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Encyclopedia > Chairlift
Hunter Mountain chairlift
A chairlift in Bad Hofgastein, Austria
A chairlift in Bad Hofgastein, Austria

A chairlift (technically, an elevated passenger ropeway), is a type of aerial lift, which consists of a continuously circulating steel cable loop strung between two end terminals and usually over intermediate towers, carrying a series of chairs. They are the primary onhill transport at most ski areas (in such cases referred to as 'skilifts'), but are also found at amusement parks, various tourist attractions, and increasingly, in urban transport. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Photo by Robert Swanson Hunter Mountain is a ski resort in the northern Catskill Mountains of New York State consisting of three separate mountains. ... Download high resolution version (1530x978, 949 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1530x978, 949 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... An aerial lift is a means of transport in which gondolas or open chairs are hauled above the ground by means of a cable. ... A ski area is a place where one goes to participate in the sports of skiing and snowboarding. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Depending on carrier size and loading efficiency, a passenger ropeway can move up 4000 people per hour, and the fastest lifts achieve operating speeds of up to 12 meters/second (27 mph, 43 km/h). The two-person double chair, which for many years was the workhorse of the ski industry, can move roughly 1200 people per hour at rope speeds of up to 2.5 m/s. The four person detachable chairlift ("high-speed quad") can transport 2400 people per hour with an average rope speed of 5 m/s. Some bi and tri cable elevated-ropeways and reversible tramways achieve much greater operating speeds. Fixed-grip lifts are usually shorter than detachable-grip lifts due to rope load; the maximum vertical rise for a fixed grip chairlift is 300-400 meters and a length of about 1200 m, while detachable quads can service a vertical rise of over 600 m and a line length of 2000 m. Detachable quad chairlift grip. ...


Design and function

Contents

The Short Cut fixed triple chairlift at The Canyons in Park City, Utah
The Short Cut fixed triple chairlift at The Canyons in Park City, Utah

A chairlift consists of numerous components to provide safe efficient transport. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1728 × 2304 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1728 × 2304 pixel, file size: 3. ... The Canyons Ski resort is one of three alpine ski resorts located in Park City, UT. It is currently owned by the American Skiing Company. ...


Terminology

Especially at ski areas, chairlifts are referred to with a ski industry vernacular. A two person lift is a "double", a three person lift a “triple”, four person lifts are “quads” and a six person lift is a "six pack". If the lift is a detachable chairlift, it is typically referred to as a “high-speed” lift, which results in a “high-speed quad” or “high-speed six pack”. Look up Vernacular in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

rope speed
the speed in feet per minute or meters per second that the rope moves
[load] interval
the spacing between carriers, measured either by distance or time
capacity
the number of passengers the lift transports per hour
efficiency
the ratio of fully loaded carriers during peak operation, usually expressed as a percentage of capacity. Because fixed grip lifts move faster than detachables at load and unload, misloads (and missed unloads) are more frequent on fixed grips, and can reduce the efficiency as low as 80%.
fixed grip
each carrier is fastened to a fixed point on the rope
detachable grip
each carrier's grip opens and closes during regular operation allowing detachment from the rope and travel slowly for load and unload. Detachable grips allow a greater rope speed to be used, usually twice that of a fixed grip chair, while simultaneously having slower loading and unloading sections. See detachable chairlift.

The capacity of a lift is constrained by the motive power (prime mover) versus the rope speed, the carrier spacing, the vertical displacement and the number of carriers on the rope (a function of the rope length). Human passengers can load only so fast before loading efficiency decreases; usually an interval of at least five seconds is needed. Detachable quad chairlift grip. ... For the philosophical/theological concept of a prime mover (that is, a self-existent being that is the ultimate cause or mover of all things), see cosmological argument. ...


