) is one of the four southern states of India. ... Maharashtra   (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , English: , IPA: ) is Indias third largest state in terms of area and second largest in terms of population after Uttar Pradesh. ... A typical view of the Konkan, consisting of white-sand beaches and palm trees (mostly coconut and betel nut). ... Egyptian woven pattern woolen curtain or trousers, which was a copy of a Sassanid silk import, which was in turn based on a fresco of Persian King Khosrau II fighting Ethiopian forces in Yemen, 5-6th century. ...


Legends

Vidyapati Bilhana, the famous poet in the court of Vikramaditya VI of the Western Chalukya dynasty of Kalyana, mentions a legend in his work, Vikramankadeva Charita: Bilhana Kavi was an 11th Century Kashmiri poet. ... Vikramaditya VI was a king of the Kalyani Chalukya clan. ... The Western Chalukyas (973 - 1200) also known as Kalyani Chalukya or Later Chalukya ruled the western Deccan in South India between the tenth and the thirteenth centuries CE. They were related to the Chalukya dynasty of Badami who were a powerful dynasty who reigned over most of the Deccan between...

Indra once requested Brahma to create a hero who would put an end to Godlessness in the world and punish the wicked. Agreeing to his request, Brahma looked into his Chuluka (hollow of the hands) while performing the Sandhya, and lo! From there sprang a mighty warrior. He was called "Chalukya" and he became the eponymous ancestor of the line. In it were born two great heroes, Harita and Manavya who raised the Chalukyas into distinct position. This story is repeated and elaborated in the Ramastipundi grant of Vimaladitya of the Eastern Chalukya family.

Another legend in the Handarike inscription of Vikramaditya VI claims that the Chalukyas were born in the interior of the Chuluka (hollow of the palm) of the sage Haritipanchashikhi when he was pouring out libations to the Gods. The Chalukyas claimed to have been nursed by the Sapta Matrikas (the seven divine mothers). It was a popular practice to link South Indian royal family lineage to a Northern kingdom in ancient times.[25] herro For other uses, see Indra (disambiguation). ... Brahma (written Brahmā in IAST) (Devanagari ब्रह्मा, pronounced as ) is the Hindu god (deva) of creation, and one of the Hindu Trinity - Trimurti, the others being Vishnu and Shiva. ... Sandhya is a South Indian actress renowned for her expressive face. ... Eastern Chalukyas were a South Indian dynasty whose kingdom was located in the present day Andhra Pradesh. ...


According to a Western Chalukya inscription of Vikramaditya VI, the Chalukyas originally hailed from Ayodhya where fifty-nine kings, and later sixteen more, of this family ruled from Dakshinapatha (South India) where they had migrated.[26][27] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Periods in Chalukya history

ಬಾದಾಮಿ ಚಾಲುಕ್ಯರು
Badami Chalukya
(543-753)
Pulakesi I (543 - 566)
Kirtivarman I (566 - 597)
Mangalesa (597 - 609)
Pulakesi II (609 - 642)
Vikramaditya I (655 - 680)
Vinayaditya (680 -696)
Vijayaditya (696 - 733)
Vikramaditya II (733746)
Kirtivarman II (746753)
Dantidurga
(Rashtrakuta Empire)
(735-756)

The Chalukyas ruled over the central Indian plateau of Deccan for over 600 years. During this period, they ruled as three closely related, but individual dynasties. These are the Chalukyas of Badami, who ruled between the 6th and the 8th century, and the two sibling dynasties of Chalukyas of Kalyani or the Western Chalukyas and the Chalukyas of Vengi or the Eastern Chalukyas.[28][29] Events The doctrine of apocatastasis is condemned by the Synod of Constantinople. ... Events Synod of Constantinople called by Emperor Constantine V. Samarkand conquered by Arabs. ... Pulakesi I (543 – 566 C.E.) established the Chalukya dynasty in then western Deccan and his descendents ruled over an empire that comprised of the entire state of Karnataka and most of Andhra Pradesh. ... Events The doctrine of apocatastasis is condemned by the Synod of Constantinople. ... Events Births Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib, uncle of Muhammad Deaths Chen Wen Di, Chinese ruler of the Chen Dynasty Theodosius I, Patriarch of Alexandria. ... Kirtivarman I (566 – 597) succeeded Pulakesi I as the ruler of the Chalukya Dynasty. ... Events Births Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib, uncle of Muhammad Deaths Chen Wen Di, Chinese ruler of the Chen Dynasty Theodosius I, Patriarch of Alexandria. ... Events Saint Augustine is created Archbishop of Canterbury. ... Mangalesa ( C.596 – 610 C. E.) succeeded Kirtivarman I to the Chalukya throne. ... Events Saint Augustine is created Archbishop of Canterbury. ... Events The Pantheon is consecrated to the Virgin Mary and all saints (or 610). ... PULAKESI II (C.610-642 A.D.): Pulakesi II ascended the throne in C.610 A. D., and he has been rightly regarded as the ablest monarch in the Chalukyan line. ... Events The Pantheon is consecrated to the Virgin Mary and all saints (or 610). ... Events August 5 - In the Battle of Maserfield, Penda king of Mercia defeats and kills Oswald, king of Bernicia. ... Vikramaditya I (655 – 680 C.E.) followed his father, Pulakesi II on to the Chalukya throne. ... Events November 15 - Northumbrian king Oswiu defeats the pagan Mercian king Penda in the Battle of Winwaed Empress Saimei ascends to the throne of Japan. ... Events October 10 - Battle of Kerbela November 12 - The Sixth Ecumenical Council opens in Constantinople The Bulgars subjugate the country of current-day Bulgaria Pippin of Herstal becomes Mayor of the Palace Umayyad caliph Muawiyah I succeeded by Yazid I ibn Muawiyah Erwig deposes Wamba to become king of the... Vinayaditya ((680 – 696 C.E.) followed his father, Vikramaditya I on to the Chalukya throne. ... Events October 10 - Battle of Kerbela November 12 - The Sixth Ecumenical Council opens in Constantinople The Bulgars subjugate the country of current-day Bulgaria Pippin of Herstal becomes Mayor of the Palace Umayyad caliph Muawiyah I succeeded by Yazid I ibn Muawiyah Erwig deposes Wamba to become king of the... Events Births Deaths Categories: 696 ... Vijayaditya ((696 – 733 C.E.) followed his father, Vikramaditya I on to the Chalukya throne. ... Events Births Deaths Categories: 696 ... Events Births Emperor Junnin of Japan Deaths Categories: 733 ... Vikaramaditya II was a son of Vijayaditya. ... Events Births Emperor Junnin of Japan Deaths Categories: 733 ... Events Swithred succeeds Saelred as king of Essex. ... Kirtivarman II (746 – 753 C.E.) was the last ruler in the Badami Chalukya dynasty. ... Events Swithred succeeds Saelred as king of Essex. ... Events Synod of Constantinople called by Emperor Constantine V. Samarkand conquered by Arabs. ... Dantidurga was the founder of the dynasty called Rashtrakutas. ... Jain cave in Ellora The Rastrakutas (Sanskrit/Maharashtri Prakrit [1]/Marathi[2][3]:राष्ट्रकूट, Kannada: ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರಕೂಟ) were a dynasty which ruled the southern and the central parts or the Deccan, India during the 8th - 10th century. ... Events Abkhazia becomes independent, and will remain such until the 15th century Births Alcuin, missionary and bishop (approximate date) Deaths May 25 - Bede, English Historian and monk Categories: 735 ... Events Abd-ar-rahman I conquers Iberia and establishes a new Umayyad dynasty. ... The Deccan Plateau is a vast plateau in India, encompassing most of Central and Southern India. ... This Buddhist stela from China, Northern Wei period, was built in the early 6th century. ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... The Western Chalukyas ruled the western Deccan in South India between the tenth and the thirteenth centuries CE. They were related to the Chalukya dynasty of Badami who were a powerful dynasty who reigned over most of the Deccan between the seventh and the eight centuries. ... Eastern Chalukyas were a South Indian dynasty whose kingdom was located in the present day Andhra Pradesh. ...


