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Encyclopedia > Chakavian dialect
Central South Slavic
languages and dialects
(Central South Slavic diasystem)
Bosnian · Bunjevac
Burgenland Croatian · Croatian
Montenegrin · Našinski · Serbian · Serbo-Croatian
Šokac
Romano-Serbian · Slavoserbian
Differences between Serbian, Croatian and Bosnian
Dialects
Chakavian · Kajkavian · Molise Croatian
Shtokavian · Torlak · Užice speech
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Gaj’s Latin alphabet · Serbian Cyrillic
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Bosnian Cyrillic · Glagolitic
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Chakavian (Čakavian, čakavski) dialect is a dialect of the Croatian language. The name of the dialect stems from the interrogatory pronoun for "what", which is "ča" in Čakavian. Čakavian is nowadays spoken mainly in Istria, on the Adriatic sea coast, the Dalmatian littoral and the islands. Bunjevac language or Bunjevac dialect (Bunjevački jezik or Bunjevački dijalekat) is a language/dialect spoken by Bunjevac ethnic group in Vojvodina province of Serbia and Montenegro. ... Burgenland Croatian language or dialect (gradišćanskohrvatski jezik) belongs to the South Slavic branch of the Slavic languages. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... NaÅ¡inski is the Torlakian dialect used by the Gorani in southern Kosovo. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Å okac language (Å okački jezik) was a language listed in Austro-Hungarian censuses. ... The Romano-Serbian language is a language in the Western group of South Slavic languages. ... The Slavoserbian language (славяносербскій [slavjanoserbskij], словенскій [slovenskij]; in Serbian славеносрпски/slavenosrpski) is a form of the Serbian language which was predominantly used at the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th century by educated Serbian citizens in Vojvodina, and the Serbian diaspora in other parts of the Habsburg Monarchy. ... The standard Bosnian, Croatian, and Serbian languages differ in various aspects as outlined below. ... Location map of Kajkavian Kajkavian (kajkavski) dialect is one of the three dialects of the Croatian language. ... Molise Croatian dialect (also: Molise Slavic, Slavisano, na-naÅ¡o) is spoken in the Campobasso Province in the Molise Region of Italy, in three villages — Montemitro (Mundimitar), Aquaviva Collercroce (Živavoda Kruč) and San Felice del Molise (Å tifilić). These have approximately 3,000 speakers. ... Shtokavian or Å tokavian is the primary dialect of the Central South Slavic languages system: Serbo-Croatian, Serbian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Bosnian languages. ... Torlak[1] (Торлачки говор or Torlački govor) is the name used for the Slavic dialects spoken in southern and eastern Serbia, northeast Republic of Macedonia (Kratovo-Kumanovo), northwest Bulgaria (Vidin-Bregovo), and further afield in the CaraÅŸ-Severin County in Romania. ... Užican speech (Serbian: ужички говор or užički govor), also known as Zlatiborian speech (златиборски говор or zlatiborski govor) is a dialect of the Serbian language. ... The variant of the Latin alphabet devised by Ljudevit Gaj, in his book 1830 Kratka osnova horvatsko-slavenskog pravopisanja (A short primer of Croatian-Slavic orthography), is currently used as the only script of the Bosnian and Croatian standard languages, and as one of the two scripts of the Serbian... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Bosancica is a script, that was used in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia (Dalmatia and Dubrovnik). ... The Glagolitic alphabet or Glagolitsa is the oldest known Slavic alphabet. ... Croatian language (hrvatski jezik) is a South Slavic language which is used primarily by the inhabitants of Croatia and Croats in Bosnia and Herzegovina and parts of the Croatian diaspora. ... Istria (Croatian and Slovenian: Istra, Venetian and Italian: Istria), formerly Histria (Latin), is the largest peninsula in the Adriatic Sea. ... Dalmatia, highlighted, on a map of Croatia. ... A littoral is the region near the shoreline of a body of fresh or salt water. ...