Rope

The rope is the defining characteristic of an elevated passenger ropeway. The rope stretches and contracts as the tension exerted upon it increases and decreases, and it bends and flexes as it passes over sheaves and around the bullwheels. The fibre core contains a lubricant which protects the rope from corrosion and also allows for smooth flexing operation. The rope must be regularly lubricated to ensure safe operation and long life. Coils of rope used for long-line fishing A rope (IPA: ) is a length of fibers, twisted or braided together to improve strength for pulling and connecting. ... A chairlifts return bullwheel. ...


Various techniques are used for constructing the rope. Dozens of wires are wound into a strand. Several strands are wound around a textile core, their twist is oriented in the same or opposite direction as the individual wires; this is referred to as Lang lay and regular lay respectively. Steel wire rope (right hand lay) Wire rope consists of several strands laid (or twisted) together like a helix. ...


Rope is constructed in a linear fashion, and must be spliced together before carriers are affixed. Splicing involves unwinding long sections of either end of the rope, and then winding each strand from opposing ends around the core. Sections of rope must be removed, as the strands overlap during the splicing process. In genetics, splicing is a modification of genetic information prior to translation. ...


Terminals and towers

A chairlift's upper terminal with the return bullwheel.

Every lift involves at least two terminals and—usually—intermediate supporting towers. A bullwheel in each terminal redirects the rope, while sheaves (pulley assemblies) on the towers support the rope well above the ground. The number of towers is engineered based on the length and strength of the rope, worst case environmental conditions, and the type of terrain traversed. The bullwheel with the prime mover is called the drive bullwheel; the other is the return bullwheel. Chairlifts are usually electrically powered, often with diesel or gasoline engine backup, and sometimes a hand crank tertiary backup. Drive terminals can be located either at the top or the bottom of an installation; though the top-drive configuration is more efficient[1], practicalities of electric service might dictate bottom-drive. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1800 × 1200 pixel, file size: 695 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1800 × 1200 pixel, file size: 695 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A chairlifts return bullwheel. ...


Braking systems

The drive terminal is also the location of a lift's primary braking system. The service brake is located on the driveshaft beside the main drive, before the gearbox. The emergency brake acts directly on the bullwheel. While not technically a brake, an anti-rollback device (usually a cam) also acts on the bullwheel. This prevents the potentially disastrous situation of runaway reverse operation. Many chairlifts have a braking system in the sheaves.[2]


Tensioning system

The rope must be tensioned to compensate for sag caused by wind load and passenger weight, variations in rope length due to temperature and to maintain friction between the rope and the drive bullwheel. Tension is provided either by a counterweight system or by hydraulic rams, which adjust the position of the bullwheel carriage to maintain design tension. For most chairlifts, the tension is measured in tons. Look up ton in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Prime mover and gearbox

Chairlift in Praz de Lys-Sommand, Haute-Savoie, France
Chairlift in Praz de Lys-Sommand, Haute-Savoie, France

Either diesel engines or electric motors can function as prime movers. The power can range from under ten horsepower (7.5 kW) for the smallest of lifts, to several hundred for a long, fast detachable eight-seat up a steep slope. AC electric motors were the most common, though direct current motors are now economically competitive. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 680 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 680 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A diesel engine built by MAN AG in 1906 Rudolf Diesels 1893 patent on his engine design The Diesel engine is an internal combustion engine which operates using the Diesel cycle named after German engineer Rudolf Diesel, who invented it in 1876, based on the hot bulb engine, and... Electric motors of various sizes. ... This article is about a unit of measurement. ... City lights viewed in a motion blurred exposure. ... Direct current (DC or continuous current) is the continuous flow of electricity through a conductor such as a wire from high to low potential. ...


The driveshaft turns at high RPM, but with low torque. The gearbox transforms high RPM/low torque rotation into low RPM/high torque to drive the bullwheel. Higher power is able to pull heavier loads, or sustain a higher rope speed. rpm or RPM may mean: revolutions per minute RPM Package Manager (originally called Red Hat Package Manager) RPM (movie) RPM (band), a Brazilian rock band RPM (magazine), a former Canadian music industry magazine In firearms, Rounds Per Minute: how many shots an automatic weapon can fire in one minute On... Torque applied via an adjustable end wrench Relationship between force, torque, and momentum vectors in a rotating system In physics, torque (or often called a moment) can informally be thought of as rotational force or angular force which causes a change in rotational motion. ...