Chalukyas of Badami

In the 6th century, with the decline of the Gupta dynasty and their immediate successors in northern India, major changes began to happen in the area south of the Vindyas— the Deccan and Tamilaham. The age of small kingdoms had given way to large empires in this region.[30] The Chalukya dynasty was established by Pulakesi I in 550.[31] Pulakesi I took Vatapi (Badami in Bagalkot district, Karnataka) under his control and made it his capital. Pulakesi I and his descendants are referred to as Chalukyas of Badami. They ruled over an empire that comprised the entire state of Karnataka and most of Andhra Pradesh in the Deccan. Pulakesi II was perhaps the greatest emperor of the Badami Chalukyas. Also known as Immadi Pulakesi, he is considered one of the great kings in Indian history.[32][33][34] His queen was Kadamba Devi, a princess from the dynasty of Alupas. They maintained close family and marital relationship with the Alupas of South Canara and the Gangas of Talakad. Pulakesi II extended the Chalukya Empire up to the northern extents of the Pallava kingdom and halted the southward march of Harsha by defeating him on the banks of the river Narmada. He then defeated the Vishnukundins in the southeastern Deccan. Pallava Narasimhavarman however reversed this victory by attacking and occupying the Chalukya capital Vatapi (Badami) temporarily. The Gupta dynasty ruled the Gupta Empire of India, from around 320 to 550. ... The Vindhya range The Vindhya Range is a range of hills in central India, which geographically separates The Indian subcontinent into northern India (the Indo-Gangetic plain) and Southern India. ... (Tamil தமிழகம்) is a Tamil word meaning the Tamil country or the Tamil home. ... Pulakesi I (543 – 566 C.E.) established the Chalukya dynasty in then western Deccan and his descendents ruled over an empire that comprised of the entire state of Karnataka and most of Andhra Pradesh. ... Events By Place Byzantine Empire Silk reaches Constantinople (approximate date). ... Badami Cave Temple No 3. ... Bagalkot is an administrative district in the state of Karnataka in India. ... Karnātakā   (Kannada: ಕನಾ೯ಟಕ) (IPA: ) is one of the four southern states of India. ... Karnātakā   (Kannada: ಕನಾ೯ಟಕ) (IPA: ) is one of the four southern states of India. ... Andhra Pradesh  : (Telugu: ఆంధ్ర ప్రదేశ్, Urdu: آندھرا پردیش, IPA: ), is a state in South India. ... The Alupas kings (Kannada: ಆಲೂಪರು)(450 - 1400 C.E.) were a minor dynasty who ruled parts of coastal Karnataka as feudatories of all the major kingdoms of Karnataka starting with the Kadambas until the reign of the Vijayanagar empire. ... The Alupas kings (Kannada: ಆಲೂಪರು)(450 - 1400 C.E.) were a minor dynasty who ruled parts of coastal Karnataka as feudatories of all the major kingdoms of Karnataka starting with the Kadambas until the reign of the Vijayanagar empire. ... Dakshina Kannada, also called South Kannada, South Kanara, or South Canara, is a district of Indias Karnataka state. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Talakad is a scenic and spiritual center located in Mysore district, near T. Narasipura. ... Pallavas were a South Indian dynasty. ... Harsha or Harshavardhana (606-648) was an Indian emperor who ruled northern India as paramount monarch for over forty years. ... The Narmada or Nerbudda is a river in central India. ... Vishnu (one who pervades in everything) + Kundina (Kaundinya gotra). ... This article belongs in one or more categories. ... Badami Cave Temple No 3. ...


The Badami Chalukya dynasty went in to a brief decline following the death of Pulakesi II due to internal feuds. It recovered during the reign of Vikramaditya I, who succeeded in pushing the Pallavas out of Badami and restoring order to the empire. The empire reached a peak during the rule of the illustrious Vikramaditya II who defeated the Pallava Nandivarman II and captured Kanchipuram. The last Badami Chalukya king Kirtivarman I was overthrown by the Rashtrakuta Dantidurga in 753. At their peak they ruled a vast empire stretching from the Kaveri to the Narmada. Vikramaditya I (655 – 680 C.E.) followed his father, Pulakesi II on to the Chalukya throne. ... Vikaramaditya II was a son of Vijayaditya. ... Nandivarman II (Pallavamalla) (732 - 796 CE) was a Pallava ruler who ruled in South India. ... Kanchipuram temple, engraved in 1811. ... Kirtivarman I (566 – 597) succeeded Pulakesi I as the ruler of the Chalukya Dynasty. ... Jain cave in Ellora The Rastrakutas (Sanskrit/Maharashtri Prakrit [1]/Marathi[2][3]:राष्ट्रकूट, Kannada: ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರಕೂಟ) were a dynasty which ruled the southern and the central parts or the Deccan, India during the 8th - 10th century. ... Dantidurga was the founder of the dynasty called Rashtrakutas. ... Events Synod of Constantinople called by Emperor Constantine V. Samarkand conquered by Arabs. ... The Cauvery (sometimes written as Kaveri) is one of the major rivers of southern India. ... The Narmada or Nerbudda is a river in central India. ...


Chalukyas of Kalyani

Main article: Western Chalukyas

The Chalukyas revived their fortunes in 973 after over 200 years of dormancy when much of the Deccan was under the Rashtrakutas. While the popular theory is that the Kalyani Chalukyas belonged to the Badami Chalukya line,[35] objections have been raised by some historians indicating they may have been unrelated to the Early Chalukya family.[36] However, it has also been noticed that the Badami Chalukyas had titles like Satyashraya, which is also the name of a Kalyani Chalukya prince and that they used titles ending with Malla (Lord in old Kannada) which was seen commonly in other Chalukya families of the area.[37] Irrespective of their exact origin, the reign of the Kalyani Chalukyas was a golden age in Kannada literature.[38] Tailapa II, a Rashtrakuta feudatory ruling from Tardavadi-1000 (Bijapur district) overthrew Karka II and re-established the Chalukyan kingdom and recovered most of the Chalukya empire.[39] This dynasty came to be known as the Western Chalukya dynasty or Later Chalukya dynasty. The Western Chalukyas ruled the western Deccan in South India between the tenth and the thirteenth centuries CE. They were related to the Chalukya dynasty of Badami who were a powerful dynasty who reigned over most of the Deccan between the seventh and the eight centuries. ... Events Edgar of England is crowned king by Saint Dunstan Births September 15 - Al_Biruni, mathematician († 1048) Abu al-Ala al-Maarri, poet Deaths May 7 - Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor Categories: 973 ... The Kannada language belongs to the Dravidian family of languages and is the second oldest language currently spoken in India. ... Tailapa II (973 – 997 CE) (Nurmadi Taliapa) re-established the Chalukya dynasty after a period of 220 years during which they had been in eclipse. ... Bijapur (Kannada: ವಿಜಾಪುರ) is a district in the state of Karnataka. ... Karka II (972 - 973) C.E. Karka II did not survive for long during this time of confusion when Chalukya Tailapa II declared independence. ... The Western Chalukyas ruled the western Deccan in South India between the tenth and the thirteenth centuries CE. They were related to the Chalukya dynasty of Badami who were a powerful dynasty who reigned over most of the Deccan between the seventh and the eight centuries. ...


The Western Chalukyas ruled for another 200 years and were in constant conflict with the Cholas and their cousins the Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi. Vikramaditya VI is widely considered the greatest ruler of the dynasty. His fifty year reign is called Chalukya Vikrama Era.[40][41][42] The Western Chalukyas went into their final dissolution c.1180 with the rise of the Hoysalas, Kakatiya and Seuna. The Cholas were a South Indian Tamil dynasty, antedating the early Sangam literature (c. ... Eastern Chalukyas were a South Indian dynasty whose kingdom was located in the present day Andhra Pradesh. ... Vikramaditya VI was a king of the Kalyani Chalukya clan. ... Events April 13 - Frederick Barbarossa issues the Gelnhausen Charter November 18 - France Emperor Antoku succeds Emperor Takakura as emperor of Japan Afonso I of Portugal is taken prisoner by Ferdinand II of Leon Artois is annexed by France Prince Mochihito amasses a large army and instigates the Genpei War between... The Hoysala Empire ruled part of southern India from 1000 to 1346. ... The Kakatiya Dynasty was a South Indian dynasty that ruled parts of what is now Andhra Pradesh, India from 1083 to 1323. ... The Seuna dynasty (850 - 1334), also called the Sevuna or Yadava dynasty during their peak ruled present day Maharashtra, north Karnataka and parts of Madhya Pradesh from their regal capital at Devgiri (Daulatabad) in Maharashtra. ...


