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Encyclopedia > Chalk Formation

The Chalk Formations of Europe are thick deposits of chalk, a soft porous white limestone, deposited in a marine environment during the upper Cretaceous Period. They appear most prominently in England. The formations are divided into three parts: The Upper Chalk, the Middle Chalk, and the Lower Chalk. The famous White cliffs of Dover, England are a good example of a Chalk Formation deposit. Another good example displaying the sequence of the Chalk Formation are the southern cliffs on the Isle of Wight, England and the quarries and motorway cutting at Blue Bell Hill, Kent, England (which has been classified as a Site of Special Scientific Interest). World map showing Europe Europe is conventionally considered one of the seven continents which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiogeographic one. ... The Needles, part of the extensive Southern England Chalk Formation Chalk is a soft, white, porous form of limestone composed of the mineral calcite. ... Limey shale overlaid by limestone. ... The Cretaceous period is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic period, about 146 million years ago (Ma), to the beginning of the Paleocene epoch of the Tertiary period (65. ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location within the British Isles Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population – Total (mid-2004) – Total (2001 Census) – Density Ranked 1st UK... The white cliffs of Dover The white cliffs of Dover, immortalized in popular song and verse (by Vera Lynn, Kate Smith, Matthew Arnold, Eric Johnson and others), are cliffs facing the Strait of Dover near the major English port town of Dover, in the county of Kent, and form part... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location within the British Isles Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population – Total (mid-2004) – Total (2001 Census) – Density Ranked 1st UK... The Isle of Wight is an English island, south of Southampton off the southern English coast. ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location within the British Isles Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population – Total (mid-2004) – Total (2001 Census) – Density Ranked 1st UK... A small cinder quarry A dimension stone quarry A quarry is a type of open-pit mine from which rock or minerals are extracted. ... Kent is a county in England, south-east of London. ...


As discussed in Chalk Facts by C. S. Harris and Scholle et al. (1983), the Chalk Formation consists mostly of coccolith biomicrite. A biomicrite is a limestone composed of fossil debris ("bio") and calcium carbonate mud ("micrite"). The majority of the fossil debris comprising this chalk consists of the microscopic plates, which are called coccoliths, of microscopic green algae known as coccolithophores. In addition to the coccoliths, the fossil debris includes a variable, but minor, percentage of the fragments of foraminifera, ostracods, and mollusks. The coccolithophores lived in the upper part of the water column. When they died, the microscopic calcium carbonate plates, which formed their shells settled downward through the ocean water and accumulated on the ocean bottom to form a thick layer of calcareous ooze, which eventually became the Chalk Formation. Limey shale overlaid by limestone. ... A fossil Ammonite Fossils (from Latin fossus, literally having been dug up) are the mineralized or otherwise preserved remains or traces (such as footprints) of animals, plants, and other organisms. ... Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound, with chemical formula CaCO3. ... The Needles, part of the extensive Southern England Chalk Formation Chalk is a soft, white, porous form of limestone composed of the mineral calcite. ... Coccoliths are individual plates of calcium carbonate formed by coccolithophores (single-celled algae such as Emiliania huxleyi) which are arranged around them in a coccosphere. ... Coccoliths are individual plates of calcium carbonate formed by coccolithophores (single-celled algae such as Emiliania huxleyi) which are arranged around them in a coccosphere. ... Orders Allogromiida Carterinida Fusulinida - extinct Globigerinida Involutinida - extinct Lagenida Miliolida Robertinida Rotaliida Silicoloculinida Spirillinida Textulariida incertae sedis    Xenophyophorea    Reticulomyxa The Foraminifera, or forams for short, are a large group of amoeboid protists with reticulating pseudopods, fine strands that branch and merge to form a dynamic net. ... Orders Archaeocopida (extinct) Leperditicopida (extinct) Palaeocopida (extinct) Podocopida Platycopida Myodocopida Introduction Ostracoda is a class of the Crustacea, sometimes known as the seed shrimp because of their appearance. ... Classes Caudofoveata Aplacophora Polyplacophora Monoplacophora Bivalvia Scaphopoda Gastropoda Cephalopoda The molluscs or mollusks are the large and diverse phylum Mollusca, which includes a variety of familiar creatures well-known for their decorative shells or as seafood. ... Coccoliths are individual plates of calcium carbonate formed by coccolithophores (single-celled algae such as Emiliania huxleyi) which are arranged around them in a coccosphere. ... Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound, with chemical formula CaCO3. ... Ooze can be any muddy or gooey substance, or something of similar consistency. ...