Secondary and auxiliary movers

In most localities, the prime mover is required to have a backup drive; this is usually provided by a diesel engine, which can operate during power outages. The purpose of the backup is to permit clearing the rope to ensure the safety of passengers; it usually has much lower power and is not used for normal operation. The secondary drive connects with the drive shaft before the gear box, usually with a chain coupling.


Some chairlifts are also equipped with an auxiliary drive, which can be used to continue regular operation in the event of a problem with the prime mover. Some lifts even have a hydrostatic coupling so the driveshaft of a snowcat can drive the chairlift. Pisten Bully 300 Polar snowcat moving snow A snowcat, is an enclosed-cab, truck sized, fully tracked vehicle designed to move on snow. ...


Carriers and grips

Carriers (usually chairs, but sometimes gondolas) are designed to seat 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 or 8 passengers. Each is connected to the cable with a steel cable grip that is either clamped onto or woven into the cable. Clamping systems use either a bolt system or coiled spring to provide clamping force. For maintenance or servicing, the carriers may be removed from or relocated along the rope by loosening the grip. Tochal gondola lift carry tourists and skiers to Tochal mountain,Tehran, Iran. ... Detachable chairlift grip. ...


Restraining bar

This restraining bar makes a 6-year old skier feel secure.

Also called a retention bar[3] or safety bar, these may help hold passengers in the chair in the same way as an automotive seatbelt or safety bar in an amusement park ride. If equipped, each chair has a retractable bar, sometimes with attached foot rests. In most configurations, a passenger may reach up and behind their head, grab the bar or a handle, and pull the restraint forward and down. Once the bar has rotated sufficiently, gravity assists positioning the bar to its down limit. Before disembarking, the bar must be rotated up, out of the way. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2112 × 2816 pixel, file size: 637 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2112 × 2816 pixel, file size: 637 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A three-point seat belt. ...


The physics of a passenger sitting properly in a chairlift do not require use of a restraining bar. If the chairlift stops suddenly (as from use of the system emergency brake), the carrier's arm connecting to the grip pivots smoothly forward—driven by the chair's inertia—and maintains friction (and seating angle) between the seat and passenger. The restraining bar is useful for children—who do not fit comfortably into adult sized chairs—as well as apprehensive passengers, and for those who are disinclined or unable to sit still. The restraining bar is also useful in very strong wind and when the chair is coated by ice.


Restraining bars (almost always with foot rests) on chairlifts are more common in Europe and also naturally used by passengers of all ages. Some newer chairlifts have restraining bars that open and close automatically.


Canopy

Some lifts also have individual canopies which can be lowered to protect against inclement weather. The canopy, or bubble, is usually constructed of transparent acrylic glass or fiberglass. In most designs, passenger legs are unprotected; however in rain or strong wind this is considerably more comfortable than no canopy. Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) or poly (methyl 2-methylpropenoate) is the synthetic polymer of methyl methacrylate. ...


Control system

To maintain safe operation, the chairlift's control system monitors sensors and controls system parameters. Expected variances are compensated for; out-of-limit and dangerous conditions cause system shutdown. In the unusual instance of system shutdown, inspection by technicians, repair or evacuation might be needed. Both fixed and detachable lifts have sensors to monitor rope speed and hold it within established limits for each defined system operating speed. Also, the minimum and maximum rope tension, and speed feedback redundancy are monitored.[4] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Control theory. ...


Many—if not most—installations have numerous safety sensors which detect rare but potentially hazardous situations, such as the rope coming out of an individual sheave.


Detachable chairlift control systems measure carrier grip tension during each detach and attach cycle, verify proper carrier spacing and verify correct movement of the detached carriers through the terminals.[citation needed]


Safety systems

Aerial lifts have a variety of mechanisms to ensure safe operation over a lifetime often measured in decades.


