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Encyclopedia > Ceylon

The Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka (ශ්රී ලංකා in Sinhala / இலங்கை in Tamil) (known as Ceylon before 1972) is a tropical island nation off the southeast coast of the Indian subcontinent. a resource to look at current viewpoints Categories: Indo-Aryan languages | Languages of Sri Lanka | Wikipedia cleanup | Language stubs ... The consonant ழ் believed to be unique to Tamil and Malayalam Tamil of Tamilians is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken in southern India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... 1972 was a leap year that started on a Saturday. ... An island nation is a country that is wholly confined to an island or islands. ... Southeast is the ordinal direction halfway between south and east. ... The Indian subcontinent is the peninsular region of larger South Asia in which the nations of India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka as well as parts of Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar and some disputed territory currently controlled by China are located. ...


The island was known in ancient times as Lanka, Lankadweepa (Sanskrit for "resplendent land"), Simoundou, Taprobane (from the Sanskrit Tāmaraparnī), Serendib (from the Sanskrit Sinhala-dweepa), and Selan. During colonization, the island became known as Ceylon, a name still used on occasion. Its unique shape and proximity to the Indian mainland have led some to refer to the island as India's Teardrop. The Sanskrit language ( संस्कृता वाक्) is one of the earliest attested members of the Indo-European language family and is not only a classical language, but also an official language of India. ... The Republic of India is the second most populous country in the world, with a population of more than one billion, and is the seventh largest country by geographical area. ...


Life on Sri Lanka has been marred by more than two decades of ethnic conflict, mainly between the national government and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE, pronounced L-T-T) insurgency. In early 2002, the two sides agreed on a ceasefire. The conditions of this ceasefire are currently under renogotiation, and the political stability of the country is uncertain. Since independence (from the British Empire in 1948), the struggle between majority Sinhala-speaking Buddhists and minority Tamils (mostly Hindu) was a regular feature of political life in Sri Lanka. ... The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE, pronounced L-T-T), also known as the Tamil Tigers, is the main Tamil anti-government organization operating in Sri Lanka. ... A ceasefire is a temporary stoppage of a war, for any of various reasons. ...

ශ්රී ලංකා ප්රජාතාන්ත්රික සමාජවාදී ජනරජය
Sri Lankā Prajathanthrika Samajavadi Janarajaya
இலங்கை சனநாயக சோஷலிசக் குடியரசு
Illankai Chananaayaka Chosalisa Kudiyarasu
Sri Lanka Coat of Arms
(In Detail)
National motto: None
image:LocationSriLanka.png
Official languages Sinhala, Tamil
Other languages English
Capitals Colombo1
Sri Jayewardenepura (Kotte)2
President Chandrika Bandaranaike Kumaratunga
Prime Minister Mahinda Rajapakse
Area
 - Total
 - % water
Ranked 119th
65,610 km²
1.3%
Population
 - Total (2002)
 - Density
Ranked 51st
19,607,519
298/km²
Independence
 St. of Westr
  Realm Status
From British Empire
 December 11, 1931
 February 4, 1948
Currency Sri Lankan Rupee
Time zone UTC +6
National anthem Sri Lanka Matha
Internet TLD .lk
Calling Code 94
1 Executive Capital
2 Legislative Capital
Contents