The Chalk Formation usually shows few signs of bedding, other than lines of flint nodules which become common in the upper part. Nodules of the mineral pyrite also occur and are usually oxidized to brown iron oxide on exposed surfaces. Pebble beach made up of flint nodules eroded out of the nearby chalk cliffs, Cape Arkona, Rügen Flint (or flintstone) is a hard, sedimentary cryptocrystalline silica rock with a glassy appearance. ... The mineral pyrite, or iron pyrite, is iron disulfide, FeS2. ... The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ... Iron oxide pigment There are a number of iron oxides: Iron oxides Iron(II) oxide or ferrous oxide (FeO) The black-coloured powder in particular can cause explosions as it readily ignites. ...

Fossil echinoid Echinocorys from the Chalk Formation of England
Fossil echinoid Echinocorys from the Chalk Formation of England

Contents

Photograph of the fossil echinoid Echinocorys taken by Dlloyd. ... Photograph of the fossil echinoid Echinocorys taken by Dlloyd. ...


Stratigraphy and paleontology

The Lower Chalk is usually relatively soft and greyish in colour, it is also the most fossiliferous (especially for ammonite fossils). The Lower Chalk strata usually begins with marl called the Glauconitic or (Chloritic) Marl, named after the grains of the green minerals glauconite and chlorite which it contains. The remainder of the Lower Chalk is normal chalk with few, if any, flint nodules present. The thickness of the Lower Chalk strata varies, averaging around 200 feet (320 m), depending upon the location. The Lower Chalk often contains fossils such as the ammonites Schloenbachia, Scaphites, and Mantelliceras, the belemnite Actinocamax, and the bivalves Inoceramus and Ostrea. Orders and Suborders Order Ammonitida Ammonitina Acanthoceratina Ancyloceratina Phylloceratina Lytoceratina Order Goniatitida Goniatitina Anarcestina Clymeniina Order Ceratitida Ceratitina Prolecanitina Ammonites are an extinct group of marine animals (subclass Ammonoidea) in the phylum Mollusca and class Cephalopoda. ... This article is about the geologic use of the term, for other uses see Stratum (disambiguation) Interstate road cut through limestone and shale strata in eastern Tennessee In geology and related fields, a stratum (plural: strata) is a layer of rock or soil with internally consistent characteristics that distinguishes it... This article is about minerals in the geologic sense; for nutrient minerals see dietary mineral; for the band see Mineral (band). ... Glauconite is a phyllosilicate (mica group) mineral of formula: (K,Na)(Fe3+,Al,Mg)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2. ... Chlorite is a group of phyllosilicate minerals often classified as clays. ... Extinct Orders Aulacocerida Phragmoteuthida Belemnitida Diplobelida Belemnoteuthina Belemnites (or belemnoids) are an extinct group of marine cephalopod, very similar in many ways to the modern squid and closely related to the modern cuttlefish. ... Orders Subclass Protobranchia Solemyoida Nuculoida Subclass Pteriomorphia - oysters Arcoida Mytiloida Pterioida Subclass Paleoheterodonta - mussels Trigoinoida Unionoida Subclass Heterodonta - clams, zebra mussels Veneroida Myoida Subclass Anomalosdesmata Pholadomyoida Animals of the Class Bivalvia are known as bivalves because they typically have two-part shells, with both parts being more or less symmetrical. ...


The Middle Chalk averages about 200 feet (60 m) in thickness. Fossils found in the Middle Chalk include the brachiopod Terebratulina and the echinoid Conulus. However, though fossils have been found, they are generally sparce. Subphyla and classes See Classification Brachiopods (from Latin bracchium, arm + New Latin -poda, foot) make up one of the major animal phyla, Brachiopoda. ... Subclasses Euechinoidea Superorder Atelostomata Order Cassiduloida Order Spatangoida (heart urchins) Superorder Diadematacea Order Diadematoida Order Echinothurioida Order Pedinoida Superorder Echinacea Order Arbacioida Order Echinoida Order Phymosomatoida Order Salenioida Order Temnopleuroida Superorder Gnathostomata Order Clypeasteroida (sand dollars) Order Holectypoida Perischoechinoidea Order Cidaroida (pencil urchins) Group of black, long-spined Caribbean sea...