Braking

As mentioned above, there are multiple redundant braking systems. Turning off the main drive will normally bring the rope to a stop in installations where it is transporting passengers uphill. A service brake and emergency brake on the bullwheel as well as drum brakes in the sheaves can stop the ropeway quickly.


Brittle bars

Example of a brittle bar within a cable catcher beside a sheave train. Wiring connected to the brittle bar is visible immediately to the right of the closest sheave. An anti-derailment plate is visible at top.
Example of a brittle bar within a cable catcher beside a sheave train. Wiring connected to the brittle bar is visible immediately to the right of the closest sheave. An anti-derailment plate is visible at top.

Some installations use brittle bars to detect several hazardous situations. Brittle bars alongside the sheaves detect the rope coming out of the track. They may also be placed to detect counterweight or hydraulic ram movement beyond safe parameters (sometimes called a brittle fork in this usage) and to detect detached carriers leaving the terminal's track. If a brittle bar breaks, it interrupts a circuit which causes the system controller to immediately stop the system.[5] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


Cable catcher

These are small hooks sometimes installed next to sheaves to catch the rope and prevent it from falling if it should come out of the track. They are designed to allow passage of chair grips while the lift is stopping and for evacuation.[6] It is extremely rare for the rope to leave the sheaves.


Collision

Passenger loading and unloading is supervised by lift operators. Their primary purpose to ensure passenger safety by checking that passengers are suitably outfitted for the elements and not wearing or transporting items which could entangle chairs, towers, trees, etc. If a misload or missed unload occurs—or is imminent—they slow or stop the lift to prevent carriers from colliding with or dragging any person. Also, if the exit area becomes congested, they will slow or stop the chair until safe conditions are established.


Communication

The lift operators at the terminals of a chairlift communicate with each other to verify that all terminals are safe and ready when restarting the system. Communication is also used to warn of an arriving carrier with a passenger missing a ski, or otherwise unable to efficiently unload, such as patients being transported in a rescue toboggan. These uses are the chief purpose for a visible identification number on each carrier. A modern bobsleigh toboggan A toboggan is a simple sled used on snow, to carry one or more people (often children) down a hill or other slope, for recreation. ...


Evacuation

Aerial ropeways always have several backup systems in the event of failure of the prime mover. An additional electric motor, diesel or gasoline engine—even a hand crank—allows movement of the rope to eventually unload passengers. In the event of a failure which prevents rope movement, staff may conduct emergency evacuation using a simple rope harness looped over the aerial ropeway to lower passengers to the ground one by one.[7]


Grounding

A steel line strung alongside a mountain is likely to attract lightning strikes. To protect against that and electrostatic buildup, all components of the system are electrically bonded together and connected to one or more grounding systems connecting the lift system to earth ground. In areas subject to frequent electrical strikes, a protective aerial line is fixed above the aerial ropeway. Lightning over Oradea in Romania For information on lightning precautions, see Lightning safety. ... Static electricity is a class of phenomena involving the net charge present on an object; typically referring to charged object with voltages of sufficient magnitude to produce visible attraction, repulsion, and sparks. ...


Load testing

In most jurisdictions, chairlifts must be load inspected and tested periodically. The typical test consists of loading the uphill chairs with bags of water (secured in boxes) weighing more than the worst case passenger loading scenario. The system's ability to start, stop and prevent reverse operation are carefully evaluated against the system's design parameters.[8]


Rope testing

Frequent visual inspection of the rope is required in most jurisdictions, as well as periodic non-destructive testing. Electromagnetic induction testing detects and quantifies hidden adverse conditions within the strands such as a broken wire, pitting caused by corrosion or wear, variations in cross sectional area, and tightening or loosening of wire lay or strand lay. [9]


Safety gate

A safety gate at the top terminal detects passengers failing to unload. An open restraining bar is also visible.
A safety gate at the top terminal detects passengers failing to unload. An open restraining bar is also visible.