Large flag of Sri Lanka Image originally derived from the public domain flags of the CIA World Factbook. ... Sri Lankan coat of arms This image depicts a seal, an emblem, a coat of arms or a crest. ... Flag ratio: 1:2 The flag of Sri Lanka was adopted in 1948. ... Here is a list of state mottos for countries and their subdivisions around the world. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... An official language is something that is given a unique status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... a resource to look at current viewpoints Categories: Indo-Aryan languages | Languages of Sri Lanka | Wikipedia cleanup | Language stubs ... The consonant ழ் believed to be unique to Tamil and Malayalam Tamil of Tamilians is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken in southern India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... As with any complex, emergent concept, language is somewhat resistant to definition. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... In politics a capital (also called capital city or political capital — although the latter phrase has an alternative meaning based on an alternative meaning of capital) is the principal city or town associated with its government. ... Towers of downtown Colombo Colombo (derived from Sinhalese name Kola-amba-thota which means mango harbour, altered by the Portuguese to honour Christopher Columbus), population 737,396 (Colombo metropolitan area: 2,234,289) (2001), is the largest city and commercial center of Sri Lanka. ... Sri Jayewardanapura or Kotte is the legislative capital of Sri Lanka. ... Sri Jayewardanapura or Kotte is the legislative capital of Sri Lanka. ... The following is a list of Sri Lankan presidents. ... Mrs. ... The following is a list of Sri Lankan Prime Ministers: Don Stephen Senanayake (February 4, 1948 - March 26, 1952) Dudley Shelton Senanayake (March 26, 1952 - October 12, 1953) John Lionel Kotalawela (October 12, 1953 - April 12, 1956) Solomon Ridgeway Dias Bandaranaike (April 12, 1956 - September 26, 1959) Vijayananda Dahanayake (September... Mahinda Rajapakse Mahinda Rajapakse (born November 18, 1945), Sri Lankan politician, became Prime Minister of Sri Lanka on April 6, 2004, following the victory of the United Peoples Freedom Alliance in the April 2, 2004 Sri Lankan legislative elections. ... This article explains the meaning of area as a physical quantity. ... Here is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 10,000 km² and 100,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... In the most common sense of the word, a population is the collection of people—or organisms of a particular species—living in a given geographic area. ... Population density can be used as a measurement of any tangible item. ... This is a list of sovereign states and other territories by population. ... Independence is autonomous self-government of a country by its residents and indigenous population. ... The Statute of Westminster 1931 was the enactment of the United Kingdom Parliament (December 11, 1931) which established the legislative equal status of the self-governing dominions of the British Empire and United Kingdom. ... A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the 16 sovereign states that recognize Queen Elizabeth II as their Queen and head of state. ... December 11 is the 345th day (346th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1931 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... February 4 is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... The Rupee (₨ or Rs. ... -1... UTC also stands for the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga Coordinated Universal Time or UTC, also sometimes referred to as Zulu time, is an atomic realization of Universal Time or Greenwich mean time, the astronomical basis for civil time. ... The National Anthem is the name of a song by the band Radiohead. ... Sri Lanka Matha is the national anthem of Sri Lanka. ... A top-level domain (TLD) is the last part of which Internet domain names consist of. ... .lk is the Internet country code top-level domain ( ccTLD) for Sri Lanka. ...

History

Main article: History of Sri Lanka Note: The arrival of Sinhalese and Tamils on the island is a matter of great debate, as the history is often used to justify one or another position in Sri Lankas on-going civil war. ...

Sri Lanka's pre-historic humans were the Wanniyala-Aetto, commonly known as Veddahs. The Sinhalese arrived late in the 6th century BC, probably from northern India. Buddhism was introduced in the mid-3rd century BC, and a great civilization developed at such cities as Anuradhapura (kingdom from c. 200 BC to c. 1000 AD) and Polonnaruwa (c. 1070 to 1200). The Wanniyala-Aetto, or forest beings (This is the name they call themselves; the commonly known name is Veddahs in Sinhalese) are an indigenous people of Sri Lanka, an island nation in the Indian Ocean. ... The Sinhalese are the majority (14 million) ethnic group of Sri Lanka, who probably came from Northern India. ... (7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC - other centuries) (600s BC - 590s BC - 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - other decades) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Cyrus the Great conquered many... The Republic of India is the second most populous country in the world, with a population of more than one billion, and is the seventh largest country by geographical area. ... Statues of Buddha such as this, the Tian Tan Buddha statue in Hong Kong, remind followers to practice right living. ... (4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events The first two Punic Wars between Carthage and Rome over dominance in western Mediterranean Rome conquers Spain Great Wall of China begun Indian traders regularly visited Arabia Scythians occupy... The very first kingdom in Sri Lanka, Anuradhapura was made the countrys capital by King Pandukabhaya (reigned c. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC - 200s BC - 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC Years: 205 BC 204 BC 203 BC 202 BC 201 BC - 200 BC - 199 BC 198 BC... For other uses, see number 1000. ... The second most ancient of Sri Lankas kingdoms, Polonnaruwa was first declared the capital city by King Vijayabahu I, who defeated the Chola invaders in 1070 CE to reunite the country once more under a local leader. ... For alternate uses, see Number 1070. ... Events University of Paris receives charter from Philip II of France Births Matthew Paris, English Benedictine monk and chronicler (approximate date). ...


Tamils from southern India also came to the island (exactly how many, and when, is a matter of debate). By the 13th century, there was a substantial Tamil society in the north and many fishing communities elsewhere along the island's coastline. The Tamils here developed a culture and polity distinct from their mainland cousins. Relations between the Tamils (of India and Sri Lanka) and the Sinhalese were complex, sometimes peaceful and sometimes warlike, with invasions in both directions and substantial intermixing. Tamil New Year Ethnic problems In India After independence, Tamilians felt they and their dravidian race were ignored by the North Indians. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ...


