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Encyclopedia > Chalk
The Needles, situated on the Isle of Wight, are part of the extensive Southern England Chalk Formation.
The Needles, situated on the Isle of Wight, are part of the extensive Southern England Chalk Formation.

Chalk (pronounced /ˈtʃɔːk/) is a soft, white, porous sedimentary rock, a form of limestone composed of the mineral calcite. It forms under relatively deep marine conditions from the gradual accumulation of minute calcite plates (coccoliths) shed from micro-organisms called coccolithophores. It is common to find flint and chert nodules embedded in chalk. Chalk can refer to several things or places. ... Download high resolution version (598x797, 40 KB)Unbrilliant but OK piccy of The Needles (IOW). ... Download high resolution version (598x797, 40 KB)Unbrilliant but OK piccy of The Needles (IOW). ... The Needles from the cliffs inshore The Needles is a row of distinctive stacks of chalk that rise out of the sea off the western extremity of the Isle of Wight, England, close to Alum Bay. ... For other uses, see Isle of Wight (disambiguation). ... In this geological map of Great Britain the Chalk is labled 6 The Chalk Formation of Southern England is a system of chalk downland in the south of England. ... Two types of sedimentary rock: limey shale overlain by limestone. ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... Doubly refracting Calcite from Iceberg claim, Dixon, New Mexico. ... Doubly refracting Calcite from Iceberg claim, Dixon, New Mexico. ... Coccoliths are individual plates of calcium carbonate formed by coccolithophores (single-celled algae such as Emiliania huxleyi) which are arranged around them in a coccosphere. ... Coccolithophores are single-celled algae, or phytoplankton, belonging to the haptophytes. ... This article is about the sedimentary rock. ... Chert Chert (IPA: ) is a fine-grained silica-rich cryptocrystalline sedimentary rock that may contain small fossils. ...

Chalk is relatively resistant to erosion and slumping compared to the clays with which it is usually associated, thus forming tall steep cliffs where chalk ridges meet the sea. Chalk hills, known as chalk downland, usually form where bands of chalk reach the surface at an angle, so forming a scarp slope. Because chalk is porous it can hold a large volume of ground water, providing a natural reservoir that releases water slowly through dry seasons. For morphological image processing operations, see Erosion (morphology). ... For other uses, see Clay (disambiguation). ... “Precipice” redirects here. ... Hills redirects here. ... A downland is an area of open chalk upland. ... In geology, an escarpment is a transition zone between different physiogeographic provinces that involves an elevation differential, often involving high cliffs. ... Groundwater is any water found below the land surface. ...

Chalk has been quarried since prehistory, providing building material and marl for fields. In southeast England, deneholes are a notable example of ancient chalk pits. Marls are calcium carbonate or lime rich muds or mudstones which contain variable amounts of clays and calcite or aragonite. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... A Denehole (alternatively Dene hole or Dene-hole) is an underground structure consisting of a number of small chalk caves entered by a vertical shaft. ...

The Chalk Formation is a European stratigraphic unit deposited during the late Cretaceous Period. It forms the famous White Cliffs of Dover in Kent, England. The Champagne region of France is mostly underlain by chalk deposits, which contain famous caves beneath the hills. The Chalk Formations of Europe are thick deposits of chalk, a soft porous white limestone, deposited in a marine environment during the upper Cretaceous Period. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... // The Cretaceous Period (pronounced ) is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ... The white cliffs of Dover The location and extent of the white cliffs of Dover. ... For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Flag of Champagne Champagne is one of the traditional provinces of France, a region of France that is best known for the production of the sparkling white wine that bears the regions name. ...

Chalk uses

The traditional uses of chalk have in many cases been replaced by other substances, although the word "chalk" is often still applied to the replacements.