If a passenger fails to unload, their legs will contact a lightweight bar or thin line which stops the lift. The lift operator will then help them disembark, reset the safety gate, and initiate the lift restart procedure. While possibly annoying to other passengers on the chairlift, it is preferable to strike the safety gate (that is, it should not be avoided) and stop the lift than be an unexpected downhill passenger. The majority of chairlifts are rated for zero downhill capacity, so the operator would eventually stop the lift and call for a time-consuming evacuation of the passenger. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


History

Aerial passenger ropeways were known in Asia well before the 1600s for crossing chasms in mountainous regions. Men would traverse a woven fiber line hand over hand. Evolutionary refinement added a harness or basket to also transport cargo.[7]


The first recorded mechanical ropeway was by Venetian Fausto Veranzio who designed a bicable passenger ropeway in 1616. The industry generally considers Dutchman Wybe Adam to have built the first operational system in 1644. Alpine regions of Europe developed the technology; progress rapidly advanced and expanded with the advent of wire rope and, especially, electric drive. World War I motivated extensive use of military tramways for warfare between Italy and Austria.[7] Faust Vrančić or Fausto Veranzio (1551, Šibenik - January 17, 1617, died in Venice and buried in Prvić Luka, a village on the island of Prvić near Šibenik), also known as Faust Verantius, was a Dalmatian (Croatian/Venetian) humanist, philosopher, historian, lexicographer, and inventor. ...


The first known chairlift was created for the ski resort in Sun Valley, Idaho in 1936.[10] It was installed on Proctor Mountain, two miles (3 km) east of the more famous Bald Mountain, the primary ski mountain of Sun Valley resort since 1939. The chairlift was developed by James Curran of Union Pacific's engineering department in Omaha during the summer of 1936. Prior to working for Union Pacific, Curran worked for Paxton and Vierling Steel (www.pvsteel.com), also in Omaha, which engineered banana conveyor systems to load cargo ships in the tropics. (PVS manufactured these chairs in their Omaha, NE facility.) Curran reengineered the banana hooks with chairs and created a machine with greater capacity than the up-ski toboggan (cable car) and better comfort than the J-bar, the two most common skier transports at the time—apart from mountain climbing. His basic design is still used for chairlifts today. W. Averell Harriman, Sun Valley's creator and former governor of New York State, financed the project.[11][12] The original 1936 chair lift was later moved to Boyne Mountain, Michigan (U.S.A.) where parts of it is still in use. [13] St. ... Sun Valley is an affluent resort community in Blaine County, Idaho, USA, adjacent to the city of Ketchum. ... Bald mountian is a ski mountian located in Sun Valley, Idaho. ... The Union Pacific Railroad (NYSE: UNP) is the largest railroad in the United States. ... “Omaha” redirects here. ... A modern bobsleigh toboggan A toboggan is a simple sled used on snow, to carry one or more people (often children) down a hill or other slope, for recreation. ... A cable car is any of a variety of transportation systems relying on cables to pull vehicles along or lower them at a steady rate, or a vehicle on these systems. ... A J-bar (in some regions, L-bar) is a type of surface lift invented in the 1940s[1] for ski area passenger transport. ... Mountaineering is an umbrella term that can variously be used to describe the actions of climbing, hillwalking and scrambling. ... William Averell Harriman (November 15, 1891 – July 26, 1986) was an American Democratic Party politician, businessman and diplomat. ... State nickname: Empire State Other U.S. States Capital Albany Largest city New York Governor George Pataki Official languages None Area 141,205 km² (27th)  - Land 122,409 km²  - Water 18,795 km² (13. ... This article needs cleanup. ...


The second was the Magic Mile chairlift on Mount Hood, Oregon in 1938 which was also the longest in the world.[14] [15] [16] The Magic Mile is a chairlift at Timberline Lodge, Mount Hood, Oregon. ... This article is about the tallest mountain in Oregon. ... Official language(s) (none)[1] Capital Salem Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 9th  - Total 98,466 sq mi (255,026 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 2. ...