Buddhism ushered in a new civilization in Sri Lanka after the arrival of the Arahat Mahinda Thera, son of Emperor Asoka, who was ruler of the Magadha empire in India. Devanampiya Thissa, the king at the time of Mahinda Thero's arrival, embraced Buddhism and facilitated its spread by constructing temples and Buddhist institutions throughout the country. Statues of Buddha such as this, the Tian Tan Buddha statue in Hong Kong, remind followers to practice right living. ... A garden featuring depictions of various arhats (Hsi Lai Temple, California) An arhat (also arahat or arahant; Chinese: 阿羅漢, aluohan; Tibetan: dgra-bcom-pa; Jp. ... Mahinda was the son of Emperor Ashoka. ... Emperor is also a Norwegian black metal band; see Emperor (band). ... This article is about Ashoka, the emperor. ... Magadha was one of the four main kingdoms of India at the time of Buddha, having risen to power during the reigns of Bimbisara (c. ...


South Indian rulers, mostly of Tamil descent, attacked Sri Lanka on a number of occasions starting in the 3rd century BC. Occasionally, such invasions resulted in Tamil rule of the northern part of the island for extended periods. Several Sinhala kings are noted for driving back the Tamil invasions and retaking the capital. (4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events The first two Punic Wars between Carthage and Rome over dominance in western Mediterranean Rome conquers Spain Great Wall of China begun Indian traders regularly visited Arabia Scythians occupy...

City of Matale

After the Polonnaruwa kingdom, the Sinhalese capital moved between several cities over the next centuries, partially to circumvent foreign invasion. The capital settled in Sri Jayewardenepura (Kotte) when coastal regions were occupied by the Portuguese in the 16th century. The Portuguese were followed by the Dutch in the 17th century. During both Portuguese and Dutch rule of the coastal areas, the interior, hilly region of the island remained independent, with its capital, the city of Kandy. The entire island was ceded to the British Empire in 1796 and became a crown colony in 1802. As Ceylon [1]  (http://www.glue.umd.edu/~pkd/sl/facts/name_origin.html), it became independent in 1948. In 1972, its name was changed to Sri Lanka, and in 1978 the legislative and judicial capital was moved from Colombo to nearby Sri Jayewardanapura Kotte. The flag was also changed as orange and green vertical bars were added, representing the Tamil and Muslim minority populations. Download high resolution version (480x640, 40 KB)Matale, Sri Lanka. ... Download high resolution version (480x640, 40 KB)Matale, Sri Lanka. ... The second most ancient of Sri Lankas kingdoms, Polonnaruwa was first declared the capital city by King Vijayabahu I, who defeated the Chola invaders in 1070 CE to reunite the country once more under a local leader. ... Sri Jayewardanapura or Kotte is the legislative capital of Sri Lanka. ... Sri Jayewardanapura or Kotte is the legislative capital of Sri Lanka. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... The Netherlands (Dutch: Nederland) is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands (Dutch: Koninkrijk der Nederlanden). ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Kandy (the Sacred City of Kandy) is a city in the centre of Sri Lanka. ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... 1796 was a leap year starting on Friday. ... Events March 16 - West Point is established. ... 1972 was a leap year that started on a Saturday. ... Sri Jayewardanapura or Kotte is the legislative capital of Sri Lanka. ...


Tensions between the Sinhalese majority and the Tamil minority erupted in violence in 1983 following the killing of 13 soldiers of Sri Lankan Army in Jaffna. This led to riots throughout the country and the deaths of hundreds of Tamils over a three-day period; many more became refugees. Tens of thousands have died on both sides in the subsequent ethnic war that continues to fester.

