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Encyclopedia > Cesare, Marquis of Beccaria
Cesare, Marquis of Beccaria

Born March 11, 1738
Milan
Died November 28, 1794
Milan
Occupation philosopher and politician
Children Giulia

Cesare, Marquis of Beccaria-Bonesana (March 15, 1738November 28, 1794) was an Italian philosopher and politician best known for his treatise On Crimes and Punishments (1764), which condemned torture and the death penalty and was a founding work in the field of criminology. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 4 - Court Jew Joseph Suss Oppenheimer is executed in Württenberg April 15 - Premiere in London of Serse, an Italian opera by George Frideric Handel. ... Type Anti-tank Nationality Joint France/Germany Era Cold War, modern Launch platform Individual, Vehicle Target Vehicle, Fortification History Builder MBDA, Bharat Dynamics (under license) Date of design 70s Production period since 1972 Service duration since 1972 Operators 41 countries Variants MILAN 1, MILAN 2, MILAN 2T, MILAN 3, MILAN... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Type Anti-tank Nationality Joint France/Germany Era Cold War, modern Launch platform Individual, Vehicle Target Vehicle, Fortification History Builder MBDA, Bharat Dynamics (under license) Date of design 70s Production period since 1972 Service duration since 1972 Operators 41 countries Variants MILAN 1, MILAN 2, MILAN 2T, MILAN 3, MILAN... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 4 - Court Jew Joseph Suss Oppenheimer is executed in Württenberg April 15 - Premiere in London of Serse, an Italian opera by George Frideric Handel. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. ... Dei delitti e delle pene (English: On Crime and Punishment) is a judiciary treatise written by the Italian philosopher and thinker Cesare Beccaria between 1763 and 1764. ... Criminology is the scientific study of crime as an individual and social phenomenon. ...

Contents

Birth and education

He was born in Milan and educated in the Jesuit college at Parma, where he showed a great aptitude for mathematics. The study of Montesquieu redirected his attention towards economics; and his first publication, in 1762, was a tract on the disorder of the currency in the Milanese states, with a proposal for its remedy. It was in this period that Beccaria, in conjunction with his friends, the brothers Alessandro and Pietro Verri, as well as a number of other young men from the Milan aristocracy, formed a literary society, which was named "L'Accademia dei pugni" (the Academy of Fists), a playful name that made fun of the stuffy academies which proliferated in Italy. Type Anti-tank Nationality Joint France/Germany Era Cold War, modern Launch platform Individual, Vehicle Target Vehicle, Fortification History Builder MBDA, Bharat Dynamics (under license) Date of design 70s Production period since 1972 Service duration since 1972 Operators 41 countries Variants MILAN 1, MILAN 2, MILAN 2T, MILAN 3, MILAN... Seal of the Society of Jesus. ... Parma is a city in the Italian region of Emilia-Romagna, famous for its architecture and the fine countryside around it. ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... Montesquieu redirects here. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... The Duchy of Milan was a state in northern Italy from 1395 to 1797. ... Detail of Pietro Verri monument in Milan. ...


