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Encyclopedia > Cesare Lombroso
Cesare Lombroso
Cesare Lombroso

Cesare Lombroso (Verona, November 6, 1835 - Turin, October 19, 1909) was a historical figure in modern criminology, and the founder of the Italian Positivist School of criminology. Lombroso rejected the established Classical School of criminology, which held that crime was a characteristic trait of human nature. Instead, using concepts drawn from Physiognomy, early Eugenics, Psychiatry and Social Darwinism, Lombroso's theory was that criminality was inherited, and that the born criminal could be identified by physical defects, which confirmed a criminal as savage, or atavistic. Image File history File links Cesare_Lombroso. ... Image File history File links Cesare_Lombroso. ... Map of Italy showing Verona in the north Verona (population est. ... November 6 is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 55 days remaining. ... 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Turin (Italian Torino) is a major industrial city in north-western Italy, capital of the Piedmont region, located mainly on the west bank of the Po River. ... October 19 is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: History History studies the past in human terms. ... Modern can simply mean something that is up-to-date, trendy, new, or from the present time. ... Criminology is the study of crime as a social phenomenon, including the causes and consequences of crime, criminal behavior, as well as the development of, and impact of laws. ... Cesare Lombroso (1835-1909) and two of his Italian disciples, Enrico Ferri (1856–1929) and Raffaele Garofalo (1851–1934), founded what became known as the Italian school of criminology. ... Moral character or character is an evaluation of a persons moral and mental qualities. ... Human Nature is an Australian boy band and pop vocal group. ... Physiognomy (Gk. ... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Congress of Eugenics, 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ... Psychiatry is the branch of medicine that studies, diagnoses and treats mental illness and behavioral disorders. ... a termsocial theory which holds that Darwins theory of evolution of bid in popularity until the end of World War II, though some cltill widely used by historians. ... A Born Criminal is someone who was born in to, or raised in circumstances that would facillitate their entry to criminal life at a young age. ... // Computer programming In object-oriented programming, object identity is a mechanism for distinguishing different objects from each other. ... Antonym of psychical. ... Defect is the n00b of the animating world, everybody knows that he cannot and will not animate. ... Savage has various meanings. ... During the interval between the acceptance of Darwinian evolution and the rise of modern understanding of genetics, atavism was used to account for the reappearance in an individual of a trait after several generations of absence. ...

Contents


Early life

He studied literature, linguistics, and archæology, but changed his plans and became an army surgeon in 1859. In 1862 he was appointed professor of diseases of the mind at Pavia, and later took charge of the insane asylum at Pesaro, eventually becoming professor of medical law and psychiatry at Turin. 1859 is a common year starting on Saturday. ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Church San Michele in Pavia The Old Bridge (Ponte Vecchio) on the Ticino river is a symbol of Pavia Pavìa (the ancient Ticinum) (population 71,000) is a town and comune of south-western Lombardy, northern Italy, 35 km south of Milan on the lower Ticino river near its... Pesaro (in Antiquity, Pisaurum) is a town and comune in the Italian region of the Marche, capital of the Pesaro e Urbino province, 43°55N 12°55E; on the Adriatic, at sea-level. ... Turin (Italian Torino) is a major industrial city in north-western Italy, capital of the Piedmont region, located mainly on the west bank of the Po River. ...


Criminology

Lombroso popularized the notion of a born criminal through biological determinism. Criminals have particular physiognomic attributes or deformities. Physiognomy attempts to estimate character and personality traits from physical features of the face or the body. Whereas most individuals evolve, the violent criminal had devolved, and therefore were societal, or evolutionary regressions. If criminality was inherited, then the born criminal could be distinguished by physical atavistic stigmata, such as large jaws, high cheek bones, handle-shaped ears, hawk-like noses, or fleshy lips. I HATE BIOLOGY Biology is the branch of science dealing with the study of life. ... Physiognomy (Gk. ... An attribute is the following: Generally, an attribute is an abstraction characteristic of an entity In database management, an attribute is a property inherent in an entity or associated with that entity for database purposes. ... Physiognomy (Gk. ... Estimation is approximate or uncertain calculation of a result, often based on approximate, uncertain, incomplete, or noisy inputs. ... It has been suggested that Personality psychology be merged into this article or section. ... The face of Leonardo da Vincis Mona Lisa, one of the most recognized faces in the world The face is the front part of the human head from forehead to chin including the head, hair, forehead, eyebrow, eyes, nose, cheek, mouth, lips, teeth, skin, and chin. ... With regard to living things, a body is the integral physical material of an individual, and contrasts with soul, personality and behavior. ... In common speech, the word individual most often refers to a person, or, by analogy, to any specific object in a group of things. ... This article is about biological evolution. ... Violence refers to acts —typically connotative with aggressive and criminal behaviour —which intend to cause or is causing of injury to persons, animals, or (in limited cases) property. ... ... A speculatively rooted phylogenetic tree of all living things, based on rRNA gene data, showing the separation of the three domains, bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes, as described initially by Carl Woese. ... Generally, regression is a move backwards; It is the opposite of progress. ... To inherit something is to get it from ones ancestors. ... The jaw is either of the two opposable structures forming, or near the entrance to, the mouth. ... Look up Cheek in Wiktionary, the free dictionary The Cheeks are the fleshy area of the face below the eyes and between the nose and the left or right ear, the skin being suspended by the chin and the yaws. ... Grays illustration of a human femur, a typically recognized bone. ... An ear is an organ used by an animal to detect sound waves. ... Human nose in profile The Nose is a story by Gogol and an opera by Dmitri Shostakovich. ... Meat is animal flesh (mainly muscle tissue) used as food, sometimes with the exception of fish, other seafood, and poultry. ... The mouth, also known as the buccal cavity or the oral cavity, is the opening through which an animal or human takes in food. ...