After two decades of fighting, the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam and the government began a ceasefire in December 2001. Norway is mediating the peace process. The international anti-terrorism focus may have influenced the main Tamil rebel group to seek the ceasefire, as the LTTE was declared a terrorist organization by the United States of America, the United Kingdom, Australia, India, and Canada. On December 26, 2004, one of the deadliest natural disasters in modern history, the Indian Ocean earthquake, struck off the western coast of Sumatra. The earthquake and subsequent tsunamis reportedly killed over 220,000 people around the rim of the Indian Ocean. The impact on Sri Lanka was severe. The south and east coasts were devastated by the 10-metre high tsunami, and tens of thousands died. Modified version of Image:2004_Indonesia_Tsunami. ... Modified version of Image:2004_Indonesia_Tsunami. ... Animation of the tsunami caused by the earthquake (see also the full-length version) The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake was an undersea earthquake that occurred at 00:58:53 UTC (07:58:53 local time) on December 26, 2004. ... The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE, pronounced L-T-T), also known as the Tamil Tigers, is the main Tamil anti-government organization operating in Sri Lanka. ... December is the twelfth and last month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... Norway - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is the sixth-largest country in the world, the only country to occupy an entire continent, and the largest in the region of Australasia/Oceania. ... The Republic of India is the second most populous country in the world, with a population of more than one billion, and is the seventh largest country by geographical area. ... Canada is a sovereign state in northern North America, the northern-most country in the world, and the second largest in total area. ... December 26 is the 360th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, 361st in leap years. ... The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake was an undersea earthquake that occurred at 00:58:53 UTC (07:58:53 local time) on December 26, 2004. ... Sumatra (also spelled Sumatara and Sumatera) is the sixth largest island of the world (approximately 470,000 km²) and is the largest part of Indonesia. ... Global earthquake epicenters, 1963–1998. ... The tsunami that struck Malé in the Maldives on December 26, 2004. ... The Indian Ocean is the third-largest body of water in the world, covering about 20% of the Earths water surface. ... As of 16:35 GST 3 January 2005, Sri Lankan authorities report 30,196 confirmed deaths [1] after the island was hit by the tsunami resulting from the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake on December 26, 2004. ...


Politics

Main article: Politics of Sri Lanka Government The President of the Republic, directly elected for a 6-year term, is chief of state, head of government, and commander in chief of the armed forces. ...

Electoral propaganda for SLFP-candidate Hector Badmage in the Colombo provincial council elections 2004.

The president of the republic, who is directly elected for a six-year term, serves as head of state, head of government and commander in chief of the armed forces. The president is responsible to parliament for the exercise of duties in accordance with the constitution and laws. The incumbent may be removed from office by a two-thirds vote of parliament, with the concurrence of the Supreme Court. The president appoints and heads a cabinet of ministers responsible to parliament. The president's deputy is the prime minister, who leads the ruling party in parliament. Download high resolution version (480x640, 57 KB)Electoral propaganda for SLFP-candidate Hector Badmage in the Colombo provincial council elections 2004. ... Download high resolution version (480x640, 57 KB)Electoral propaganda for SLFP-candidate Hector Badmage in the Colombo provincial council elections 2004. ... The following is a list of Sri Lankan presidents. ... In a broad definition a republic is a state or country that is led by people that dont found their power status on any principle beyond the control of the people living in that state or country. ... A head of state or chief of state is the chief public representative of a nation-state, federation or commonwealth, whose role generally includes personifying the continuity and legitimacy of the state and exercising the political powers, functions and duties granted to the head of state in the countrys... The head of government is the leader of the government or cabinet. ... Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ... An organizations constitution defines its form, structure, activities, character, and fundamental rules. ... Alternate meanings in cabinet (disambiguation) A Cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of government, typically representing the executive branch. ... The following is a list of Sri Lankan Prime Ministers: Don Stephen Senanayake (February 4, 1948 - March 26, 1952) Dudley Shelton Senanayake (March 26, 1952 - October 12, 1953) John Lionel Kotalawela (October 12, 1953 - April 12, 1956) Solomon Ridgeway Dias Bandaranaike (April 12, 1956 - September 26, 1959) Vijayananda Dahanayake (September...


The Sri Lankan Parliament is a unicameral 225-member legislature. Members are elected by universal (adult) suffrage on the basis of a modified proportional representation system by district to a six-year term. The primary modification is a unique "bonus seat" provision, where the party that receives the largest number of valid votes in each constituency gains an additional or "bonus" seat (see Hickman, 1999). The president may summon, suspend, or end a legislative session and dissolve parliament any time after it has served for one year. Parliament reserves the power to make all laws. Since its independence in 1948, Sri Lanka has remained a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. Alternative meanings: Parliamentary system, Parliament (band), Parliament (cigarette). ... Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber. ... Proportional Representation (PR) describes various multi-winner electoral systems which try to ensure that the proportional support gained by different groups is accurately reflected in the election result. ... Flag of the Commonwealth of Nations The Commonwealth of Nations is a voluntary association of independent sovereign states, most of which were once governed by the United Kingdom and are its former colonies. ...


Parliament was dissolved on February 7, 2004 by President Chandrika Kumaratunga. New elections were held on April 2 and the new parliament convened on April 23. February 7 is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Mrs. ... April 2 is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 273 days remaining. ... April 23 is the 113th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (114th in leap years). ...