Eastern Chalukyas

Main article: Eastern Chalukyas

Pulakesi II (608644) conquered the eastern Deccan, corresponding to the coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh in 616, defeating the remnants of the Vishnukundina kingdom. He appointed his brother Kubja Vishnuvardhana as Viceroy.[43] On the death of Pulakesi II, the Vengi Viceroyalty developed into an independent kingdom. Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi outlived the main Vatapi dynasty by many generations. The Eastern Chalukyas were originally of Kannada descent. However after a period of time local factors took over and they gave importance to Telugu language.[44] Telugu literature owes its growth to the Eastern Chalukyas.[45] Eastern Chalukyas were a South Indian dynasty whose kingdom was located in the present day Andhra Pradesh. ... PULAKESI II (C.610-642 A.D.): Pulakesi II ascended the throne in C.610 A. D., and he has been rightly regarded as the ablest monarch in the Chalukyan line. ... Events September 15 - Boniface IV becomes pope. ... Events Births Deaths Paulinus of York, bishop of Northumbria November: Omar, Second caliph of Islam by assassination. ... The Deccan Plateau is a vast plateau in India, encompassing most of Central and Southern India. ... Andhra Pradesh  : (Telugu: ఆంధ్ర ప్రదేశ్, Urdu: آندھرا پردیش, IPA: ), is a state in South India. ... Events Eadbald succeeds Ethelbert as king of Kent. ... Vishnukundina By 514 AD. The Vakataka empire was reduced to areas of present day Telengana area. ... Kubja Vishnuvardhana (624 – 641 C.E.) was the brother of Chalukya Pulakesi II. Vishnuvardhana ruled the Vengi territories in the eastern Andhra Pradesh as the viceroy under Pulakesi II from around 615 CE. Eventually Vishnuvardhana declared his independence and started the Eastern Chalukya dynasty (c. ... The town of Vatapi, better-known today as Badami, is located at the foot of a rugged, red sandstone outcrop that surrounds Agastyatirth water reservoir - an artificial lake - on three sides. ... Look up telugu in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Art and Architecture

Mallikarjuna and Kashi Vishwanatha Temples, Pattadakal, built 745
Mallikarjuna and Kashi Vishwanatha Temples, Pattadakal, built 745
Dancing Shiva in Badami
Dancing Shiva in Badami

The period of Badami Chalukya dynasty saw art flourish in South India. It brought about some important developments in the realm of culture, particularly in the evolution and proliferation of a new style of architecture known as Vesara, a combination of the South Indian and the North Indian building styles. Sage Bharata's dance Natyasastra was in an advanced state of development.[46] One of the richest traditions in Indian architecture took shape in the Deccan during this time and is called as Karnata Dravida style as opposed to traditional Dravida style.[47] The Vesara style influenced the Eastern Chalukyas. This is evidenced by the presence of similar style temples in Alampur in Kurnool district of present day Andhra Pradesh.[48] The Kalyani Chalukyas further refined the Vesara style with an inclination towards Dravidian concepts, especially in the sculptures. They built fine monuments in the Tungabhadra - Krishna river doab in present day Karnataka.
Image File history File links Pattadakal_templepair. ... Image File history File links Pattadakal_templepair. ... Pattadakal is a city in the Indian state of Karnataka famous for its group of monuments that comprise of initial experiments in Hindu temple architecture. ... Events Births November 10 - Musa al-Kazim, Shia Imam (d. ... taken during a trip to Badami This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... taken during a trip to Badami This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Vesara is a type of Indian architecture primarily used in temples. ... Alampur is a town and a nagar panchayat in Bhind district in the state of Madhya Pradesh, India. ... Kurnool is a district in Andhra Pradesh, India. ... Andhra Pradesh  : (Telugu: ఆంధ్ర ప్రదేశ్, Urdu: آندھرا پردیش, IPA: ), is a state in South India. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Tungabhadra is a river of southern India. ... The Krishna River is one of the longest rivers of India (about 1300 km in length). ...


Badami Chalukyas

The most enduring legacy of the Chalukya dynasty is the architecture and art that they left behind. More than one hundred and fifty monuments attributed to the Badami Chalukya, and built between 450 and 700, remain in the Malaprabha basin in Karnataka.[49] Events August 25 - Marcian proclaimed Eastern Roman Emperor by Aspar and Pulcheria. ... // Events Saint Adamnan convinces 51 kings to adopt Cáin Adomnáin defining the relationship between women and priests. ... Malaprabha is a river flowing through the Indian state of Karnataka. ... Karnātakā   (Kannada: ಕನಾ೯ಟಕ) (IPA: ) is one of the four southern states of India. ...


The rock-cut temples of Pattadakal, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, Badami and Aihole are their most celebrated monuments. Two of the famous paintings at Ajanta cave no. 1, "The Temptation of the Buddha" and "The Persian Embassy" are attributed to them.[50][51] This is the beginning of Chalukya style of architecture and a consolidation of South Indian style. Pattadakal is a city in the Indian state of Karnataka famous for its group of monuments that comprise of initial experiments in Hindu temple architecture. ... UNESCO logo UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Badami Cave Temple No 3. ... Aihole (Kannada ಐಹೊಳೆ)is in the Bagalkot district of Karnataka, India. ... Ajanta takes the name after the village Ajinţhā in Aurangabad district in the state of Maharashtra(N. lat. ...


In Aihole, the Durga temple (6th century), Ladh Khan temple (450), Meguti temple (634), Hucchimalli and Huccappayya temples (5th century), Badami Cave temples (600) are examples of early Chalukyan art. The majestic temples at Pattadakal were commissioned by Vikramaditya II (740). Here the Virupakshaand Mallikarjuna (740), Sangameswara (725) and a Jain temple are in the Dravidian style while Jambulinga, Kasivisweswara and Galaganatha (740) are in the Northern nagara style. The Papanatha (680) temple shows an attempt to combine the Northern and Southern styles. This Buddhist stela from China, Northern Wei period, was built in the early 6th century. ... Events August 25 - Marcian proclaimed Eastern Roman Emperor by Aspar and Pulcheria. ... Events The Arabs invade Palestine. ... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 - 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Badami Cave temple is at Badami in the Bagalkot District in the north part of the Karnataka state of India. ... The population of the Earth rises to about 208 million people. ... Vikaramaditya II was a son of Vijayaditya. ... Events October 26 - An earthquake strikes Constantinople, causing much damage and death. ... Events Births Deaths Wihtred, king of Kent Categories: 725 ... JAIN is an activity within the Java Community Process, developing APIs for the creation of telephony (voice and data) services. ... Events October 10 - Battle of Kerbela November 12 - The Sixth Ecumenical Council opens in Constantinople The Bulgars subjugate the country of current-day Bulgaria Pippin of Herstal becomes Mayor of the Palace Umayyad caliph Muawiyah I succeeded by Yazid I ibn Muawiyah Erwig deposes Wamba to become king of the...


According to some art critics, the Badami Chalukya style is a "prayaga" or confluence of formal trends of architecture, the dravida and nagara. The temples were a result of religious enthusiasm and intensity of purpose.[52]

See also: Badami Chalukya Architecture, Pattadakal, Badami, and Aihole

Virupaksha temple(dravidian) (740 C.E. Pattadakal Sangameshvara temple (dravidian) (725 C.E. Pattadakal Galaganatha temple (rekhanagara) (680 C.E. Pattadakal The Badami Chalukya Architecture was a temple building idiom that evolved in the time period of 5th. ... Pattadakal is a city in the Indian state of Karnataka famous for its group of monuments that comprise of initial experiments in Hindu temple architecture. ... Badami Cave Temple No 3. ... Aihole (Kannada ಐಹೊಳೆ)is in the Bagalkot district of Karnataka, India. ...