He concentrated on a scientific methodology in order to identify criminal behavior and isolate individuals capable of the most violent types of criminal activity. Lombroso advocated the study of individuals using measurements and statistical methods in compiling anthropological, social, and economic data. Along with the natural origin of the crime and its social consequences, various remedies can then be provided to the criminal, which would offer the greatest effects. Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Science For the scientific journal named Science, see Science (journal). ... method (from Greek methodos, met hodos literally way across). The word entered English in 1541 via French and Latin. ... Isolation can refer to: Isolation as a psychological phenomenon (see also Solitude). ... In common speech, the word individual most often refers to a person, or, by analogy, to any specific object in a group of things. ... Violence refers to acts —typically connotative with aggressive and criminal behaviour —which intend to cause or is causing of injury to persons, animals, or (in limited cases) property. ... Look up Study on Wiktionary, the free dictionary To study means to acquire knowledge, often by memorization or reading. ... Measure can mean: To perform a measurement. ... An example of statistics used in educational assessment. ... Anthropology (from the Greek word άνθρωπος, humane) consists of the study of humankind (see genus Homo). ... // Latin root meaning The term social is derived from the Latin word socius, which as a noun means an associate, ally, companion, business partner or comrade and in the adjectival form socialis refers to a bond between people (such as marriage) or to their collective or connected existence. ... Economics (deriving from the Greek words οίκω [okos], house, and νέμω [nemo], rules hence household management) is the social science that studies the allocation of scarce resources to satisfy unlimited wants. ... Data is the plural of datum. ... The Nature Conservancy - a charitable organization devoted to preserving natural diversity worldwide English Nature UK government organization devoted to preserving natural diversity in the UK Nature Detectives An online research and education project for under 18s in the UK A Guide to Nature and Wildlife Conservation Categories: | ... Look up origin in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Consequence can be: Consequences is a game. ... A remedy is the solution or amelioration of a problem or difficulty. ... This article is about causality as it is used in many different fields. ...


With successive research, he modified his theories with more thorough statistical analysis. Lombroso continued to define additional atavistic stigmata, as well as the degeneracy of effectiveness in the treatment of born criminals. He was an advocate for humane treatment of criminals by arguing for rehabilitation and against capital punishment. A definition may be a statement of the essential properties of a certain thing, or a statement of equivalence between one expression and another, usually more complex expression that gives the meaning of the first. ... Treatment may refer to: // Health Therapy - the act of remediation of a health problem. ... ... Look up Rehabilitation on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Rehabilitation is the restoration of lost capabilities, or the treatment aimed at producing it. ... Capital punishment, also called the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted felon as a punishment for a crime (often called a capital offence or a capital crime). ...


Lombroso's work, however, was hampered by his Social Darwinist assumptions, and especially by his pre-genetic conception of evolution as "progress" from "lower life forms" to "higher life forms," and his assumption that the more "advanced" human traits would dispose their owners to living peacefully within a hierarchical, urbanized society far different from the conditions under which human beings evolved. In attempting to predict criminality by the shapes of the skulls and other physical features of criminals, he had in effect created a new pseudoscience of forensic phrenology. While Lombroso was a pioneer of scientific criminology, and his work was one of the bases of the eugenics movement in the early twentieth century, his work is no longer considered one of the foundations of contemporary criminology, however psychiatry and abnormal psychology have retained his idea of locating crime completely within the individual and utterly divorced from the surrounding social conditions and structures. Genetics (from the Greek genno γεννώ= give birth) is the science of genes, heredity, and the variation of organisms. ... A speculatively rooted phylogenetic tree of all living things, based on rRNA gene data, showing the separation of the three domains, bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes, as described initially by Carl Woese. ... Progress can refer to: The idea of a process in which societies or individuals become better or more modern (technologically and/or socially). ... Phrenology is seen today as a classic example of pseudoscience. ... Forensic science (often shortened to forensics) is the application of a broad spectrum of sciences to answer questions of interest to the legal system. ... A 19th century Phrenology chart Phrenology (from Greek: φρην, phrēn, mind; and λογος, logos, study) is a theory which claims to be able to determine character, personality traits, and criminality on the basis of the shape of the head (reading bumps). Developed by German physician Franz Joseph Gall around 1800, and... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Congress of Eugenics, 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s The 20th century lasted from 1901 to 2000 in the Gregorian calendar (often from (1900 to 1999 in common usage). ...