See also: Sri Lankan parliamentary election, 2004 Legislative elections were held in Sri Lanka on 2 April 2004. ...


Provinces

Main article: Provinces of Sri Lanka Sri Lanka consists of 9 provinces (capitals in parentheses): Central (Kandy) Eastern (Trincomalee) North Central (Anuradhapura) Northern (Jaffna) North Western (Kurunegala) Sabaragamuwa (Ratnapura) Southern (Galle) Uva (Badulla) Western (Colombo) Categories: Lists of subnational entities | Sri Lanka ...

Hindu temple, Colombo

Sri Lanka consists of 9 provinces: Download high resolution version (480x640, 79 KB)Hindu temple, Colombo, Sri Lanka. ... Download high resolution version (480x640, 79 KB)Hindu temple, Colombo, Sri Lanka. ... Towers of downtown Colombo Colombo (derived from Sinhalese name Kola-amba-thota which means mango harbour, altered by the Portuguese to honour Christopher Columbus), population 737,396 (Colombo metropolitan area: 2,234,289) (2001), is the largest city and commercial center of Sri Lanka. ...

The Central Province of Sri Lanka consists primarily of mountainous terrain. ... Sabaragamuwa is a province of Sri Lanka, and contains two main cities: Ratnapura and Kegalle. ... The Southern Province of Sri Lanka is a small geographic area consisting of the districts of Galle, Matara and Hambantota. ... Uva is Sri Lankas least populated province, created in 1896. ... The western province is the most densely populated part of Sri Lanka. ...

Geography

Enlarge
Map of Sri Lanka

Main article: Geography of Sri Lanka Map of Sri Lanka from the 2002 CIA Factbook File links The following pages link to this file: Sri Lanka Geography of Sri Lanka Galle Trincomalee Provinces of Sri Lanka Categories: CIA World Factbook images ... Map of Sri Lanka from the 2002 CIA Factbook File links The following pages link to this file: Sri Lanka Geography of Sri Lanka Galle Trincomalee Provinces of Sri Lanka Categories: CIA World Factbook images ... Location: Southern Asia, island in the Indian Ocean, southeast of India Geographic coordinates: 7 00 N, 81 00 E Map references: Asia Area: total: 65,610 km² land: 64,740 km² water: 870 km² Land boundaries: 0 km Coastline: 1,340 km Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 nautical miles (44...

The island of Sri Lanka, lies within the Indian Ocean, with the Bay of Bengal to the northeast. It is separated from the Indian subcontinent by the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait. According to Hindu mythology, a land bridge to the Indian mainland. known as Adam's Bridge, was constructed during the rule of Rama. It is now mostly submerged, with only a chain of limestone shoals remaining above sea level. According to temple records this natural causeway was formerly complete, but was breached by a violent storm (probably a cyclone) in 1480. The Indian Ocean is the third-largest body of water in the world, covering about 20% of the Earths water surface. ... The Bay of Bengal is a sea that forms the northeastern part of the Indian Ocean. ... The Indian subcontinent is the peninsular region of larger South Asia in which the nations of India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka as well as parts of Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar and some disputed territory currently controlled by China are located. ... Gulf of Mannar, arm of the Indian Ocean extending east to west between India and Sri Lanka at a width of 160 to 200 km (100 to 125 mi). ... The Palk Strait is a 40-85 mi (64-137 km) wide strait that lies between India and Sri Lanka between Dhanushkodi, near Rameswaram in the state of Tamil Nadu in India, and Talaimannar in the Mannar island in Sri Lanka. ... Itihasa (Sanskrit: thus verily happened) refers collectively to the epic Hindu scriptures, detailing the actions of divine incarnations on earth while interspersing them with often large sections of philosophical and ethical discourse. ... NASA satellite photo of Ramas Bridge—oblique, Sri Lanka to the left Ramas Bridge or Adams Bridge is a chain of limestone shoals, between the islands of Mannar, near northwestern Sri Lanka, and Rameswaram, off the southeastern coast of India. ... This article is about a Hindu incarnation of God (i. ... For considerations of sea level change, in particular rise associated with possible global warming, see sea level rise. ... A causeway is an elevated road on elevated ground, usually across a broad body of water or wetland. ... In meteorology, a cyclone is the rotation of a volume of air about an area of low atmospheric pressure. ...


The pear-shaped island consists mostly of flat-to-rolling coastal plains, with mountains rising only in the south central part of the island. Amongst these, are Adam's Peak and Pidurutalagala, the latter being the highest point at 2,524 m. Adams Peak ( Sinhala Sri Pada, Tamil Sivanolipatha Malai, Arabic Al-Rohun) is a 2,243 metre (7,360 feet) tall conical mountain in modern-day Sri Lanka, revered as a holy site by Hindus, Buddhists, Muslims and Christians. ...