Čakavian can be classified as a dialect of the Central South Slavic diasystem, generally referred from the Croatian language but exclusively a Croatian dialect. Probably the only valid argument for the categorisation into the wider group would be that interference of Čakavian with the shtokavian dialect has given rise to a Šćakavian mixture, a few subdialects spoken in western and eastern Bosnia by Croats and Bosniaks, and recorded in monuments of medieval (12th–15th century) and Counter-Reformation (17th century) literacy and literature: tombstone inscriptions, legal documents and Catholic polemical and liturgical works. However, the Čakavian dialect sensu stricto is now spoken by Croats only. In linguistics, a diasystem is a term used in structural dialectology, to refer to a single genetic language which has two or more standard forms. ... Croatian language (hrvatski jezik) is a South Slavic language which is used primarily by the inhabitants of Croatia and Croats in Bosnia and Herzegovina and parts of the Croatian diaspora. ... Shtokavian or Å tokavian is the primary dialect of the Central South Slavic languages system: Serbo-Croatian, Serbian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Bosnian languages. ... Languages Croatian Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Slavs South Slavs Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... Languages Bosnian Religions Predominantly Islam Related ethnic groups Slavs (South Slavs) The Bosniaks or Bosniacs[1] (Bosnian: BoÅ¡njaci, IPA: ) are a South Slavic people, living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia) and the Sandžak region of Serbia and Montenegro, with a smaller autochthonous population also present in Croatia...


The language used by the Croats of Northern Burgenland is also Čakavian. Burgenland (Hungarian Várvidék, Őrvidék or FelsÅ‘Å‘rvidék, Croatian Gradišće, Slovenian Gradiščansko) is the easternmost and least populous state or Land of Austria. ...

Contents

History

Cakavian is the oldest written Croatian dialect that had made visible appearance in legal documents - as early as 1275 ("Istrian land survey")[1] and 1288 ("Vinodol codex"), the predominantly vernacular Chakavian is recorded, mixed with elements of Church Slavic. Archaic Proto-Chakavian can be traced back to 1105 in Baška tablet. All these and other early Chakavian texts up to 17th century are mostly written in Glagolitic alphabet. Baška tablet (Bašćanska ploča) is one of the first monuments of Croatian language. ... The Glagolitic alphabet or Glagolitsa is the oldest known Slavic alphabet. ...


Initially, the Čakavian dialect covered a much wider area than today including about 2/3 of medieval Croatia: the major part of central and southern Croatia southwards of Kupa and westwards of Una river, as well as western Bosnia and Herzegovina. During and after the Ottoman intrusion and subsequent warfare (15th-18th centuries), the Chakavian area has become greatly reduced and in Croatian mainlands it is recently almost replaced by Shtokavian; so it is now spoken in a much smaller coastal area, than indicated above.


As expectable, in more than nine centuries Chakavian has undergone many phonetic, morphological and syntactical changes chiefly in turbulent mainlands, and less in isolated islands. Yet, contemporary dialectologists are particularly interested in it since it has retained the old accentuation system characterized by a proto-Slavic new rising accent and the early position of stress, and also numerous proto-Slavic and some proto-Indoeuropean archaisms in its vocabulary.


Area of use

Chakavian in its actual use is the rarest Croatian dialect including 12% Croats only. It is now mostly reduced in southwestern Croatia along eastern Adriatic: Adriatic islands, and sporadically in mainland coast, with rare inland enclaves up to central Croatia, and minor enclaves in Austria and Montenegro.

  • The majority of Adriatic islands are Chakavian, except the easternmost ones (Mljet and Elafiti).
  • Its largest mainland area is the subentire Istra Peninsula, and coastal valley Vinodol; minor coastal enclaves occur sporadically in Dalmatian mainland around Zadar, Biograd, Split, and in Pelješac peninsula.
  • Within Croatian inlands, its major area is Gacka valley, and sporadical minor enclaves occur in Pokupje valley and Žumberak hills, northwards around Karlovac.
  • Chakavians out of Croatia: minor enclave of Bigova (Trašte) at Boka Kotorska in Montenegro, refugees before Turks in Burgenland (eastern Austria) and SW Slovakia, and recent emigrants in America (chiefly at New Orleans, Los Angeles, and Vancouver).

Characteristics

The Chakavian dialect is divided along several criteria. According to the reflex of the old Slavic phoneme yat (which is explained on Shtokavian dialect page) it is categorized as: Shtokavian or Å tokavian is the primary dialect of the Central South Slavic languages system: Serbo-Croatian, Serbian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Bosnian languages. ...

