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Encyclopedia > Cervix
Cervix
Schematic frontal view of female anatomy
1: fallopian tube, 2: bladder, 3: pubic bone, 4: g-spot, 5: clitoris, 6: urethra, 7: vagina, 8: ovary, 9: sigmoid colon, 10: uterus, 11: fornix, 12: cervix, 13: rectum, 14: anus
Latin cervix uteri
Gray's subject #268 1259
Artery vaginal artery, uterine artery
Precursor Müllerian duct
MeSH Cervix+uteri
Dorlands/Elsevier c_22/12229212

The cervix (from Latin "neck") is the lower, narrow portion of the uterus where it joins with the top end of the vagina. It is cylindrical or conical in shape and protrudes through the upper anterior vaginal wall. Approximately half its length is visible with appropriate medical equipment; the remainder lies above the vagina beyond view. It is occasionally called "cervix uteri", or "neck of the uterus". Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Fallopian tubes, also known as oviducts, uterine tubes, and salpinges (singular salpinx) are two very fine tubes leading from the ovaries of female mammals into the uterus. ... In anatomy, the urinary bladder is a hollow, muscular, and distensible (or elastic) organ that sits on the pelvic floor in mammals. ... The ventral and anterior of the three principal bones composing either half of the pelvis -- called the pubic bone. ... ... The clitoris (Greek ) is a sexual organ that is present in biologically female mammals. ... In anatomy, the urethra is a tube which connects the urinary bladder to the outside of the body. ... The vagina, (from Latin, literally sheath or scabbard ) is the tubular tract leading from the uterus to the exterior of the body in female placental mammals and marsupials, or to the cloaca in female birds, monotremes, and some reptiles. ... For ovary as part of plants see ovary (plants) Ovaries are egg-producing reproductive organs found in female organisms. ... The sigmoid colon is the part of the large intestine after the descending colon and before the rectum. ... The uterus or womb is the major female reproductive organ of most mammals, including humans. ... The fornices of the vagina are the deepest portions of the vagina, extending into the recesses created by the extension of the cervix into the vaginal space. ... The rectum (from the Latin rectum intestinum, meaning straight intestine) is the final straight portion of the large intestine in some mammals, and the gut in others, terminating in the anus. ... Female Human Anatomy Male Human Anatomy This article is about the bodily orifice. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Section of an artery For other uses, see Artery (disambiguation). ... The vaginal artery usually corresponds to the inferior vesical in the male; it descends upon the vagina, supplying its mucous membrane, and sends branches to the bulb of the vestibule, the fundus of the bladder, and the contiguous part of the rectum . ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Müllerian ducts are paired ducts of the embryo which empty into the cloaca, and which in the female develop into the upper vagina, cervix, uterus and oviducts; in the male they disappear except for the vestigial vagina masculina and the appendix testis. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... Elseviers logo. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... The uterus or womb is the major female reproductive organ of most mammals, including humans. ... The vagina, (from Latin, literally sheath or scabbard ) is the tubular tract leading from the uterus to the exterior of the body in female placental mammals and marsupials, or to the cloaca in female birds, monotremes, and some reptiles. ...

Contents

Anatomy

Ectocervix

The portion projecting into the vagina is referred to as the portio vaginalis or ectocervix. On average, the ectocervix is 3 cm long and 2.5 cm wide. It has a convex, elliptical surface and is divided into anterior and posterior lips.


External Os

The ectocervix's opening is called the external os. The size and shape of the external os and the ectocervix varies widely with age, hormonal state, and whether the woman has had a vaginal birth. In women who have not had a vaginal birth the external os appears as a small, circular opening. In women who have had a vaginal birth, the ectocervix appears bulkier and the external os appears wider, more slit-like and gaping. The external orifice of the uterus (or ostium of uterus, or external os) is a small, depressed, somewhat circular aperture on the rounded extremity of the vaginal portion of the cervix. ...


Endocervical canal

The passageway between the external os and the uterine cavity is referred to as the endocervical canal. It varies widely in length and width, along with the cervix overall. Flattened anterior to posterior, the endocervical canal measures 7 to 8 mm at its widest in reproductive-aged women. The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...