Mosque in Galle

The Sri Lankan climate is tropical, characterized by monsoons: the northeast monsoon lasting from December to March, and the southwest monsoon from June to October. The lowest gravitational field on Earth lies just off the coast of Sri Lanka. Download high resolution version (480x640, 36 KB)Mosque in Galle, southern Sri Lanka. ... Download high resolution version (480x640, 36 KB)Mosque in Galle, southern Sri Lanka. ... Émile Gallé (May 8, 1846, Nancy – September 23, 1904, Nancy) was a French artist who worked in glass, and is considered to be one of the major forces in the French Art Nouveau movement. ... Map of the climate of the Earth The climate (ancient Greek: κλίμα) is the weather averaged over a long period of time. ... A monsoon is a periodic wind, especially in the Indian Ocean and southern Asia. ... This article covers the physics of gravitation. ...


The administrative and commercial capital is Colombo, but parliament is located in nearby Sri Jayewardanapura (Kotte). Other major cities include Jaffna, Galle, and Kandy. Towers of downtown Colombo Colombo (derived from Sinhalese name Kola-amba-thota which means mango harbour, altered by the Portuguese to honour Christopher Columbus), population 737,396 (Colombo metropolitan area: 2,234,289) (2001), is the largest city and commercial center of Sri Lanka. ... Sri Jayewardanapura or Kotte is the legislative capital of Sri Lanka. ... Sri Jayewardanapura or Kotte is the legislative capital of Sri Lanka. ... Jaffna is a town in the Northern Province of Sri Lanka. ... Émile Gallé (May 8, 1846, Nancy – September 23, 1904, Nancy) was a French artist who worked in glass, and is considered to be one of the major forces in the French Art Nouveau movement. ... Kandy (the Sacred City of Kandy) is a city in the centre of Sri Lanka. ...


Ecology

Sri Lanka is home to several forest ecoregions, whose flora and fauna is related to that of southern India. The southwest portion of the island, where the influence of the moisture-bearing southwest monsoon is strongest, is home to the Sri Lanka lowland rain forests. At higher elevations they transition to the Sri Lanka montane rain forests. Both these tropical moist forest ecoregions bear strong affinities to those of India's Western Ghats. An ecoregion is a relatively large area of land or water that contains a geographically distinct assemblage of natural communities. ... Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests, also known as tropical rain forests, are a tropical and subtropical biome. ... The Western Ghats or Sahyadri mountains run along the western edge of Indias Deccan Plateau, and separate the plateau from a narrow coastal plain along the Arabian Sea. ...


The northern and eastern portions of the island are considerably drier, lying in the rain shadow of the central highlands. The Sri Lanka dry-zone dry evergreen forests are a tropical dry broadleaf forest ecoregion, which, like the neighboring East Deccan dry evergreen forests of India's Coromandel Coast, is characterized by evergreen trees, rather than the dry-season deciduous trees that predominate in most other tropical dry broadleaf forests. A rain shadow (or more accurately, precipitation shadow) is a dry region on the surface of the Earth that is leeward or behind a mountain with respect to the prevailing wind direction. ... Introduction Tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests is a biome located at tropical and subtropical latitudes. ... The East Deccan dry evergreen forests are an ecoregion of southeastern India. ... This article is about the Coromandel Coast of India. ... This article is about plant types. ... Deciduous means temporary or tending to fall off (deriving from the Latin word decidere, to fall off). ...


These forests have been largely cleared for agriculture, timber or grazing, and many of the dry evergreen forests have been degraded to thorn scrub, savanna, or thickets. Several preserves have been established to protect some of Sri Lanka's remaining natural areas. The island has three biosphere reserves, Hurulu (established 1977), Sinharaja (established 1978), and Kanneliya-Dediyagala-Nakiyadeniya (KDN) (established 2004). Savanna is a grassland dotted with trees, and occurs in several types of biomes. ... A Biosphere Reserve is an international conservation designation for reserves designated by UNESCO under the MaB (Man and the Biosphere) Programme. ...


Economy

Main article: Economy of Sri Lanka Overview With an economy of $16. ...