  • Blackboard chalk is a substance used for drawing on rough surfaces, as it readily crumbles leaving particles that stick loosely to these surfaces. Although traditionally composed of natural chalk, modern blackboard chalk is generally made from the mineral gypsum (calcium sulfate), often supplied in sticks of compressed powder about 10 cm long.
  • In lawn tennis, powdered chalk was used to mark the boundary lines of the court. This gives the advantage that, if the ball hits the line, a cloud of chalk or pigment dust can be seen. Nowadays the substance used is mostly titanium dioxide.
  • Tailor's chalk is traditionally a hard chalk used to make temporary markings on cloth, mainly by tailors. Nowadays it is usually made from talc (magnesium silicate).
  • Sidewalk chalk is made of sticks of colored chalk (now mostly gypsum) used to draw on sidewalks, streets, and driveways. It is often done by children, but in many cities, talented adult artists create masterpieces on the walkways.

A chalkboard, with multiple colors of chalk Blackboard Chalk A quadruple chalkboard at the Helsinki University of Technology A chalkboard or blackboard is a reusable writing surface on which text or drawings are made with chalk or other erasable markers. ... For other uses, see Gypsum (disambiguation). ... Calcium sulphate is a common laboratory and industrial chemical. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... This article is about the sport, tennis. ... Flash point non-flammable Related Compounds Other cations Titanium(II) oxide Titanium(III) oxide Titanium(III,IV) oxide Zirconium dioxide Hafnium dioxide Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium... Gymnastics is a sport involving the performance of sequences of movements requiring physical strength, flexibility, balance, endurance, gracefulness, and kinesthetic awareness, and includes such skills as handsprings, handstands, split leaps, aerials and cartwheels. ... Climbers on Valkyrie at the Roaches. ... This article is about the various cue sports. ... Bouldering is a style of rock climbing undertaken without a rope and normally limited to very short climbs so that a fall will not result in injury. ... Weightlifting is a sport where competitors attempt to lift heavy weights mounted on steel bars. ... Tug of war Tug of war, also known as rope pulling, is a sport that directly pits two teams against each other in a test of strength. ... Magnesium carbonate, MgCO3, is a white solid that occurs in nature as a mineral. ... Talc (derived from the Persian via Arabic talq) is a mineral composed of hydrated magnesium silicate with the chemical formula H2Mg3(SiO3)4 or Mg3Si4O10(OH)2. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... In chemistry, a silicate is a compound containing an anion in which one or more central silicon atoms are surrounded by electronegative ligands. ... Sidewalk chalk is large colored chalk used mostly by children in a variety of activites, but is mostly restricted to drawing on pavement or cement sidewalk. ...