Future

New chairlifts built since the 1990s are infrequently fixed-grip. Existing fixed-grip lifts are being replaced with detachable chairlifts at most major ski areas. However the relative simplicity of the fixed-grip design results in lower installation, maintenance and—in many cases—lower operation costs. For this reason, they are likely to remain at low volume and community hills, and for short distances, such as beginner terrain. Detachable quad chairlift grip. ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

Ski and snowboard transport


Heli skiing is off-trail, downhill skiing that is reached by a helicopter, not a ski lift. ... The Riblet Tramway Company was once the largest ski chairlift manufacturer in the world. ...

Ski lifts
Aerial lifts: Aerial tramway/Cable car/Ropeway/Téléphérique/Seilbahn | Funifor | Funitel | Gondola/Télécabine | Telemix | Detachable chairlift | Chairlift
Surface lifts: T-bar | J-bar | Platter/Button/Poma | Rope tow & handle tow | Magic carpet       Cable railwaysFunicular

A chairlift A chairlift is a type of aerial lift, which consists of a constantly moving loop of steel cable strung between two end terminals and generally over intermediate towers. ... Image File history File links 1_9_2_42. ... An aerial lift is a means of transport in which gondolas or open chairs are hauled above the ground by means of a cable. ... Aerial tramway suspended on two track cables with an additional haulage rope Cable car at Zell am See in the Austrian Alps. ... A Funifor is a type of aerial lift or aerial tramway with two guide ropes and a haul rope loop per cabin. ... Squaw Valley Funitel, Jan 2005 A funitel is a type of aerial lift, generally used to transport skiers. ... Tochal gondola lift carry tourists and skiers to Tochal mountain,Tehran, Iran. ... The Telemix is a relatively new innovation in the world of Ski Lifts. ... Detachable quad chairlift grip. ... A surface lift is a mechanical system used to transport skiers and snowboarders uphill. ... A t-bar lift, also called t-bar, is a mechanised system for pulling skiers uphill. ... A J-bar (in some regions, L-bar) is a type of surface lift invented in the 1940s[1] for ski area passenger transport. ... A platter lift, or just platter, is a mechanised system for pulling skiers uphill. ... A ski tow, also called rope tow, is a mechanised system for pulling skiers uphill. ... This magic carpet is a favorite with young skiers. ... Cable railways are railways with very steep gradients and use stationary engines to haul the wagons up and down the hills. ... Angels Flight, Los Angeles, California with gantlet track configuration Duquesne Incline, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania with full length parallel tracks The Gütschbahn in Lucerne, Switzerland – from an 1893 guidebook A funicular, also called funicular railway, inclined railway, inclined plane, or, in the United Kingdom, a cliff railway, is a system of...

Ski industry related

This is a list of the worlds current and former aerial lift manufacturers. ... Cross-country skiing (skating style) in Einsiedeln, Switzerland. ...

Other lift technology

Aerial tramway suspended on two track cables with an additional haulage rope Cable car at Zell am See in the Austrian Alps. ... Cable car at Zell am See in the Austrian Alps. ... Cable car at Zell am See in the Austrian Alps. ... An Aerial tramway in Italy. ... Cable Car in San Francisco A San Francisco cable car Winding drums on the London and Blackwall cable-operated railway, 1840. ... A cable car is any of a variety of transportation systems relying on cables to pull vehicles along or lower them at a steady rate, or a vehicle on these systems. ... For other uses, see Elevator (disambiguation). ... A Funifor is a type of aerial lift or aerial tramway with two guide ropes and a haul rope loop per cabin. ... Squaw Valley Funitel, Jan 2005 A funitel is a type of aerial lift, generally used to transport skiers. ... Andrew Smith Hallidie was a Scot who came to America to seek his fortune, with his father, in the goldfields of California. ... A paternoster at the University of Vienna, NIG (Neues Institutsgebäude), late 1950s, still in operation A paternoster or paternoster lift is an elevator which consists of a chain of open compartments (each usually designed for two persons) that move slowly in a loop up and down inside a building... This is a list of transport related topics. ...