Literature

Hindu Cave No.3, Badami, 578
Hindu Cave No.3, Badami, 578

The rule of the Chalukyas is a major event in the history of Kannada and Telugu languages. During this time, writing epic narratives and poetry in Sanskrit was very popular. However during the 9th - 10th century, Kannada language had already seen some of its greatest writers. The three gems of Kannada literature, Adikavi Pampa, Sri Ponna and Ranna belonged to this period.[53] In the 11th century, Telugu literature was born under the patronage of the Eastern Chalukyas with Nannaya Bhatta as its first writer. Famous writers in Sanskrit from this period were Vijnaneshwara who achieved fame by writing Mitakshara a book on Hindu law. Somesvara III was a great scholar and king compiled an encyclopedia of all arts and sciences called Manasollasa.[54]
Image File history File links Badami_Narasimha_cave3. ... Image File history File links Badami_Narasimha_cave3. ... Badami Cave Temple No 3. ... Events Tiberius II Constantine succeeds Justin II as Byzantine Emperor Births Deaths July 30 - Jacob Baradaeus, bishop of Edessa October 5 - Justin II, Roman emperor Northern Zhou Wu Di, Chinese ruler John Malalas, Byzantine chronicler Categories: 578 ... Kannada - aptly described as sirigannada (known to few as Kanarese) is one of the oldest Dravidian languages and is spoken in its various dialects by roughly 45 million people. ... Telugu may refer to: Telugu language Telugu literature Telugu people Telugu script Telugu films Look up Telugu in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was that century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... The Kannada language belongs to the Dravidian family of languages and is the second oldest language currently spoken in India. ... Pampa born in 902 C.E., also known as Adikavi Pampa, is one of the greatest Kannada poets of all time. ... Sri Ponna was the poet royal in the court of Rashtrakuta king Krishna II. Some sources say he was in the court of Krishna III though the former seems more reliable. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Necromancer_bells. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... Vijnaneshwara was a prominent jurist of 12th century India. ... The Mitakshara is a legal treatise on inheritance, written by Vijnaneshwara in the 12th century. ... Somesvara III (1126 - 1138) C.E. was the next Chalukya king and son of Vikramaditya VI and Queen Chandaladevi. ... Brockhaus Konversations-Lexikon, 1902 An encyclopedia, encyclopaedia or (traditionally) encyclopædia,[1] is a comprehensive written compendium that contains information on all branches of knowledge or a particular branch of knowledge. ...


From the period of the Badami Chalukya however no major Kannada literary work has been recovered, though many works have been referenced in later centuries. The extant Kappe Arabhatta record of 700 in tripadi (three line) metre is considered the earliest work in Kannada poetics. The literary work Karnateshwara Katha, which was quoted later by Jayakirti, belonged to the period of Pulakesi II with the great king himself as the hero.[55] Other Kannada writers of this time were Syamakundacharya of 650 who wrote Prabhrita, the celebrated Srivaradhadeva also called Tumubuluracharya of 650 (who wrote Chudamani, a commentary on Tattvartha-mahashastra in 96,000 verses), King Durvinita, and others.[56][57][58] The Aihole inscription (634) of Pulakesi II written by court poet Ravi Kirti in old Kannada script and Sanskrit language is considered as an excellent piece of poetry.[59][60] In Sanskrit, a few verses of a poetess called Vijayanaka has been preserved.
Extant means still existing. It is the opposite of extinct, and can be applied to species, cultures and works of culture (e. ... Kappe Arabhatta (Kannada:ಕಪ್ಪೆ ಆರಭಟ್ಟ) was a Kannada poet of 7th century, and is famous for his inscription written in 700 CE during Chalukyas rule in Badami. ... // Events Saint Adamnan convinces 51 kings to adopt Cáin Adomnáin defining the relationship between women and priests. ... Events Arab conquest of Persia, establishment of Islam as state religion Hindu empire in Sumatra Croats and Serbs occupy Bosnia Khazars conquer Great Bulgarian Empire in southern Russia building of St. ... DURVINITA (C.495-535 A. D.): (Ref: http:http://www. ... Aihole (Kannada ಐಹೊಳೆ)is in the Bagalkot district of Karnataka, India. ... Events The Arabs invade Palestine. ...


Badami Chalukya Government

Army

Badami countryside
Badami countryside

The army consisted of infantry, cavalry, elephant corps and a powerful navy. The Chinese traveller Hiuen-Tsiang mentions the Chalukya army had hundreds of elephants which were intoxicated with liquor prior to battle.[61] It was with their navy that they conquered Revatidvipa (Goa) and Puri on east coast of India. Rashtrakuta inscriptions use the term Karnatabala referring to their powerful armies.[62][63] Taxes were levied and called Herjunka, Kirukula, Bilkode and Pannaya.
Image File history File links Badami_countryside. ... Image File history File links Badami_countryside. ... Badami Cave Temple No 3. ... A portrait of Xuanzang Xuanzang (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsüan-tsang; CantoneseIPA: jyn4tsɔŋ1; CantoneseJyutping: jyun4zong1) (602-644/664) was a famous Chinese Buddhist monk. ... For other uses, see Goa (disambiguation). ... Puri can mean: Puri, a city in the Indian state of Orissa, which is famous for the Jagannath temple and the serene beaches located there . ...


Land governance

The empire was divided into Maharashtrakas (provinces), then into smaller Rashtrakas (Mandala), Vishaya (district), Bhoga (group of 10 villages) which is similar to the Dasagrama unit used by the Kadambas. At the lower levels of administration, the Kadamba style fully prevailed. The Sanjan plates of Vikramaditya I even mentions a land unit called Dasagrama.[64] There were many autonomous regions ruled by feudatories like Alupas, Gangas, Banas, Sendrakas etc. Local assemblies looked after local issues. Groups of mahajanas (learned brahmins), looked after agraharas (like Ghatika or place of higher learning) like the ones at Badami (2000 mahajans) and Aihole (500 mahajanas).
Kadambas was an ancient royal dynasty of Karnataka, who ruled from their capital of Banavasi from (345-525AD) later branched into Goa, Hanagal and Chandavar. ... Vikramaditya I (655 – 680 C.E.) followed his father, Pulakesi II on to the Chalukya throne. ... The Alupas kings (Kannada: ಆಲೂಪರು)(450 - 1400 C.E.) were a minor dynasty who ruled parts of coastal Karnataka as feudatories of all the major kingdoms of Karnataka starting with the Kadambas until the reign of the Vijayanagar empire. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...


Coinage

Badami Jain Cave No. 4, 6th century
Badami Jain Cave No. 4, 6th century

The Badami Chalukyas minted coins that were of a different standard compared to the northern kingdoms.[65] The coins had Nagari and Kannada legends. They minted coins with symbols of temples, lion or boar facing right and the lotus. The coins weighed 4 grams and were called honnu in old Kannada and had fractions such as fana and the quarter fana, whose modern day equivalent being hana (literally means, money). A gold coin called Gadyana is mentioned in some record in Pattadakal which later came to be known a varaha which was also on their emblem.
Image File history File links Badami_cave4_Jaina. ... Image File history File links Badami_cave4_Jaina. ... Badami Cave Temple No 3. ... Rigveda manuscript in Devanagari (early 19th century) Devanāgarī (देवनागरी — in English pronounced ) (ISCII – IS13194:1991) [1] is an abugida alphabet used to write several Indian languages, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Marathi, Kashmiri, Sindhi, Bihari, Bhili, Konkani, Bhojpuri and Nepali from Nepal. ... Pattadakal is a city in the Indian state of Karnataka famous for its group of monuments that comprise of initial experiments in Hindu temple architecture. ...