  1. ekavian (northeastern Istria, Rijeka and Bakar, Cres island): yat = e
  2. ikavian-ekavian (islands Lošinj, Krk, Rab, Pag, Dugi, mainland Vinodol and Pokupje): i or e
  3. ikavian (southwestern Istria, islands Brač, Hvar, Vis, Korčula, Pelješac, Dalmatian coast at Zadar and Split, inland Gacka): yat = i
  4. yekavian (Lastovo island, Janjina in Pelješac, Bigova at Boka Kotorska): yat = ye (je)

Other linguists have combined some phonetic and phonological criteria, resulting in 6 groups of subdialects:

  1. Buzet dialect transitive to Kaykavian (northern Istra)
  2. southwest Istrian or mixed Shtokavian-Chakavian
  3. northern Chakavian or Ekavian-Chakavian (NE Istra and Cres)
  4. middle Chakavian or Ikavian-Ekavian in Kvarner islands and Vinodol valley
  5. southern Chakavian or Ikavian-Chakavian in middle Dalmatia and Gacka valley
  6. southeastern or Ijekavian-Chakavian in Lastovo and Janjina

There is no unanimous opinion on the set of traits a dialect has to possess, to be classified as chakavian (rather than its admixture with shtokavian or kaykavian); the following traits were mostly proposed:

  • interrogatory pronoun is "ča" or "zač" (in some islands also "ca" oz "zace");
  • old accentuation and 3 accents (mostly in ultima or penultima);
  • phonological features that give /a/ for old Slavic phonemes in characteristic positions: "language" is jazik (or zajik) in Čakavian and jezik in Štokavian;
  • "j" replacing the Shtokavian "đ" (dj), and Bulgarian "žd": for "between", Čakavian meju, Shtokavian među, and Bulgarian meždu;
  • "m" shifts to "n" at the end of words: standard Croatian volim ("I love"), sam ("I am"), selom ("village" - Instrumental case) become Chakavian volin, san, selon.
  • In conditional occur specific prefixes: bin-, biš-, bimo-, bite-.
  • contracted or lacking aorist tense;

Non-palatal tsakavism

Besides the usual chakavian (with typical pronoun "ča"), in some Adriatic islands and in eastern Istra is spoken also another special variant lacking most palatals, with other paralel deviations called "tsakavism" (cakavizam):

  • Instead of palatal "č" is allways sibilant "ts" (c): pronouns ca and zac (or ce and zace).
  • Instead of palatals š (sh) and ž (zh) are sibilants s and z (or transitive sj and zj).
  • Instead of đ (dj), lj and nj are the simple d, l and n (without jotation).
  • Frequent diphtongs instead of simple wovels: o > uo, a > oa, e > ie, etc.
  • Yat (jat): besides usual short i (or e) also is presented longer y (= ue).
  • Appertaing is often noted by possesive dative (rarely adjective nor genitive)
  • Vocative is mostly lacking and replaced ny a nominative in appellating construction.
  • Auxiliary particles are allways before the main verb: se- (self), bi- (if), će- (be).

The largest area of tsakavism is in eastern Istra at Labin, Rabac and nearby dozen villages; minor mainland enclaves are towns Bakar and Trogir. Tsakavism is also frequent in Adriatic islands: part of Lošinj and nearby islets, Baška in Krk, Pag town, northwest parts of Brač, Hvar town, and subentire Vis with adjacent islets, etc.


Recent studies

Due to its archaic nature, early medieval development, and impressive corpus of vernacular literacy, the Chakavian dialect has attracted numerous dialectologists who have meticulously documented its nuances, so that Chakavian was among the best described Slavic dialects, but its atypical tsakavism was partly neglected and less studied. The representative modern work in the field is Čakavisch-deutsches Lexikon, vol. 1.-3, Koeln-Vienna, 1979-1983, by Croatian linguists Hraste and Šimunović and German Olesch.


Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts is currently engaged to edit a multivoluminous dictionary of the Chakavian literary language, based on the wealth of literature written in chakavian. So far one published more than fourty dictionaries of local chakavian tongues, the largest among them including more than 20.000 words are for Split town, Gacka valley, islands Brač and Vis, Baška in Krk, Beli in Cres, etc. The Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts (Latin Academia Scientiarum et Artium Croatica, Croatian Hrvatska akademija znanosti i umjetnosti) is the national academy of Croatia. ...


Čakavian literary language

Since Čakavian was the first Croatian dialect to extricate from the Church Slavic matrix, both literacy and literature in this dialect abound with numerous texts - from legal and liturgical to literary: lyric and epic poetry, drama, novel in verses, as well as philological works that contain Čakavian word-stock.


