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Encyclopedia > Chaco War
Chaco War

Bolivia and Paraguay before the 1932 War
Date 19321935
Location Gran Chaco region, South America
Result Paraguayan victory
Casus
belli
Bolivian-Paraguayan border dispute
Territorial
changes
Most of the Gran Chaco region is awarded to Paraguay. Bolivia keeps the strategic zones and a Port over Paraguay river.
Combatants

Republic of Bolivia

Republic of Paraguay
Commanders
Hans Kundt Mcal. José Félix Estigarribia
Strength
Army of Bolivia
Army of Paraguay

The Chaco War (19321935) was fought between Bolivia and Paraguay over control of a great part of the Gran Chaco region of South America, which was incorrectly thought to be rich in oil. Image File history File linksMetadata Disputed_Bolivia_Paraguay. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will take you to a full 1932 calendar). ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Landscape in the Gran Chaco, Paraguay The Gran Chaco (Quechua chaqu, hunting land), dubbed by some as the last South American frontier, is a sparsely populated, hot and semi-arid lowland region of the Río de la Plata basin, divided between Bolivia, Paraguay, Argentina and a small portion in... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Casus belli is a modern Latin language expression meaning the justification for acts of war. ... Landscape in the Gran Chaco, Paraguay The Gran Chaco (Quechua chaqu, hunting land), dubbed by some as the last South American frontier, is a sparsely populated, hot and semi-arid lowland region of the Río de la Plata basin, divided between Bolivia, Paraguay, Argentina and a small portion in... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bolivia_(state). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Paraguay. ... José Felix Estigarribia (1888 - 1940) was a Paraguayan political figure. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will take you to a full 1932 calendar). ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Landscape in the Gran Chaco, Paraguay The Gran Chaco (Quechua chaqu, hunting land), dubbed by some as the last South American frontier, is a sparsely populated, hot and semi-arid lowland region of the Río de la Plata basin, divided between Bolivia, Paraguay, Argentina and a small portion in... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...

Contents

Origins

Though the region was sparsely populated, control of the Paraguay River running through it would have given one of the two landlocked countries access to the Atlantic Ocean. This was especially important to Bolivia, which had lost its Pacific Ocean coast to Chile in the War of the Pacific (1883). The Paraguay River near Asunción The River Paraguay (Rio Paraguay in Spanish, Rio Paraguai in Portuguese) is a major river in south central South America, running through Brazil and Paraguay and forming a border between Brazil and Bolivia as well as Paraguay and Argentina. ... Combatants Republic of Peru Republic of Bolivia Republic of Chile Commanders Juan Buendía Andrés Cáceres Miguel Grau Manuel Baquedano Patricio Lynch Arturo Prat Strength Peru-Bolivian Army Peruvian Navy Army of Chile Chilean Navy The War of the Pacific, sometimes called the Saltpeter War in reference to... 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


Control of Natural Resources

Furthermore, the discovery of oil in the Andean foothills sparked speculation that the Chaco itself would be a rich source of petroleum. Two large oil companies were involved in the exploration: Standard Oil (later Exxon), which backed Bolivia, while Shell Oil supported Paraguay. Standard Oil (1870–1911) was a large, integrated, oil producing, transporting, refining, and marketing company. ... A Shell petrol station sign in the UK The Royal Dutch/Shell Group of Companies (called Shell Oil in North America), has its headquarters split between the Shell Centre in London, United Kingdom and The Hague, Netherlands. ...

Paraguayan stamp showing the Chaco Stamp Scott#136
Paraguayan stamp showing the Chaco Stamp Scott#136

In international arbitration, Bolivia argued that the region had been part of the original Spanish province to which Bolivia was heir. Meanwhile, Paraguay had begun to cultivate the region, making it the world's largest producer of yerba mate, while the small indigenous population of Guaraní Indians was related to that country's own Guaraní population. Finally, Paraguay had also lost almost half of its territory to Brazil and Argentina in the War of the Triple Alliance and was not prepared to see what it perceived as its last chance for a viable economy fall victim to Bolivia. Image File history File links Parag. ... Image File history File links Parag. ... Binomial name Ilex paraguariensis A. St. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Combatants Paraguay Uruguay, Argentina, Brazil Commanders Francisco Solano López Bartolomé Mitre Duke of Caxias Venancio Flores Strength at the beginning of the war ca. ...


Border skirmishes throughout the late 1920s culminated in an all-out war in 1932, when the Bolivian army, following the orders of the President Daniel Salamanca, attacked a Paraguayan garrison at Vanguardia. The 1920s was a decade sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will take you to a full 1932 calendar). ... Daniel Salamanca Urey (July 8, 1869 - July 17, 1935) was president of Bolivia from March 5, 1931 until he was overthrown in a coup detat on November 27, 1934, during the countrys disastrous Chaco War with Paraguay. ... Vanguardia is a Cuban newspaper. ...