Religion

The rule of the Badami Chalukya was a period of religious harmony. They were themselves initially followers of Vedic Hindusim, as seen in the various temples dedicated to many popular Hindu deities with Aihole as the experimental laboratory.[66] Pattadakal is the location of their grandest architecture. The worship of Lajja Gauri, the fertility goddess was equally popular. Later from the time of Vikramaditya I took an inclination towards Shaivism and sects like Pashupata, Kapalikas and Kalamukhas existed. However they actively encouraged Jainsm and attested to by one of the Badami cave temples and other Jain temples in the Aihole complex. Ravikirti, the court poet of Pulakesi II was a Jain. Buddhism was on a decline having made its ingress into Southeast Asia, as confirmed by Hiuen-Tsiang. Badami, Aihole and Kurtukoti, Puligere (Laksmeshwara in Gadag district) were primary places of learning.
Vedic may refer to: Ancient India the Vedic civilization the Vedas, the oldest preserved Indo-Aryan texts Vedic Sanskrit, their language (see also Vedic meter, Vedic accent, Vedic chant and Shrauta) the historical Vedic religion traditional Hindu culture: Vedic astrology the Ayurveda (Vedic medicine) Ancient Vedic weights and measures modern... Vikramaditya I (655 – 680 C.E.) followed his father, Pulakesi II on to the Chalukya throne. ... PULAKESI II (C.610-642 A.D.): Pulakesi II ascended the throne in C.610 A. D., and he has been rightly regarded as the ablest monarch in the Chalukyan line. ... Badami Cave Temple No 3. ... Aihole (Kannada ಐಹೊಳೆ)is in the Bagalkot district of Karnataka, India. ... Gadag District has a population of 971,955 (2001 Census of India), which increased 13. ...


Society

The Hindu caste system was present and prostitution was recognised by the government. Some kings had concubines (Ganikas) who were given much respect,[67] sati was perhaps absent as widows like Vinayavathi and Vijayanka are mentioned in records. Devadasis' were present in temples. Sage Bharata's Natyashastra the precursor to Bharatanatyam, the dance of South India was popular as seen in many sculptures and mentioned in inscriptions.[68] Women enjoyed political power in administration. Queens Vijayanka, a noted Sanskrit poetess, Kumkumadevi, the younger sister of Vijayaditya and Lokamahadevi, queen of Vikramaditya II who fought wars stand as examples. Caste (Sanskrit: Gyati ज्ञाति , Hindi: Biradari बिरादरी, samaj समाज, jati जाति etc , Urdu Zat ज़ात ) is an endogamous group. ... Satī (Devanagari: सती) (also suttee) is a Hindu funeral custom, in which the dead mans widow used to immolate herself on her husband’s funeral pyre. ... Bharatanatyam dancer Bharatanatyam (also spelled Bharathanatyam, Bharatnatyam or Bharata Natyam) ( Sanskrit: भारतनाट्यम bʰāratanāṭyam, Tamil:பரதநாட்டியம் ) is a classical dance form originating from Tamil Nadu, a state in Southern India. ... Vikaramaditya II was a son of Vijayaditya. ...


In popular culture

The Chalukya era may be seen as the beginning in the fusion of cultures of northern and southern India making way for the transmission of ideas between the two regions. This is clear from an architectural point of view in that the Chalukyas spawned the Vesara style of architecture which includes elements of the northern nagara and southern dravida styles. The expanding Sanskritic culture mingled in a region where local Dravidian vernaculars were already popular.[69] Dravidian languages maintain these influences even today. This influence also helped enrich literature in these languages.[70] The Hindu legal system owes much to the Sanskrit work Mitakshara by Vijnaneshwara in the court of Chalukya Vikramaditya VI. Perhaps the greatest work in legal literature, Mitakshara is a commentary on Yajnavalkya and is a treatise on law based on earlier writings and has found acceptance in most parts of India. An Englishman Colebrooke later translated into English the section on inheritance giving it currency in the British Indian court system.[71] It was during the Chalukya rule that the Bhakti movement gained momentum in south India in the form of Ramanujacharya and Basavanna later spreading to north India. Vesara is a type of Indian architecture primarily used in temples. ... Dravidian people, Dravidian race or Dravidians are terms that are some times given to people of India (mainly Southern India), Northern Sri Lanka, and parts of Pakistan, Bangladesh and Nepal who currently speak Dravidian languages or are historically assumed to have spoken Dravidian languages but no longer are. ... The Dravidian family of languages includes approximately 73 languages[1] that are mainly spoken in southern India and Sri Lanka, as well as certain areas in Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, and eastern and central India, as well as in parts of Afghanistan and Iran, and by overseas Dravidians in other countries... The Mitakshara is a legal treatise on inheritance, written by Vijnaneshwara in the 12th century. ... Vijnaneshwara was a prominent jurist of 12th century India. ... Vikramaditya VI was a king of the Kalyani Chalukya clan. ... Bhakti - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Sri Ramanuja Acharya (1017 - 1137 AD) was an Indian philosopher and is recognized as the most important saint of Sri Vaishnavism. ... Basaveshvara Shree Basava (also known as Basaveshwara or Basavanna) is known as the reviver of the Veerashaiva (Lingayats) religion in India. ...


A yearly celebration called Chalukya utsava, a three-day festival of music and dance organised by the Government of Karnataka is held every year at Pattadakal, Badami and Aihole.[72] The event is a celebration of the glorious achievements of the Chalukyas in the realms of arts, crafts, music and dance. The program which starts at Pattadakal and ends in Aihole is inaugurated by the Chief Minister of Karnataka. Singers, dancers, poets and other artists from all over the country take part in this event. In the February 26, 2006 celebration, 400 art troupes from different parts of the country had taken part. Colorful cut outs of the Varaha the Chalukya emblem, Satyasraya Pulakesi (Pulakesi II), famous sculptural masterpieces like Durga, Mahishasura-mardhini (Durga killing demon Mahishasura) were seen everywhere. The program at Pattadakal is named Anivaritacharigund vedike after the famous architect of the Virupaksha temple, Gundan Anivaritachari. At Badami it is called Chalukya Vijayambika Vedike and at Aihole, Ravikirti Vedike after the famous poet and minister in the court of Pulakesi II. RaviKirti is the author of the Aihole inscription of 634 which is considered as a masterpiece in medieval Sanskrit poetry written in Kannada script. Souvenirs with Sri Vallabha and Satyasraya written on, were available (these were the titles taken commonly by the kings of the Badami dynasty) and CD's and DVD's detailing the history, culture etc. of the region were sold. Immadi Pulakeshi, a Kannada movie of the 1960's starring Dr. Rajkumar celebrates the life and times of the great king. The Government of Karnataka (Kannada: ಕರ್ನಟಕ ರಾಜ್ಯಕಾರ) also known as the State Government of Karnataka, or locally as State Government, is the supreme governing authority of the Indian state of Karnataka and its 28 districts. ... Pattadakal is a city in the Indian state of Karnataka famous for its group of monuments that comprise of initial experiments in Hindu temple architecture. ... Badami Cave Temple No 3. ... Aihole (Kannada ಐಹೊಳೆ)is in the Bagalkot district of Karnataka, India. ... Chief Ministers of Karnataka See also Karnataka Chief Ministers of India Links Categories: India-related stubs | Karnataka | Indian politicians | Office-holders | Government of India ... February 26 is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Varaha is the third avatar of Vishnu, a boar sent to defeat Hiranyaksha, a demon who had taken the Earth (prthivi) and carried it to the bottom of what is described as the cosmic ocean in the story. ... In Hinduism, Durga (Sanskrit: , Bengali: ) is a form of Devi, the supreme goddess, also identified with Parvati. ... A statue of Mahishasura in Chamundi Hills, Mysore In Hindu mythology, Mahishasura was an asura (demon). ... Sri Gundan Anivaritachari was the chief architect of the Virupaksha temple, the most famous and center piece at world heritage temple complex at Pattadakal. ... PULAKESI II (C.610-642 A.D.): Pulakesi II ascended the throne in C.610 A. D., and he has been rightly regarded as the ablest monarch in the Chalukyan line. ... Events The Arabs invade Palestine. ... The Kannada script is an abugida of the Brahmic family, primarily to write the Kannada language, one of the Dravidian languages in India. ... Kannada - aptly described as sirigannada (known to few as Kanarese) is one of the oldest Dravidian languages and is spoken in its various dialects by roughly 45 million people. ... Dr. Rajkumar (Kannada:ಡಾ. ರಾಜ್‌ಕುಮಾರ್‌, Real Name: Singanalluru Puttaswamayya Muthuraju Kannada:ಸಿಂಗನಲ್ಲೂರು ಪುಟ್ಟಸ್ವಾಮಯ್ಯ ಮುತ್ತುರಾಜು, April 24, 1929—April 12, 2006) is the most popular actor in Kannada film industry. ...