The Upper Chalk by comparison is softer than the Middle Chalk and the flint nodules it contains are far more abundant, and may contain ammonite and gastropod fossils in some nodular layers. The thickness of the Upper Chalk strata varies greatly, often averaging around 300 feet (480 m). In the Upper Chalk fossils may be abundant and include the bivalve Spondylus, the brachiopods Terebratulina and Gibbithyris, the echinoids Sternotaxis, Micraster, Echinocorys, and Tylocidaris, the crinoid Marsupites, and the small sponge Porosphaera. Subclass Subclass Eogastropoda     Patellogastropoda Subclass Orthogastropoda   Superorder Cocculiniformia   Superorder Hot Vent Taxa     Neomphaolida   Superorder Vetigastropoda   Superorder Neritaemorphi     Neritopsina   Superorder Caenogastropoda     Architaenioglossa     Sorbeoconcha   Superorder Heterobranchia     Heterostropha     Opisthobranchia     Pulmonata The gastropods, or univalves, are the largest and most successful class of mollusks, with 60,000-75,000 species, and second largest class... Orders Subclass Protobranchia Solemyoida Nuculoida Subclass Pteriomorphia - oysters Arcoida Mytiloida Pterioida Subclass Paleoheterodonta - mussels Trigoinoida Unionoida Subclass Heterodonta - clams, zebra mussels Veneroida Myoida Subclass Anomalosdesmata Pholadomyoida Animals of the Class Bivalvia are known as bivalves because they typically have two-part shells, with both parts being more or less symmetrical. ... Subphyla and classes See Classification Brachiopods (from Latin bracchium, arm + New Latin -poda, foot) make up one of the major animal phyla, Brachiopoda. ... Subclasses Euechinoidea Superorder Atelostomata Order Cassiduloida Order Spatangoida (heart urchins) Superorder Diadematacea Order Diadematoida Order Echinothurioida Order Pedinoida Superorder Echinacea Order Arbacioida Order Echinoida Order Phymosomatoida Order Salenioida Order Temnopleuroida Superorder Gnathostomata Order Clypeasteroida (sand dollars) Order Holectypoida Perischoechinoidea Order Cidaroida (pencil urchins) Group of black, long-spined Caribbean sea... Orders Articulata Cladida (extinct) Flexibilia (extinct) Camerada (extinct) Disparida (extinct) Crinoids, also known as sea lilies or feather-stars, are marine animals that make up the class Crinoidea of the echinoderms (phylum Echinodermata). ... It has been suggested that Porifera/Temp be merged into this article or section. ...


The youngest beds of the Upper Chalk formation in England are found on the coast of Norfolk. Other fossils commonly found in the Chalk Formation include: solitary corals (such as Parasmilia), marine worm tubes (such as Rotularia), bryozoans, scattered fragments of starfish, and fish remains (including shark teeth such as Cretolamna and Squalicorax). Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location within the British Isles Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population – Total (mid-2004) – Total (2001 Census) – Density Ranked 1st UK... Norfolk (pronounced IPA: /nɔ:fək/) is a low-lying county in East Anglia in the east of southern England. ... Orders Scleractinia Corals are gastrovascular marine cnidarians (phylum Cnidaria; class Anthozoa) existing as small sea anemone-like polyps, typically forming colonies of many individuals. ... Fossilized Bryozoa, Ordovician limestone, Batavia, Ohio Bryozoans (moss animals) are tiny colonial animals that generally build stony skeletons of calcium carbonate, superficially similar to coral. ... NON TECHNICAL AND OF LOW INTELLIGENCE COMPUTER USER CALLING TECH SUPPORT. SEE S.E.C.S. ALSO This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Orders Hexanchiformes Squaliformes Pristiophoriformes Squatiniformes Heterodontiformes Orectolobiformes Carcharhiniformes Lamniformes Sharks are a group (superorder Selachimorpha) of fish, with a full cartilaginous skeleton, a streamlined body plan, with normally 5, but up to 7 (depending on species) gill slits along the side of, or beginning slightly behind, the head (in some... Species See text Squalicorax (crow shark) is a genus of extinct lamniform shark known to have lived during the Cretaceous period. ...