Sri Lanka is historically famous for its cinnamon and tea (introduced by the British in the 19th century). Since independence, it has been moderately socialist. In the last 20 years, Sri Lankan governments have increasingly pursued privatization, and moved towards market-oriented policies and export-oriented trade. While tea and rubber are still important, the most dynamic sectors are now food processing, textiles and apparel, food and beverages, telecommunications, insurance, and banking. By 1996, plantation crops made up only 20 percent of exports (compared with 93 percent in 1970), while textiles and garments accounted for 63 percent. Binomial name Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, synonym ) is a small evergreen tree 10-15 m tall, belonging to the family Lauraceae, and a spice obtained from the inner bark of this species. ... This article is about the beverage. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The color red and particularly the red flag are traditional symbols of Socialism. ... Privatization (sometimes privatisation, denationalization, or, especially in India, disinvestment) is the process of transferring property, from public ownership to private ownership and/or transferring the management of a service or activity from the government to the private sector. ... This article is about the beverage. ... This article is about the material rubber, for other uses see Rubber (disambiguation) Rubber is an elastic hydrocarbon polymer which occurs as a milky emulsion (known as latex) in the sap of a number of plants but can also be produced synthetically. ... This article is about the type of fabric. ... Telecommunication is the extension of communication over a distance. ... Insurance is the business of providing protection against financial aspects of risk, such as those to property, life, health and legal liability. ... For other uses, see Bank (disambiguation). ...


The GDP grew at an average annual rate of 5.5 percent during the early 1990s, until a drought and a deteriorating security situation lowered growth to 3.8 percent in 1996. The economy rebounded in 1997-2000, with average growth of 5.3 percent. 2001 saw the first economic contraction in the country's history, due to a combination of power shortages, budgetary problems, the global slowdown, and continuing civil strife. Signs of recovery appeared after the government and the LTTE signed the 2002 ceasefire. The Colombo stock exchange reported the highest growth in Asia for 2003, and today Sri Lanka has the highest per capita income in South Asia. In economics, the gross domestic product (GDP) is a measure of the amount of the economic production of a particular territory in financial capital terms during a specific time period. ... Events and trends Technology Explosive growth of the Internet; decrease in the cost of computers and other technology Reduction in size and cost of mobile phones leads to a massive surge in their popularity Year 2000 problem (commonly known as Y2K) Microsoft Windows operating system becomes virtually ubiquitous on IBM... Since independence (from the British Empire in 1948), the struggle between majority Sinhala-speaking Buddhists and minority Tamils (mostly Hindu) was a regular feature of political life in Sri Lanka. ...


Demographics

Main article: Demographics of Sri Lanka The Sri Lanka is an island in the Indian Ocean about 28 kilometers (18 mi. ...

Beach in Welligama, southern Sri Lanka

About 75 percent of the population belongs to the Sinhalese majority, which is predominantly Buddhist, mostly following the Theravada tradition. The other major group on the island is the Tamils, who constitute 18 percent of the population. They are predominantly Hindu, and live mostly in the north and east. Both Sinhala and Tamil languages have enjoyed official status since the Indo-Lanka accord in 1989. English, the national language, is the mother tongue of roughly 10 percent of the population, and is spoken and understood widely. All three languages are used in education and administration. Welligama beach, southern Sri Lanka. ... Welligama beach, southern Sri Lanka. ... The Sinhalese are the majority (14 million) ethnic group of Sri Lanka, who probably came from Northern India. ... Statues of Buddha such as this, the Tian Tan Buddha statue in Hong Kong, remind followers to practice right living. ... Theravada (Pali; Sanskrit: Sthaviravada) is one of the eighteen (or twenty) Nikāya schools that formed early in the history of Buddhism. ... Tamil New Year Ethnic problems In India After independence, Tamilians felt they and their dravidian race were ignored by the North Indians. ... This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ... a resource to look at current viewpoints Categories: Indo-Aryan languages | Languages of Sri Lanka | Wikipedia cleanup | Language stubs ... The consonant ழ் believed to be unique to Tamil and Malayalam Tamil of Tamilians is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken in southern India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ...


Smaller minorities include the (Tamil-speaking, mostly Sunni) Muslims (7%), the Burghers of mixed European descent (1%) and the Wanniyala-Aetto or Veddahs, the few remaining descendants of earlier cultures. Buddhism (70%) and Hinduism (15%) are the dominant religions. Christians represent 8% of the population, including 7% Catholics and 1% Protestants. A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... Burgher from the european Middle Ages can mean a freeman of a burgh or borough; or any inhabitant of a borough, a person who lives in town. ... The Wanniyala-Aetto, or forest beings (This is the name they call themselves; the commonly known name is Veddahs in Sinhalese) are an indigenous people of Sri Lanka, an island nation in the Indian Ocean. ...