See also

Eastern Chalukyas were a South Indian dynasty whose kingdom was located in the present day Andhra Pradesh. ... The Western Chalukyas ruled the western Deccan in South India between the tenth and the thirteenth centuries CE. They were related to the Chalukya dynasty of Badami who were a powerful dynasty who reigned over most of the Deccan between the seventh and the eight centuries. ... The Chalukya Chola dynasty ruled the Chola Empire from 1070 C.E. until the demise of the empire in the second half of the 13th century. ... The Hoysala Empire ruled part of southern India from 1000 to 1346. ... The Chola dynasty (Tamil: , IPA: Chola pronounced Sola) was a Tamil dynasty that ruled primarily in southern India until the 13th century CE. The dynasty originated in the fertile valley of the Kaveri River. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Although they didn't have Marathi as the court-language,their origins are Maratha Kshatriyas.
  2. ^ Madhyayugin Bharat (Marathi Translation of "Medieval India") written and published by Chintaman Vinayak Vaidya,pg.458-498
  3. ^ Well known historians like Dr. S. C. Sircar, Prof. K. A. Nilakanta Sastri, ASI epigraphist N. Laxminarayana Rao and Professor S. C. Nandinath have asserted that the Chalukyas were Kannadigas (Kannada speakers) and very much the natives of Karnataka, Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), p57
  4. ^ The Chalukyas hailed from present day Karnataka, John Keay, History of India, 2000, Grove publications, p168
  5. ^ The Chalukya base was Badami and Aihole from where they overthrew their overlords, the Kadambas, Dr. Romila Thapar, The Penguin History of Early India, From Origin to 1300 AD, 2003, Penguin, p328
  6. ^ Arthikaje. History of Karnataka - Chalukyas of Badami. © 1998-00 OurKarnataka.Com,Inc. Retrieved on 2006-11-10.
  7. ^ Dr. Lewis's theory has not found acceptance because the Pallavas were in constant conflict with the Kadambas, prior to the rise of Chalukyas, Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), p57
  8. ^ Pulakesi I of Badami who was a feudatory of the Kadamba king Krishna Varman II overpowered his overlord in 540 and took control of the Kadamba kingdom, Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), p35
  9. ^ From the Hyderabad record of Pulakesi II which states their family ancestry, Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), p56-57
  10. ^ Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (1955), A History of South India, From Prehistoric times to fall of Vijayanagar, OUP, (Reprinted 2002), p154
  11. ^ Prof. N.L. Rao has pointed out from inscriptions that princess and kings of the dynasty had names like Kattiyarasa (Kirtivarman I), Bittarasa (Kubja Vishnuvardhana) and Mangalarasa (Mangalesa), Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), pp 57-60
  12. ^ Historians, Shafaat Ahmad Khan and S. Krishnasvami Aiyangar have mentioned in their book that Arasa is Kannada word, equivalent to Sanskrit word Raja. Journal of Indian History p102, Published by Department of Modern Indian History, University of Allahabad.
  13. ^ Dr. Hoernle suggests a non-Sanskrit origin of the name while Dr. S.C. Nandinath has argued that the Chalukyas were of agricultural background from Karnataka region who later took up a martial career, Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), p57
  14. ^ Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), pp 6, 10, 59
  15. ^ K.V. Ramesh, Chalukyas of Vatapi, 1984, Agam Kala Prakashan, pp 76, 159, 161
  16. ^ Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), p59
  17. ^ Azmathulla Shariff. Badami Chalukyans' magical transformation. Deccan Herald, Spectrum, July 26, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-11-10.
  18. ^ Carol Radcliffe Bolon. The Mahakuta Pillar and Its Temples. Artibus Asiae publishers, Vol. 41, No. 2/3 (1979), pp. 253-268. Retrieved on 2006-11-10.
  19. ^ According to Dr. Romila Thapar, 2003, The Penguin History of Early India, From Origin to 1300 AD) p326
  20. ^ Coins with Kannada legends have been discovered from the rule of the Chalukyas, according to Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), pp 12, 57.
  21. ^ Archaeological survey of India. Indian inscriptions. South Indian inscriptions, Vol 20, 18, 17, 15, 11 and 9, Saturday, November 18, 2006. What Is India Publishers (P) Ltd.. Retrieved on 2006-10-10.
  22. ^ Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002)
  23. ^ Arthikaje, Mangalore. History of Karnataka - Chalukyas of Badami. © 1998-00 OurKarnataka.Com,Inc. Retrieved on 2006-11-10.
  24. ^ from the notes of Arab traveller Tabari, Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), p60
  25. ^ Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), p56
  26. ^ According to the Nilagunda Record of Vikramaditya VI which is repeated by poet Bilhana, Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), pp 56
  27. ^ The Eastern Chalukyas concocted a mythical genealogy seeking to carry the antiquity of this royal dynasty not merely to the period of the epics and Vedas but to the moment of their very creation in the heavens by denoting Narayana (Lord Vishnu) as the first of the fifty nine kings, K.V. Ramesh, Chalukyas of Vatapi, 1984, Agam Kala Prakashan, p16
  28. ^ the Eastern Chalukyan dynasty came into existence when Pulakesi II established the Viceroyalty of Vengi under his brother Vishnuvardhana in 624 CE,Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), p60
  29. ^ Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (1955), A History of South India, From Prehistoric times to fall of Vijayanagar, OUP, (Reprinted 2002), p136
  30. ^ Dr. Romila Thapar, The Penguin History of Early India, From Origin to 1300 AD., 2003, Penguin p326.
  31. ^ The name probably meant "the great lion", Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (1955), A History of South India, From Prehistoric times to fall of Vijayanagar, OUP, (Reprinted 2002), p 134
  32. ^ Dr. S.U. Kamath calls him one of the great kings of India. He successfully defied the expansion of king Harshavardhana of Northern India into the deccan. The Aihole inscription by Ravi Kirti describes how king Harsha lost his Harsha or cheerful disposition after his defeat. The Chinese traveller Hiuen Tsiang also confirms Pulakesi's victory over Uttarapathesvara in his travelogue. Pulakesi II took the title Dakshinapatha Prithviswamy, or lord of the south, Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), pp 58-60
  33. ^ K.V. Ramesh calls the rule of Pulakesi II as one one of the most eventfull careers in Indian History - K.V. Ramesh, Chalukyas of Vatapi, 1984, Agam Kala Prakashan, p76
  34. ^ Immadi in old Kannada means 'the second', B. N. Sri Sathyan, Mysore State Gazetteer, p62
  35. ^ Dr. Fleet, Dr. Bhandarkar and Dr. Altekar claim that unlike the Badami Chalukyas, the Kalyani Chalukyas did not mention to being Harithiputhras of Manavysya gotra. The use of titles like Tribhuvannamalla marked them of as a distinct line, Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), p100
  36. ^ According to historian, Dr. B.R. Gopal, kings of the Chalukya line of Vemulavada, who were certainly from the Badami Chalukya family used this title often, Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), p100
  37. ^ The reign of Kalyani Chalukya produced prolific literature in Kannada and Sanskrit, Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), p114
  38. ^ Later legends and tradition hailed Tailapa as an incarnation of the God Krishna who fought 108 battles against the race of Ratta (Rashtrakuta) and captured 88 fortresses from them, Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (1955), A History of South India, From Prehistoric times to fall of Vijayanagar, OUP, (Reprinted 2002), p162
  39. ^ Dr. Romila Thapar mentions his era (samvat) along with the Satavahana Vikrama era of 58 BC, Shaka era of 78, and Harshavardhana era of 606. She mentions Kashmiri poet Bilhana who wrote in his Vikramanakadeva Charita that lord Shiva himself advised Chalukya Vikramaditya VI to replace his elder brother from the throne. Dr. Romila Thapar, The Penguin History of Early India, From Origin to 1300 AD, 2003, Penguin, pp 468-469
  40. ^ Sanskrit scholar of that time Vijnyaneshavara wrote of him as a king like none other says Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), p106
  41. ^ The work elucidates the achievements of the great king in 18 cantos, Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (1955), A History of South India, From Prehistoric times to fall of Vijayanagar, OUP, (Reprinted 2002), p315
  42. ^ Pulakesi II made Vishnuvardhana the Yuvaraja or crown prince who later went on to become the founder of the Eastern Chalukya empire, Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (1955), A History of South India, From Prehistoric times to fall of Vijayanagar, OUP, (Reprinted 2002), pp 134-135, p312
  43. ^ The Eastern Chalukya inscriptions show a gradual shift towards Telugu with the appearance of Telugu stanzas from the time of king Gunaga Vijayaditya (Vijayaditya III) in the middle of 9th century, Dr. K.S.S. Seshan, University of Hyderabad. APOnline-History of Andhra Pradesh-ancient period-Eastern Chalukyas. Revenue Department (Gazetteers), Government of Andhra Pradesh. Tata Consultancy Services. Retrieved on 2006-11-12., A Concise History of Karnataka , Dr. S.U. Kamath.
  44. ^ The first work of Telugu literature is a translation of Mahabharata by Nannaya during the rule of eastern Chalukya king Rajaraja Narendra(1019 - 1061), Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (1955), A History of South India, From Prehistoric times to fall of Vijayanagar, OUP, (Reprinted 2002), p367
  45. ^ as evidenced by the presence of dancing girls and various musical instruments like veena, flute, conch and drums in Badami Chalukya sculptures, Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), p67
  46. ^ Adam Hardy. Indian Temple Architecture : Form and Transformation--The Karnata Dravida Tradition 7th to 13th Centuries,1995. Vedams Books from India, Vedams eBooks (P) Ltd. Retrieved on 2006-11-13.
  47. ^ Takeo Kamiya. Architecture of the Indian Subcontinent, 20 September 1996. Gerard da Cunha-Architecture Autonomous, Bardez, Goa, India. Retrieved on 2006-11-12.
  48. ^ Over 125 temples exist in Aihole alone, Michael D. Gunther, 2002. Monuments of India. Retrieved on 2006-11-10.
  49. ^ Arthikaje, Mangalore. History of Karnataka - Chalukyas of Badami. © 1998-00 OurKarnataka.Com,Inc. Retrieved on 2006-11-10.
  50. ^ The Badami Chalukya introduced in the western Deccan a glorious chapter alike in heroism in battle and cultural magnificence in peace said art critic K.V. Sounderrajan. They have influenced the architecture in Vengi and Gujarat- Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), p68
  51. ^ According to art critics K. V. Soundara Rajan and Percy Brown, Arthikaje, Mangalore. History of Karnataka - Chalukyas of Badami. © 1998-00 OurKarnataka.Com,Inc. Retrieved on 2006-11-10.
  52. ^ These three Jain poets are considered the gems of Kannada literature, Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (1955), A History of South India, From Prehistoric times to fall of Vijayanagar, OUP, (Reprinted 2002), p356
  53. ^ The work is one on various topics including traditional medicine, music, precious stones, dance etc., Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), p106
  54. ^ According to Dr. Chidananda Murthy - Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), p67
  55. ^ In the opinion of Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (1955), A History of South India, From Prehistoric times to fall of Vijayanagar, OUP, (Reprinted 2002), p355
  56. ^ R. Narasimhacharya, History of Kannada Literature, 1988, Asian Educational Services, p4
  57. ^ Dr. Jyotsna Kamat. History of Kannada Literature. Kamat's Potpourri, November 04,2006. Kamat's Potpourri. Retrieved on 2006-11-12..
  58. ^ In this composition, the poet deems himself an equal to Sanskrit scholars of lore like Bharavi and Kalidasa. An earlier inscription in Mahakuta, in prose style is comparable to works of Bana, Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (1955), A History of South India, From Prehistoric times to fall of Vijayanagar, OUP, (Reprinted 2002), p312
  59. ^ Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), p59
  60. ^ Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), p64
  61. ^ From Rashtrakuta inscriptions, Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), pp 57,65
  62. ^ Arthikaje, Mangalore. History of Karnataka - Chalukyas of Badami. © 1998-00 OurKarnataka.Com,Inc. Retrieved on 2006-11-10..
  63. ^ In fact the break up of land into mandalas, vishaya also existed in the Kadamba administrative machinery, Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), pp 36, 65
  64. ^ However, the Early Chalukya issued gold coins that weighed 120 grams, in imitation of the Gupta dynasty says noted historian and numismatist Dr. A.V. Narasimha Murthy, - Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), p65
  65. ^ Sculptures testify to the popularity of deities like Vishnu, Shiva, Kartikeya, Ganapathi, Shakti, Surya and Sapta Matrikas (seven mothers), Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), p66
  66. ^ Vinopoti, a concubine of king Vijayaditya is mentioned with due respect in an inscription, Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), p67
  67. ^ One record mentions an artist called Achala as being well versed in Natya Shastra, Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), p67
  68. ^ Dr. Romila Thapar, The Penguin History of Early India, From Origin to 1300 AD, 2003, Penguin, p326
  69. ^ Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (1955), A History of South India, From Prehistoric times to fall of Vijayanagar, OUP, (Reprinted 2002), p309
  70. ^ Staff correspondent. Chalukya Utsava: Depiction of grandeur and glory. NewIndia Press, Sunday February 26, 2006. NewIndia Press. Retrieved on 2006-11-12..