Chalk petroleum reservoirs

The chalk is also an important petroleum reservoir in the North Sea, mainly in Norwegian and Danish sectors and to a lesser extent in the United Kingdom sector (UKCS). An oil reservoir is a subsurface body of rock having sufficient porosity and permeability to store and transmit fluids. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ...


Reservoir stratigraphy

  • Ekofisk formation - Danian age (major reservoir in the Ekofisk Field and others)
  • Tor formation - Maastrichtian age, (major reservoir in many fields including Joanne (UKCS), Valhall (NCS))
  • Hod formation - Turonian to Campanian age (mostly non reservoir)
  • Plenus Marl - Cenomanian (non reservoir)
  • Hidra Formation - Cenomanian (non reservoir)

The Danian (also known as the Montian) is the first stage of the Paleocene Epoch. ... Ekofisk is an oil field in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. ... The Maastrichtian is the last age of the Cretaceous period, and therefore of the Mesozoic era. ... The Turonian is a stage of the Late Cretaceous Epoch. ... The Campanian is a stage on the geologic time scale occuring from 83. ... The Cenomanian (also known as Woodbinian) is the first stage of the Late Cretaceous Epoch. ...

Reservoir geology

The majority of Chalk reservoirs are redeposited allochthonous beds. These include debris flows and turbidite flows. Porosities can be very high when preserved from diagenesis by early hydrocarbon charge. An oil reservoir is a subsurface body of rock having sufficient porosity and permeability to store and transmit fluids. ... In geology, rocks or sections or units of rocks which have been moved from their original site of formation are called allochthon (from greek allo = other, and chthon = earth). ... USGS image Turbidite geological formations have their origins in turbidity current deposits, deposits from a form of underwater avalanche that are responsible for distributing vast amounts of clastic sediment into the deep ocean. ... Used in geology, building science and hydrogeology, the porosity of a porous medium (such as rock or sediment) is the proportion of the non-solid volume to the total volume of material, and is defined by the ratio: where Vp is the non-solid volume (pores and liquid) and Vm... In geology, diagenesis refers to all the chemical, physical, and biological changes undergone by a sediment after its initial deposition and during and after its lithification, exclusive of surface alteration (weathering). ... Hydrocarbons are refined at oil refineries and chemical plants In chemistry, a hydrocarbon is any chemical compound that consists only of the elements carbon (C) and hydrogen (H). ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Category:Chalk

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... The River Bourne at Winterbourne Gunner, a typical chalk stream Chalk stream is a term generally applied to the winterbournes, streams and rivers of the Southern England Chalk Formation in Hampshire, Wiltshire, and Dorset, England although it could well be used for similar watercourses elsewhere. ... A downland is an area of open chalk upland. ... Geological map of Great Britain. ... In this geological map of Great Britain the Chalk is labled 6 The Chalk Formation of Southern England is a system of chalk downland in the south of England. ...

References and further reading

  • Smith, A. B., and Batten, D. J. (2002) Fossils of the Chalk (Second Edition) The Palaeontological Association.
  • Harris, C. S. (nd) Chalk Facts - website on everything Chalk
  • Scholle, P. A., Bedout, D. G., and Moore, C. H. (1983) Carbonate Depositional Environments American Association of Petroleum Geologist Memoir 33.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Chalk - LoveToKnow 1911 (1115 words)
In certain parts of the formation layers of nodular flints (q.v.) abound; in parts, it is inclined to be sandy, or to contain grains of glauconite which was originally confounded with another green mineral, chlorite, hence the name "chloritic marl" applied to one of the subdivisions of the chalk.
In its purest form chalk consists of from 95 to 99% of calcium carbonate (carbonate of lime); in this condition it is composed of a mass of fine granular particles held together by a somewhat feeble calcareous cement.
Chalk is employed in the manufacture of carbonate of soda, in the preparation of carbon dioxide, and in many other chemical processes; also for making paints, crayons and tooth-powder.
Chalk Formation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (960 words)
The Chalk Formations of Europe are thick deposits of chalk, a soft porous white limestone, deposited in a marine environment during the upper Cretaceous Period.
In the Upper Chalk fossils may be abundant and include the bivalve Spondylus, the brachiopods Terebratulina and Gibbithyris, the echinoids Sternotaxis, Micraster, Echinocorys, and Tylocidaris, the crinoid Marsupites, and the small sponge Porosphaera.
The youngest beds of the Upper Chalk formation in England are found on the coast of Norfolk.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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