Monuments of literacy began to appear in the 11th and 12th centuries, and artistic literature in the 15th. While there were two zones of Čakavian, northern and southern (both mainly along the Adriatic coast and islands, with centres like Senj, Zadar, Split, Hvar, Korčula), there is enough unity in the idiom to allow us to speak of one Čakavian literary language with regional variants. This language by far surpassed the position of a simple vernacular dialect and strongly influenced other Croatian literary dialects, particularly Štokavian: the first Štokavian texts like the Vatican Croatian prayer book, dated to 1400, are transcriptions from a Čakavian original. The early Štokavian literary and philological output, mainly from Dubrovnik (1500-1600), is essentially a mixed idiom; Štokavian-Čakavian. Shtokavian or Å tokavian is the primary dialect of the Central South Slavic languages system: Serbo-Croatian, Serbian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Bosnian languages. ... Nickname: 1995 map of Dubrovnik The location of Dubrovnik within Croatia Coordinates: , Country County Government  - Mayor Dubravka Å uica (HDZ) Area  - City 143. ...


The most famous Čakavian author is Marko Marulić. Also, the first Croatian dictionary, authored by Faust Vrančić, is mainly Čakavian in its form. Marko Marulić (Split, August 18, 1450 - Split, January 5, 1524), Croatian poet, apologist and Christian humanist is generally considered the father of vernacular Croatian literature. ... Faust Vrančić (1551, Šibenik - January 17, 1617, Venice), also known as Faust Verantius, was a humanist, philosopher, historian, lexicographer, and inventor. ...


The tradition of Čakavian literary language had died out in the 18th century, but it has helped shape standard Croatian language in many ways (chiefly in morphology and phonetics), and Čakavian dialectal poetry is still a vital part of Croatian literature. Croatian language (hrvatski jezik) is a South Slavic language which is used primarily by the inhabitants of Croatia and Croats in Bosnia and Herzegovina and parts of the Croatian diaspora. ... // (ca. ...


The most prominent representatives of Čakavian poetry in the 20th century are Vladimir Nazor and Drago Gervais. In the end of the eighties in Istria there began a special sub-genre of rock music "Ča-val" (Ča wave). Artists that were part of this scene used the Čakavian dialect in their lyrics, and often fused rock music with traditional Istra-Kvarner music. Vladimir Nazor (born 1876 in Postira, Brač — died 1949 in Zagreb) was a Croatian writer, poet and translator. ... Drago Gervais (April 18, 1904, Opatija – July 3, 1957, Sežana) was a Croatian Istrian poet and one of them most prominent authors of Chakavian dialect poetry. ... The Kvarner bay (Croatian kvarnerski zaljev, Italian Golfo del Quarnero/Quarnaro/Carnaro; sometimes also Kvarner gulf) is a bay in northern Adriatic Sea, located between the Istria peninsula and the northern Croatian seacoast. ...


Example

Ča je, je, tako je vavik bilo, ča će bit, će bit, ma nekako će već bit!


Literatura

  • J. Božanić: Čakavska rič, vol. 1.- 32., Književni krug Split.
  • J. Hamm, M. Hraste, P. Guberina: Govor otoka Suska. Hrvatski dijalektološki zbornik 1, Zagreb 1956.
  • M. Hraste, P. Šimunović, R. Olesch: Čakavisch-deutsches Lexikon, Band I-III, Köln-Wien, 1979 - 1983.
  • M. Kranjčević: Ričnik gacke čakavšćine. Čakavski sabor, Otočac 2003.
  • B. Matoković-Dobrila: Ričnik velovaroškega Splita, Denona, Zagreb 2004.
  • A. Roki-Fortunato: Libar Viškiga jazika. Libar Publishing, Toronto 1997.
  • P. Šimunović: Rječnik bračkih čakavskih govora, Brevijar, Supetar 2006.
  • N. Velčić: Besedar Bejske Tramuntane. Čakavski sabor i Adamić d.o.o, Cres-Lošinj 2003.
  • M. Yoshamya: Glossaries of east Kvarner (Baška, Rab, Vinodol) - dictionary, grammar and culture, vol. 1: 1224 p., ITG - Zagreb 2005

  Results from FactBites:
 
Science Fair Projects - Chakavian dialect (844 words)
Chakavian (Čakavian, čakavski) dialect is one of the three dialects of Croatian language.
Since čakavian was the first Croatian dialect to extricate from Church Slavic matrix, both literacy and literature in this dialect abound with numerous texts-from legal and liturgical to literary: lyric and epic poetry, drama, novel in verses, as well as philological works that contain čakavian word-stock.
This language by far surpassed the position of simple vernacular dialect and strongly influenced other Croatian literary dialects, particularly štokavian: first štokavian texts like Vatican Croatian prayer book, 1400, are transcriptions from čakavian original, and early štokavian literary and philological output, mainly from Dubrovnik (1500-1600), is essentially a mixed idiom, štokavian-čakavian.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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