Psychiatric Art

Lombroso published The Man of Genius in 1889, a book which argued that artistic genius was a form of hereditary insanity. In order to support this assertion, he began assembling a large collection of psychiatric art. He published an article on the subject in 1880 in which he isolated thirteen typical features of the "art of the insane." Although his criteria are generally regarded as outdated today, his work inspired later writers on the subject, particularly Hans Prinzhorn. 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Hans Prinzhorn (June 6, 1886 - June 14, 1933) was a German Psychiatrist and art historian. ...


See also

Picture of Kallikaks from The Kallikak Family. ...

Reference

  • Gould, Stephen J. (rev. ed. 1996) The Mismeasure of Man. W. W. Norton, ISBN 0393314251
  • Lombroso, Cesare (1876) L'Uomo Delinquente. Milan: Horpli.
  • ____ (1895) L'Homme Criminel. Felix: Alcan. (two volumes).
  • ____ With Gina Lombroso-Ferrero (1911) Criminal Man, According to the Classification of Cesare Lombroso. New York: Putnam; (1972) Montclair, N.J.: Patterson Smith.
  • _____ (1980) The Female Offender. Littleton, Colorado: Fred Rothman, (1980).

Stephen Jay Gould For the science fiction writer, see Steven Gould. ... Cover of the 1996 printing of The Mismeasure of Man. ...

Additional titles

  • Ricerche sul cretinismo in Lombardia, (1859)
  • Genio e follia, (1864)
  • Studi clinici sulle mallatie mentali (1865)
  • Sulla microcefala e sul cretinismo con applicazione alla medicina legale (1873)
  • L'amore nel suicidio e nel delitto, (1881)
  • L'uomo di genio in rapporto alla psichiatria, (1889, English translation, Man of Genius, London, 1891)
  • Sulla medicina legale del cadavere, (second edition, 1890)
  • Palimsesti del carcere, (1891)
  • Trattato della pellagra, (1892)
  • Le più recenti scoperte ed applicazioni della psichiatria ed antropologia criminale, (1894)
  • L'antisemitismo e le scienze moderne, (1894)
  • Genio e degenerazione, (1897)
  • Les Coquêtes récentes de la psychiatrie, (1898)
  • Le crime; causes et remédes, (1899, English translation, Crime, its Causes and Remedies, Boston, 1911)
  • Lezioni de medicina legale, (1900)
  • Delitti vecchi e delitti nuovi, (1902)
  • After Death-What? (English Translation, Boston, 1909)
  • Hans Kurella, Cesare lombroso, a Modern Man of Science, translated from German by M. E. Paul, (London, 1911)

A collection of papers on Lombroso was published under the title L'opera di Cesare Lombroso nella scienza e nelle sue applicazioni, (Turin, 1906).


External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Cesare Lombroso

  Results from FactBites:
 
Cesare Lombroso - LoveToKnow 1911 (1108 words)
CESARE LOMBROSO (1836-1909), Italian criminologist, was born on the 18th of November 1836 at Verona, of a Jewish family.
Lombroso's biological principles are much less successful in his work on Genius, which he explains as a morbid, degenerative condition, presenting analogies to insanity, and not altogether alien to crime.
See Kurella, Cesare Lombroso and die Naturgeschichte des Verbrechers (Hamburg, 1892); and a biography, with an analysis of his works, and a short account of their general conclusions by his daughters, Paola Carrara and Gina Ferrero, written in 1906 on the occasion of the sixth congress of criminal anthropology at Turin.
Cesare Lombroso (154 words)
Cesare Lombroso, (1835-1909), was an Italian anthropologist and criminologist.
Lombroso was one of the pioneers of the study of human criminal delinquency, but his work was hampered by the received ideas of social Darwinism that were current in his day.
Lombroso measured the shape and size of criminals' heads, and concluded that they displayed atavistic traits that were throwbacks to primitive man. In effect, what Lombroso had created was a new pseudoscience of forensic phrenology.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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