2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 10 is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 51 days remaining. ... Kadambas was an ancient royal dynasty of Karnataka, who ruled from their capital of Banavasi from (345-525AD) later branched into Goa, Hanagal and Chandavar. ... Kirtivarman I (566 – 597) succeeded Pulakesi I as the ruler of the Chalukya Dynasty. ... Kubja Vishnuvardhana (624 – 641 C.E.) was the brother of Chalukya Pulakesi II. Vishnuvardhana ruled the Vengi territories in the eastern Andhra Pradesh as the viceroy under Pulakesi II from around 615 CE. Eventually Vishnuvardhana declared his independence and started the Eastern Chalukya dynasty (c. ... Mangalesa ( C.596 – 610 C. E.) succeeded Kirtivarman I to the Chalukya throne. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 10 is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 51 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 10 is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 51 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 10 is the 283rd day of the year (284th in Leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 10 is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 51 days remaining. ... Vikramaditya VI was a king of the Kalyani Chalukya clan. ... Kannada (ಕನ್ನಡ ) is one of the major Dravidian languages of southern India and one of the oldest languages in India. ... Bilhana Kavi was an 11th Century Kashmiri poet. ... Vemulavada (alternatively spelt Vemulawada) is a town 38 km from Karimnagar, in the Andhra Pradesh state, India. ... Krishna with Radharani, 18th C Rajasthani painting Krishna (कृष्ण in Devanagari, in IAST ), according to various Hindu traditions, is the eighth avatar of Vishnu. ... Jain cave in Ellora The Rastrakutas (Sanskrit/Maharashtri Prakrit [1]/Marathi[2][3]:राष्ट्रकूट, Kannada: ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರಕೂಟ) were a dynasty which ruled the southern and the central parts or the Deccan, India during the 8th - 10th century. ... The Sātavāhanas (Marathi:सातवाहन Telugu:సాతవాహనులు), also known as the Andhras, were a dynasty which ruled from Junnar, Pune over Southern and Central India starting from around 230 BCE. Although there is some controversy about when the dynasty came to an end, the most liberal estimates suggest that it lasted... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was that century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 12 is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 49 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 13 is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 48 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 12 is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 49 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 10 is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 51 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 10 is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 51 days remaining. ... // Vengi dynasties Vengi kingdom extended from River Godavari in the north to Mount MahendraGiri in the southeast and to just below the southern banks of River Krishna in the south. ... Gujarāt (GujarātÄ«: , IPA: ,  ) is the most industrialized state in the Republic of India with 19. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 10 is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 51 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 12 is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 49 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 10 is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 51 days remaining. ... The contribution of the Maurya and the Gupta Empire to the Indian culture and philosophy was enormous. ... Vishnu (IAST , Devanagari , with honorific Shri Vishnu; , ), (also frequently referred to as Narayana) is the most popularly worshipped form of God in Hinduism [1]. Within the Vaishnava tradition he is viewed as the Ultimate Reality or Supreme God (similarly to Shiva within Shaivism). ... Shiva (English IPA: Malayalam ശിവന്‍; Hindi: शिव; Sanskrit: शिव; Tamil: சிவன்Telugu:శివ (when used to distinguish lordly status), also known as Siva and written Åšiva in the official IAST transliteration, pronounced as ) is a form of Ishvara or God in the later Vedic scriptures of Hinduism. ... In Hinduism, Kārttikeya (also Skanda, Subrahmanya, Kumara, Arumugan, Shanmugan, Murugan, Guha, Saravana, Swaminatha, Velan,Velavan, Senthil) is a god born out of a magical spark created by Shiva. ... Popular image of Ganesh In Hinduism, Ganesha (Gaṇeśa, lord of the hosts, also spelled Ganesa and sometimes referred to as Ganesh in Hindi, Bengali and other Indian vernaculars) is the god of wisdom, intelligence, education and prudence. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Vijayaditya ((696 – 733 C.E.) followed his father, Vikramaditya I on to the Chalukya throne. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 12 is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 49 days remaining. ...