The war was a disaster for both sides. Bolivia's European elite forcibly enlisted the large indigenous population into the army, though they felt little connection to the nation-state. While Paraguay was able to foment nationalist fervor among its predominantly mixed population, its soldiers were ill-prepared for the dearth of water or the harsh conditions of terrain and climate they encountered. In fact, of the war's 100,000 casualties, more died from diseases such as malaria and other infections than from the actual fighting. (About 57,000 of the total were Bolivian.) At the same time, the war brought both countries to the brink of economic disaster. In addition, on November 27, 1934, Bolivian generals frustrated by the progress of the war seized President Salamanca while he was visiting their headquarters in Villamontes and replaced him with the vice president, José Luis Tejada Sorzano. Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease that is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions. ... November 27 is the 331st day (332nd on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... José Luis Tejada Sorzano (Born La Paz January 12, 1882; Died Arica October 4, 1938) was installed by the military as president of Bolivia during the Chaco War. ...


Aftermath

A Bolivian patrol during the Chaco War near the Pilcomayo River in the Chaco Boreal.
A Bolivian patrol during the Chaco War near the Pilcomayo River in the Chaco Boreal.

Image File history File links Bolivian_Patrol_in_Chaco. ... Image File history File links Bolivian_Patrol_in_Chaco. ...

Cease Fire

By the time a ceasefire was negotiated on June 12, 1935, Paraguay had seized control over most of the region. This was recognized in a 1938 truce, signed in Argentina, by which Paraguay was awarded three-quarters of the Chaco Boreal. June 12 is the 163rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (164th in leap years), with 202 days remaining. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ...

  • Paraguay had a population only a third as large as Bolivia's (880,000 versus 2,150,000). But Paraguay's guerilla style of fighting compared to Bolivia's more formal strategy enabled Paraguay to win more battles.
  • Paraguay received military supplies and intelligence from Argentina. Paraguay's use of poor-man's weapons also proved more effective in the Chaco than the expensive modern weapons the Bolivians used.
  • A further advantage for the Paraguayans was their ability to communicate over radio in Guaraní, which was not intelligible to the typical Bolivian soldier.
Chaco Peace. The stamp is Scott no. 629
Chaco Peace. The stamp is Scott no. 629

Some years later it was found that there were no oil resources in the Chaco proper. Bolivia did get a small strip of land that bordered the Paraguay River's Puerto Busch. Guaraní (local name: avañeẽ ) is an Amerindian language of South America that belongs to the Tupí-Guaraní subfamily. ... Image File history File links Parag. ... Image File history File links Parag. ... Puerto Busch is located in the province of Germán Busch, department of Santa Cruz de la Sierra, republic of Bolivia on the Paraguay river in eastern Bolivia. ...


Many middle-class Bolivians were humiliated by Bolivia's quick military defeat during the Chaco War, which led to a mass-movement away from the traditional order known as the Generación del Chaco, which was epitomized by the MNR-led Revolution of 1952. MNR logo The Revolutionary Nationalist Movement (Spanish: Movimiento Nacionalista Revolucionario) is a political party in Bolivia. ...


Trivia

Some aspects of the Chaco War are the inspiration for Tintin's comic book The Broken Ear by Hergé. The main cast of the series. ... A comic book is a magazine or book containing the art form of comics. ... The Broken Ear (LOreille cassée) is one of the The Adventures of Tintin, a series of classic comic-strip albums, written and illustrated by Belgian writer and illustrator Hergé, featuring young reporter Tintin as a hero. ... Georges Remi (May 22, 1907 – March 3, 1983), better known by the pen name Hergé, was a Belgian comics writer and artist. ...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Bolivia Paraguay Chaco War 1932-1935 (645 words)
Chaco War (1932-35), costly conflict between Bolivia and Paraguay.
The conflict stemmed from the outcome of the War of the Pacific (1879-84), in which Chile defeated Bolivia and annexed that nation's entire coastal region.
The war had caused disruption of the Bolivian economy, provoking demands for reform among the deprived Bolivian masses.
The Chaco War (1475 words)
The Chaco Boreal is a region of land occupying approximately 100,000 square miles in Northwestern Paraguay, Southeastern Bolivia, and Northern Argentina.
It was difficult for soldiers to survive the harsh climate of the Chaco region.
The location of the Chaco War was on the north western border of Paraguay and the southeastern border of Bolivia.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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