Publications

On Crimes and Punishment

Criminology and Penology
Schools
Chicago School · Classical School
Conflict Criminology
Environmental Criminology
Feminist School · Frankfurt School
Integrative Criminology
Italian School · Left Realism
Marxist Criminology
Neo-Classical School
Positivist School
Postmodernist School
Right Realism
Criminal justice portal
See also Wikibooks:Social Deviance
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The Verri brothers and Beccaria started an important cultural reformist movement centered around their journal Il Caffè, which ran from the summer of 1764 for about two years, and was inspired by Addison and Steele's literary magazine, The Spectator and other such journals. Il Caffè represented an entirely new cultural moment in northern Italy. With their Enlightenment rhetoric and their balance between topics of socio-political and literary interest, the anonymous contributors held the interest of the educated classes in Italy, introducing recent thought such as that of Voltaire and Diderot. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Criminology is the scientific study of crime as an individual and social phenomenon. ... Penology (from the Latin poena, punishment) comprises penitentiary science: that concerned with the processes devised and adopted for the punishment, repression, and prevention of crime, and the treatment of prisoners. ... In sociology and, later, criminology, the Chicago School (sometimes described as the Ecological School) refers to the first major body of works emerging during the 1920s and 1930s specialising in urban sociology, and the research into the urban environment by combining theory and ethnographic fieldwork in Chicago, now applied elsewhere. ... The Classical School in criminology is usually a reference to the eighteenth century work during the Enlightenment by the utilitarian and social contract philosophers Jeremy Bentham and Cesare Beccaria. ... Conflict criminology Largely based on the writings of Karl Marx, conflict criminology claims that crime is inevitable in capitalist societies, as invariably certain groups will become marganalised and unequal. ... Environmental criminology focuses on criminal patterns within particular built environments and analyzes the impacts of these external variables on people’s cognitive behaviour. ... The Feminist School of criminology developed in the late 1960s and into the 1970s as a reaction against the gender distortions and stereotyping within traditional criminology. ... Max Horkheimer (front left), Theodor Adorno (front right), and Jürgen Habermas in the background, right, in 1965 at Heidelberg The Frankfurt School is a school of neo-Marxist social theory (which is more akin to anarchism than communism), social research, and philosophy. ... Integrative Criminology reacts against single theory or methodology approaches, and adopts an interdisciplinary paradigm for the study of criminology and penology. ... Cesare Lombroso (1835-1909) and two of his Italian disciples, Enrico Ferri (1856–1929) and Raffaele Garofalo (1851–1934), founded what became known as the Italian school of criminology. ... Left Realist Criminology emerged out of Critical Criminology as a reaction against what was perceived to be the Lefts failure to take a practical interest in everyday crime, leaving it to the Right Realists to monopolise the political agenda on law and order. ... Marxist criminology is one of the schools of criminology. ... In criminology, the Neo-Classical School continues the traditions of the Classical School within the framework of Right Realism. ... In criminology, the Positivist School has attempted to find scientific objectivity for the measurement and quantification of criminal behaviour. ... In criminology the Postmodernist School applies postmodernism to the study of crime and criminals, and understands criminality as a product of the power to limit the behaviour of those individuals excluded from power, but who try to overcome social inequality and behave in ways which the power structure prohibits. ... In criminology, Right Realism (also known as New Right Realism, Neo-Classicism, Neo-Positivism, or Neo-Conservatism) is the ideological polar opposite of Left Realism. ... This article is about the journal as a written medium. ... Joseph Addison, the Kit-cat portrait, circa 1703–1712, by Godfrey Kneller. ... Sir Richard Steele (bap. ... The Spectator was a daily publication of 1711–12, founded by Joseph Addison and Richard Steele in England. ... The Enlightenment (French: ; German: ; Italian: ; Portuguese: ) was an eighteenth century movement in European and American philosophy — some classifications also include 17th century philosophy (usually called the Age of Reason). ...

Frontpage of the original Italian edition Dei delitti e delle pene.

In 1764 Beccaria published a brief but justly celebrated treatise Dei delitti e delle pene ("On Crimes and Punishments"), which marked the high point of the Milan Enlightenment. In it, Beccaria put forth the first arguments ever made against the death penalty. His treatise was also the first full work of penology, advocating reform of the criminal law system. The book was the first full-scale work to tackle criminal reform and to suggest that criminal justice should conform to rational principles. It is a less theoretical work than the writings of Hugo Grotius, Samuel von Pufendorf and other comparable thinkers, and as much a work of advocacy as of theory. In this essay, Beccaria reflected the convictions of the Il Caffè group, who sought to cause reform through Enlightenment discourse. The book's serious message is put across in a clear and animated style, based in particular upon a deep sense of humanity and of urgency at unjust suffering. This humane sentiment is what makes Beccaria appeal for rationality in the laws. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Dei delitti e delle pene (English: On Crime and Punishment) is a judiciary treatise written by the Italian philosopher and thinker Cesare Beccaria between 1763 and 1764. ... The Enlightenment (French: ; German: ; Italian: ; Portuguese: ) was an eighteenth century movement in European and American philosophy — some classifications also include 17th century philosophy (usually called the Age of Reason). ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... Penology (from the Latin poena, punishment) comprises penitentiary science: that concerned with the processes devised and adopted for the punishment, repression, and prevention of crime, and the treatment of prisoners. ... Hugo Grotius (Huig de Groot, or Hugo de Groot; Delft, 10 April 1583 – Rostock, 28 August 1645) worked as a jurist in the Dutch Republic and laid the foundations for international law, based on natural law. ... Baron Samuel von Pufendorf (January 8, 1632 - October 13, 1694), was a German jurist. ...


Within eighteen months, the book passed through six editions. It was translated into French by André Morellet in 1766 and published with an anonymous commentary by Voltaire. An English translation appeared in 1767, and it was translated into several other languages. André Morellet (March 7, 1727 - January 12, 1819) was a French economist and writer. ... For the singer of the same name, see Voltaire (musician). ...