References

  • Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (1955). A History of South India, From Prehistoric times to fall of Vijayanagar, OUP, New Delhi (Reprinted 2002) ISBN 0-19-560686-8.
  • Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001). A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC, Bangalore (Reprinted 2002), OCLC: 7796041
  • Dr. Romila Thapar, The Penguin History of Early India, From Origin to 1300 AD., 2003, Penguin, New Delhi, ISBN 0-14-302989-4.
  • K.V. Ramesh, Chalukyas of Vatapi, 1984, Agam Kala Prakashan, Delhi.
  • R. Narasimhacharya, History of Kannada Literature, 1988, Asian Educational Services, New Delhi, Madras,1988, ISBN 81-206-0303-6.
  • John Keay, History of India, 2000, Grove publications, New York, ISBN 0-8021-3797-0, BINC: 6494766
  • Chalukyan Art by Dr. Jyotsna Kamat, Kamat's Potpourri, November 04,2006. Retrieved on 2006-11-10.
  • History Of Karnataka, Arthikaje, Mangalore, © 1998-00 OurKarnataka.Com,Inc. Retrieved on 2006-11-10.
  • Emperor among Temples. Retrieved on 2006-11-10.
  • The Mahakuta Pillar and Its Temples, Carol Radcliffe Bolon, Artibus Asiae publishers, Vol. 41, No. 2/3 (1979), pp. 253-268. Retrieved on 2006-11-10.

2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 10 is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 51 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 10 is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 51 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 10 is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 51 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 10 is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 51 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 10 is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 51 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 10 is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 51 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 10 is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 51 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 10 is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 51 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 12 is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 49 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 12 is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 49 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 12 is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 49 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 12 is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 49 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 12 is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 49 days remaining. ...

External links



2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 10 is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 51 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 10 is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 51 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 10 is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 51 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 10 is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 51 days remaining. ...

Middle kingdoms of India
Timeline: Northern Empires Southern Dynasties Foreign Kingdoms

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 4th century BCE

 3rd century BCE
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 1st century BCE
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 2nd century
 3rd century
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 5th century
 6th century
 7th century
 8th century
 9th century
10th century
11th century Middle kingdoms of India refers to the political entities in India from the 6th century BCE through to the Islamic invasions and the related Decline of Buddhism from the 7th century CE. // Kingdoms and Empires The Aryans had invaded India from the Northwest, according to the Aryan Invasion Theory, and...





Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ... Shishunaga dynasty of north India ruled the Magadhan Empire from 684 BCE to 424 BCE. Its dynastic succession was: Shishunaga (ruled from around 684 BCE) Kakavarna Kshemadharman Kshatraujas Bimbisara 544 BCE - 491 BCE Ajatashatru 491 BCE - 461 BCE Darshaka Udayin Nandivardhana Mahanandin Mahavira and Gautama Buddha lived during the period... Nanda dynasty is said to be established by an illegitimate son of the king Mahanandin of the previous Shishunaga dynasty. ... Kalinga in 265 B.C. Kalinga was an ancient Indo-Aryan kingdom of central-eastern India, in the province of Orissa. ... The Maurya Empire, ruled by the Mauryan dynasty, was the largest and most powerful political and military empire of ancient India. ... Approximate greatest extent of the Sunga empire (185 BCE-73 BCE) For other uses of the term Sunga see Sunga (disambiguation) The Sunga empire (or Shunga empire) controlled the eastern part of India from around 185 to 73 BCE. It was established after the fall of the Indian Mauryan empire. ... Silver coin of the Kuninda Kingdom, c. ...




The Gupta Empire under Chandragupta II The Gupta Empire was one of the largest political and military empires in ancient India. ...







Buddha and Bodhisattvas, 11th century, Pala Empire. ... For the English cricketer, See Vikram Solanki The Solanki or Chalukya is a Hindu Gurjar,Rajput dynasty of India, who ruled the kingdom of Gujarat from the 10th to the 13th centuries. ... The Sena dynasty ruled Bengal through the 11th and 12th centuries. ... The Pandyan kingdom பாண்டியர் was an ancient Tamil state in South India of unknown antiquity. ... The Chola dynasty (Tamil: , IPA: Chola pronounced Sola) was a Tamil dynasty that ruled primarily in southern India until the 13th century CE. The dynasty originated in the fertile valley of the Kaveri River. ... The Chera dynasty (Tamil: சேரர் Malayalam: േചര ) were one of the ancient Tamil dynasties who ruled the southern India from ancient times until around the fifteenth century CE. The Early Cheras ruled over the Malabar Coast, Coimbatore, Karur and Salem Districts in South India, which now forms part of the modern day... The Sātavāhanas (Marathi:सातवाहन Telugu:సాతవాహనులు), also known as the Andhras, were a dynasty which ruled from Junnar, Pune over Southern and Central India starting from around 230 BCE. Although there is some controversy about when the dynasty came to an end, the most liberal estimates suggest that it lasted...

  • Chalukya

(Persian rule)
(Greek conquests)


Kalabhras were the South Indian dynasty who between the 3rd and the 6th century C.E. ruled over entire Tamil country, displacing the ancient Chola, Pandya and Chera dynasties. ... Pallavas were a South Indian dynasty. ... Jain cave in Ellora The Rastrakutas (Sanskrit/Maharashtri Prakrit [1]/Marathi[2][3]:राष्ट्रकूट, Kannada: ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರಕೂಟ) were a dynasty which ruled the southern and the central parts or the Deccan, India during the 8th - 10th century. ... Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon... In ancient times, trade between India and Greece flourished with silk, spices and gold being traded. ...

  • Indo-Greeks



(Islamic invasion of India)
The Indo-Greek Kingdom (or sometimes Graeco-Indian Kingdom[1]) covered various parts of the northwest and northern Indian subcontinent from 180 BCE to around 10 CE, and was ruled by a succession of more than thirty Hellenistic kings,[2] often in conflict with each other. ... Early anepigraphic coinage of the Indo-Scythians (c. ... Coin of Gondophares (20-50 CE), first and greatest king of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... Approximate territory of the Western Kshatrapas ( 35- 405 CE). ... Coin of the Indo-Sassanian king Varahran I (early 4th century). ... Coin of Kidara (reigned circa 360-380 CE), founder of the Kidarite Kingdom Obv: King Kidara standing. ... Billon drachm of the Hephthalite King Napki Malka (Afghanistan/ Gandhara, c. ... The Muslim conquest of the Indian subcontinent took place during the ascendancy of the Rajput Kingdoms in North India, during the 7th to the 12th centuries. ...

(Islamic empires in India) Coin of the Shahi king Spalapati Deva, circa 750-900. ... During the middle ages, several Islamic regimes established empires in South Asia. ...



 
 

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