References

  1. ^ Greater top-drive efficiency assumes the chairlift predominantly moves passengers uphill. Glossary entry for Drive Terminal. skilifts.org. Retrieved on 2006-11-30.
  2. ^ Service Bulletin #2003-141 (pdf). Riblet Tramway Company (February 14, 2003). Retrieved on 2006-11-28.
  3. ^ Glossary for Retention Bar. skilifts.org. Retrieved on 2006-11-30.
  4. ^ Service Bulletin #2000-137 (pdf). Riblet Tramway Company (December 18, 2000). Retrieved on 2006-11-28.
  5. ^ Glossary entry for Drive Terminal. skilifts.org. Retrieved on 2006-11-30.
  6. ^ Poma Omega Series Chairlift. Poma. Retrieved on 2006-12-21.
  7. ^ a b c Information Center for Ropeway Studies (2006-03-17). About Ropeways. Colorado School of Mines - Arthur Lakes Library. Retrieved on 2006-11-30.
  8. ^ Glossary entry for Load Test. skilifts.org. Retrieved on 2006-12-05.
  9. ^ W. A. Lucht (2000). Handbook of Oceanographic Winch, Wire, and Cable Technology, chapter 1: 3 x 19 Oceanographic Wire Rope (pdf) 1-29 – 1-36. University-National Oceanographic Laboratory System. Retrieved on 2006-12-06.
  10. ^ The "first known chairlift" depends on definition: Miners in Kennecott, Alaska used a mining tram to ski in the 1920s. There were other non-ski "chairlifts" in British Columbia at the turn of the century; Grass Valley (California) in 1896; Aspen (Colorado) in 1890; and British Columbia in 1874.
  11. ^ Don Hibbard (July 1977). Sun Valley Ski Lifts (pdf). Idaho State Historical Society. Retrieved on 2006-11-21.
  12. ^ Sun Valley History. Retrieved on 2006-11-21.
  13. ^ http://www.fundinguniverse.com/company-histories/Boyne-USA-Resorts-Company-History.html
  14. ^ Other chairlifts preceded the Mile, but were originally built for material transport and converted to chairlifts.
  15. ^ Thomas P. Deering, Jr. (1986). Mountain Architecture: An Alternative Design Proposal for the Wy'East Day Lodge, Mount Hood Oregon. Master of Architecture Thesis, University of Washington. Retrieved on 2006-11-30.
  16. ^ Alpenglow Ski Mountaineering History Project, Compendium of Northwest Skier Magazine (September 7, 2004). Retrieved on 2006-11-30.
  17. ^ Lift-World.info list of Basket lifts. Retrieved on 2006-11-30.
  18. ^ Lift-World.info list of Funifors. Retrieved on 2006-11-30.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Poma or Pomagalski SA is an international corporation which builds passenger conveyances using cable systems, including fixed and detachable aerial chairlifts, gondolas, funiculars, aerial tramways and surface lifts. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 6 is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Kennicott, Alaska is an abandoned town that was the center of activity for several copper mines. ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour Without Sunset (diminishment)) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo - Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 36 - Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th - Total 944,735... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Chairlift, Home Chairlifts - StairLiftsUSA.com (205 words)
A chairlift is a chair attached to a track that is attached to the staircase in your home.
Chairlifts can be used for carrying you up and down the stairs, and can also be used for moving laundry, groceries, and other items.
Wheel chairlifts work a lot like home chairlifts, but have a platform for a wheel chair to sit on instead of a chair such as on a chairlift.
Chairlift - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (393 words)
A chairlift, also known as a fixed-grip chairlift, is a type of aerial lift, which consists of a constantly moving loop of steel cable strung between two end terminals and generally over intermediate towers.
The lifts are usually powered by an electric motor, often with a diesel engine for backup in case of flouts (which are fairly common since ski resorts tend to be in remote areas).
Fixed-grip chairlifts are already less common-place at most major ski areas in North America, replaced by the faster Detachable chairlift.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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