The book was read by all the luminaries of the day, including, in the United States, by John Adams and Thomas Jefferson. For other persons named John Adams, see John Adams (disambiguation). ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ...


Indeed, Thomas Jefferson in his "Commonplace Book," copied a passage from Beccaria related to the issue of gun control. The quote reads, "Laws that forbid the carrying of arms . . . disarm only those who are neither inclined nor determined to commit crimes . . . Such laws make things worse for the assaulted and better for the assailants; they serve rather to encourage than to prevent homicides, for an unarmed man may be attacked with greater confidence than an armed gay man." [citation needed]


Policies and later life

The principles to which Beccaria appealed were Reason, an understanding of the state as a form of contract, and, above all, the principle of utility, or of the greatest happiness for the greatest number. Beccaria had elaborated this original principle in conjunction with Pietro Verri, and greatly influenced Jeremy Bentham to develop it into the full-scale doctrine of Utilitarianism. For other uses, see Reason (disambiguation). ... Jeremy Bentham (IPA: ) (26 February [O.S. 15 February 15] 1748) – June 6, 1832) was an English jurist, philosopher, and legal and social reformer. ... This article discusses utilitarian ethical theory. ...


Apart from condemning the death penalty (on two grounds: first, because the state does not possess the right to take lives; and secondly, because capital punishment is neither a useful nor a necessary form of punishment), Beccaria developed in his treatise a number of innovative and influential principles: punishment had a preventive (deterrent), not a retributive, function; punishment should be proportionate to the crime committed; the certainty of punishment, not its severity, would achieve the preventive effect; procedures of criminal convictions should be public; and finally, in order to be effective, punishment should be prompt. He also argued against gun control laws[1]. Deterrence is a theory of justice whereby the aim of punishment is to prevent or deter future mischief. ...


With the Verri brothers, Beccaria traveled to Paris, where he was given a very warm reception by the philosophes. He retreated in horror, however, returning to his young wife Teresa and never venturing abroad again. The break with the Verri brothers proved lasting; they were never able to understand why Beccaria had left his position at the peak of success. Pietro Verri (1728-1797) was born in Milan to a conservative noble family and received a strongly religious education, from which he began to rebel when he reached his twenties. ... The Philosophes (French for Philosophers) were a group of French thinkers of the 18th century Enlightenment. ... Pietro Verri (1728-1797) was born in Milan to a conservative noble family and received a strongly religious education, from which he began to rebel when he reached his twenties. ...


Many reforms in the penal codes of the principal European nations can be traced to Beccaria's treatise, although few contemporaries were convinced by Beccaria's argument against the death penalty. When the Grand Duchy of Tuscany abolished the death penalty, as the first nation in the world to do so, it followed Beccaria's argument about the lack of utility of capital punishment, not about the state's lacking right to execute citizens. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Criminal Code. ... The Grand Duchy of Tuscany was a state in central Italy which came into existence in 1569, replacing the Duchy of Florence, which had been created out of the old Republic of Florence in 1532, and which annexed the Republic of Siena in 1557. ...


In November 1768 Beccaria was appointed to the chair of law and economy, founded expressly for him at the Palatine college of Milan. His lectures on political economy, which are based on strict utilitarian principles, are in marked accordance with the theories of the English school of economists. They are published in the collection of Italian writers on political economy (Scrittori Classici Italiani di Economia politica, vols. xi. and xii.). Beccaria never succeeded in producing a work to match Dei Delitti e Delle Pene, although he made various incomplete attempts in the course of his life. A short treatise on literary style was all he saw to press. 1768 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... This article discusses utilitarian ethical theory. ...


In 1771 Beccaria was made a member of the supreme economic council; and in 1791 he was appointed to the board for the reform of the judicial code, where he made a valuable contribution. He died in Milan.


His daughter Giulia was the mother of Alessandro Manzoni, the noted Italian novelist and poet who wrote among other things: I Promessi Sposi, one of the first Italian historical novels and "Il 5 Maggio", a poem on Napoleon's death. Alessandro Manzoni (Francesco Hayez, 1841, Brera Art Gallery). ... I Promessi Sposi (English The Betrothed) is an Italian historical novel by Alessandro Manzoni. ...


References

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

External links

Persondata
NAME Beccaria, Butt head
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Cesare, marchese di Beccaria-Bonesana
SHORT DESCRIPTION philosopher and politician
DATE OF BIRTH March 11, 1738
PLACE OF BIRTH Milan
DATE OF DEATH November 28, 1794
PLACE OF DEATH Milan

 
 

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