Miscellaneous

Famous residents of Sri Lanka include British science-fiction author Arthur C. Clarke, who has lived there since 1956. Canadian writer Michael Ondaatje grew up in Sri Lanka. His novel, Running in the Family, captures some of his family's experiences. Arthur C. Clarke, progenitor of communication satellites, is considered by many to be a grand master of science fiction. ... 1956 is a leap year starting on Sunday. ... Michael Ondaatje (born September 12, 1943) is a Canadian author. ...


The Hindu newspaper placed Sri Lankan broadcaster Vernon Corea, a pioneer of Radio Ceylon, among the top five broadcasters in the world. Vernon Corea was born in Kurana, Katunayake in Ceylon on 11th September 1927. ... Radio Ceylon is the oldest radio station in South Asia. ...


Sri Lanka is the world's leading cinnamon exporters.


Reference

  • Hickman, J. 1999. "Explaining the Two-Party System in Sri Lanka's National Assembly." Contemporary South Asia, Volume 8, Number 1 (March), pp. 29-40 (A detailed description of the effects of the bonus seat provision).

See also

Former parliament building, Colombo

Former Parliament Building, Colombo, Sri Lanka. ... Former Parliament Building, Colombo, Sri Lanka. ... Towers of downtown Colombo Colombo (derived from Sinhalese name Kola-amba-thota which means mango harbour, altered by the Portuguese to honour Christopher Columbus), population 737,396 (Colombo metropolitan area: 2,234,289) (2001), is the largest city and commercial center of Sri Lanka. ... Telephones - main lines in use: 1,094,809 Est(2003) Telephones - mobile cellular: 950,120 Est Telephone system: very inadequate domestic service, particularly in rural areas; some hope for improvement with privatization of national telephone company and encouragement to private investment; good international service (1999) domestic: national trunk network consists... Sri Lanka traditionally follows a nonaligned foreign policy but has been seeking closer relations with the United States since December 1977. ... Mosque in Galle, Sri Lanka Muslims, who make up approximately 7 percent of the population, comprise a group of minorities practicing the religion of Islam in Sri Lanka. ... View of the river Kitugala is a small town in the west of Sri Lanka. ... This article or section should be merged with List of cricketers by country This is a list of known cricketers from Sri Lanka. ... The following are national parks in Sri Lanka administered by the Department of Wildlife Conservation. ... Sri Lanka is a tropical island situated close to the southern tip of the Indian subcontinent. ... This is a list of broadcasters from the country of Sri Lanka which is located under India. ... This is a list of musicians from the country of Sri Lanka which is located under India. ... Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Police Force Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age (2003 est. ... Sri Lanka is an island of the Southern coast of India. ... Nuwara Eliya, (pronounced Noo-ray-lee-ya), the City of Light, is a town in Sri Lanka. ... <Sri Lanka Railways: total: 1,463 km broad gauge: 1,404 km 1. ...

External links


Countries in South Asia

Bangladesh | Bhutan | India | Maldives | Nepal | Pakistan | Sri Lanka This is an alphabetical list of the sovereign states of the world, including both de jure and de facto independent states. ... Map of South Asia South Asia is a subregion of Asia comprising the modern states of Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, . It covers about 4,480,000 km², or 10 percent of the continent, and is also known as the Indian subcontinent. ... The Peoples Republic of Bangladesh (Bangla: গনপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলােদশ) is a country in South Asia that forms the eastern part of the ancient region of Bengal. ... The Kingdom of Bhutan is a small, landlocked nation of South Asia, located in the Himalaya Mountains, sandwiched between India and the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Republic of India is the second most populous country in the world, with a population of more than one billion, and is the seventh largest country by geographical area. ... The Republic of Maldives is a country consisting territorially of a group of atolls in the Indian Ocean, south-southwest of India. ... The Kingdom of Nepal, situated in the Himalayas, is the worlds only Hindu kingdom. ... The Islamic Republic of Pakistan (, or Islami Jamhooriya-e-Pakistan, in Urdu), or Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia and is part of the Greater Middle East. ...


Former Dutch colonies
Aruba (current) | Berbice | Brazil (part) | Cape Colony | Ceylon | Demerara | Deshima | Dutch East Indies | Dutch Guiana | Essequibo | Dutch West Indies or Netherlands Antilles (current) | Netherlands New Guinea | New Netherland (New Amsterdam, New Sweden) | Smeerenburg | Taiwan | Tobago | Travancore | Virgin Islands (part)
Dutch colonisation of the Americas | Dutch East India Company | Dutch West India Company | New Holland

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