See also

Chalk carving is essentially carving in chalk. ... Chalk figure A hill figure is a large visual representation created by cutting into a steep hillside and revealing the underlying geology. ... Pastel is an art medium in the form of a stick, consisting of pure powdered pigment and a binder. ... French chalk is an essential ingredient required for the repair of punctured inner tubes of pneumatic tyres, such as are found on bicycles. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Sewn redirects here. ... In sewing, to tack or baste is to make quick, temporary stitching intended to be removed. ... Cut in clothing, sewing and tailoring, is the style or shape of a garment as opposed to its fabric or trimmings. ... Cashmere darn, a fine darning technique for twill fabric, from The Dictionary of Needlework, 1885. ... For other uses see Dressmaker (disambiguation) A dressmaker is a person who makes custom clothing for women, such as dresses, blouses, and evening gowns. ... Embellishment is a term used in sewing and crafts. ... Paul Revere in a shirt gathered at shoulder and cuffs, 1776. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Skirt with narrow knife pleats at the hip line, 1929. ... Portrait of a woman wearing a heavily ruffled cap, 1789 . In sewing and dressmaking, a ruffle or frill is a strip of fabric, lace or ribbon tightly gathered or pleated on one edge and applied to a garment, bedding, curtain or other textile as a form of trimming. ... A style line is a line (or curve) in a garment that has a visual effect, e. ... A tailor attending to a customer in Hong Kong. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A 1-D stitch. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Buttonhole stitch in embroidery Detached buttonhole stitch Buttonhole stitch and the related blanket stitch are hand-sewing stitches used in tailoring, embroidery, and needle lace-making. ... In sewing and embroidery, a chain stitch is a series of looped stitches that form a chain. ... A sample cross-stitch of a Welsh dresser Cross-stitch is a popular form of counted-thread embroidery in which X-shaped stitches are used to form a picture. ... In everyday language, a stitch in the context of embroidery or hand-sewing is defined as the movement of the embroidery needle from the backside of the fabric to the front side and back to the back side. ... The lockstitch is the mechanical stitch most commonly made by a sewing machine. ... The purl stitch (2007) An overlock stitch sews over the edge of one or two pieces of cloth for edging, hemming or seaming. ... A running stitch is worked by passing the needle in and out of the fabric. ... Sashiko literally little stabs) is a form of decorative reinforcement stitching (or functional embroidery) from Japan. ... In sewing, to tack or baste is to make quick, temporary stitching intended to be removed. ... The inseams extend from the bottom of the crotch to the bottom hem of the pant legs. ... Seam allowance is the area between the edge and the stitching line on two (or more) pieces of material being stitched together. ... Bias tape or bias binding is a narrow strip of fabric, cut on the bias (UK cross-grain). ... Interfacing is a common term for a variety of materials used on the unseen or wrong side of fabrics in sewing. ... Passementerie of applied gold cord and embroidery worn by Henry VIII of England (detail of a portrait by Hans Holbein the Younger, c. ... In sewing and fashion design, a pattern is an original garment from which other garments of a similar style are copied, or the paper or cardboard templates from which the parts of a garment are traced onto fabric before cutting out and assembling (sometimes called paper patterns). ... The Simplicity Pattern Company is the maker of the Simplicity Pattern, Its So Easy and New Look brands of sewing pattern guides. ... Trim or trimming in clothing and home decorating is applied ornament such as gimp, passementerie, ribbon, ruffles, or, as a verb, to apply such ornament. ... Twill tape is a flat twill-woven ribbon of cotton, linen, polyester, or wool. ... For other uses, see Button (disambiguation). ... A small flat button Metal, plastic and leather shank buttons. ... A Frog is an ornamental braiding for fastening the front of a garment that consists of a button and a loop through which it passes. ... Buttons with shanks. ... Snap fastener (male and female discs) A snap fastener is a pair of interlocking discs commonly used in place of buttons to fasten clothing. ... Velcro: hooks (left) and loops (right). ... Zipper slider brings together the two sides A zipper (British English: zip fastener or zip) is a popular device for temporarily joining two edges of fabric. ... The bias direction of a piece of woven fabric, usually referred to simply as the bias, is at 45 degrees to its warp and weft threads. ... Yarn Spools of thread Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibers, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, embroidery and ropemaking. ... The Selvage of a piece of curtain fabric. ... This article is about the type of fabric. ... A bobbin is a spindle or cylinder, with or without flanges, on which wire, yarn, thread or film is wound. ... A pin is a device used for fastening objects or material together. ... A pincushion (or less commonly pin cushion) is a small cushion, typically 3-5 cm across, which is used in sewing to store pins with their heads protruding so as to take hold of them easily. ... Pinking shears Pinking shears are scissors, the blades of which are sawtoothed instead of straight. ... For other uses, see Scissors (disambiguation). ... A seam ripper is a small tool used for unpicking stitches. ... Needles used for sewing A sewing needle is a long slender object with a pointed tip. ... A stitching awl is a simple tool with which holes can be punctured in a variety of materials, or existing holes can be enlarged. ... Self-retracting pocket tape measure plastic tape measure A tape measure or measuring tape is a ribbon of cloth, plastic, or metal with linear-measure markings, often in both imperial and metric units. ... A thimble A thimble is a protective shield worn on the finger or thumb. ... Tracing paper is a type of translucent paper. ... A tracing wheel is a sewing tool that is used to transfer markings from patterns onto fabric using tracing paper. ... Categories: Stub ... In a sewing machine, feed dogs are the feeder mechanism which is typically used to pull fabric through a sewing mechanism. ... Elias Howes lockstitch machine, invented 1845 A sewing machine is a textile machine used to stitch fabric or other material together with thread. ... A needle guard is a piece of a sewing machine that prevents you from sewing your finger. ... Pfaff is a manufacturer of sewing machines and is now owned by the VSM Group AB [1]. [edit] External link Pfaff Website Category: ... A Singer treadle sewing machine Singer Corporation is a United States of America manufacturer of sewing machines, first established as I.M. Singer & Co. ... A type of sewing machine used in the finishing process in the bedding industy. ...



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