Internal Os

The endocervical canal terminates at the internal os which is the opening of the cervix inside the uterine cavity. The internal orifice of the uterus (or internal orifice of the cervix uteri or internal os) is a interior narrowing of the uterine cavity. ...


Cervical crypts

There are pockets in the lining of the cervix known as cervical crypts. They function to produce cervical fluid.[1]


Histology

The epithelium of the cervix is nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium at the ectocervix, and simple columnar epithelium at the cervix proper.[2][3] At certain times of life, the columnar epithelium is replaced by metaplastic squamous epithelium, and is then known as the transformation zone. Types of epithelium In biology and medicine, epithelium is a tissue composed of a layer of cells. ... H&E stain of biopsy of normal esophagus showing the stratified squamous cell epithelium Section of the human esophagus. ... The simple columnar epithelium is made up of one layer of cells that are relatively thick and protective of the underlying tissues due to its elongated shape. ...


Nabothian cysts are often found in the cervix. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Cervical mucus

Mucus plug
Mucus plug

After menstruation ends, the external os is blocked by a thick acidic mucus that prevents infection. The mucus thins and its pH increases (closer to neutral) several days prior to ovulation, allowing spermatazoa to pass through the cervix to the fallopian tubes where they wait for an ovum to be released. Shortly after ovulation occurs, the cervical mucus reverts to a thicker form with lower pH. Image File history File links Gray34. ... Image File history File links Gray34. ... Menstrual cycle The menstrual cycle is a recurring cycle of physiological changes that occurs in the females of human beings and other great apes. ... Mucus is a slippery secretion of the lining of various membranes in the body (mucous membranes). ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... Ovulation is the process in the menstrual cycle by which a mature ovarian follicle ruptures and discharges an ovum (also known as an oocyte, female gamete, or casually, an egg) that participates in reproduction. ... Schematic diagram of a sperm cell, showing the (1) acrosome, (2) cell membrane, (3) nucleus, (4) mitochondria, and (5) flagellum (tail) A sperm cell, or spermatozoon ( spermatozoa) (in Greek: sperm = semen and zoon = alive), is the haploid cell that is the male gamete. ... Female internal reproductive anatomy The Fallopian tubes or oviducts are two very fine tubes leading from the ovaries of female mammals into the uterus. ... A human ovum Sperm cells attempting to fertilize an ovum An ovum (plural ova) is a haploid female reproductive cell or gamete. ...


Fertility awareness methods rely on observing the qualities of the cervical mucus to determine the periods of fertility and infertility during a woman's cycle. It can be categorized by the amount of mucus present, the quality of spinnbarkeit (German for spinnability; the stringy elastic character of cervical mucus during the ovulatory period), the degree of opening of the cervical canal, the presence of ferning (the branching pattern appearance of the mucus), and the clarity of mucus versus the presence of cellular debris or leukocytes. Fertility Awareness (FA) is the practice of observing one or more of a woman’s primary fertility signs to determine the fertile and infertile phases of her menstrual cycle. ...


Most methods of hormonal contraception work primarily by preventing ovulation, but their effectiveness is increased because they prevent the cervical mucus from thinning. The thickened cervical mucus blocks spermatozoa from entering the uterus. Hormonal contraception refers to birth control methods that act on the hormonal system. ...


During pregnancy the cervix is completely blocked by a special antibacterial mucosal plug which prevents infection, somewhat similar to its state during the infertile portion of the menstrual cycle. The mucus plug comes out as the cervix dilates in labor or shortly before. Menstrual cycle The menstrual cycle is a recurring cycle of physiological changes that occurs in the females of human beings and other great apes. ...


Cervical position

After menstruation and directly under the influence of estrogen, the cervix undergoes a series of changes in position and texture. Estriol. ...

  • During most of the menstrual cycle, the cervix remains firm, like the tip of the nose, and is positioned low and closed.
  • However, as a woman approaches ovulation, the cervix becomes soft and mushy, and rises and opens in response to the high levels of estrogen present at ovulation.[1] This change, accompanied by the production of fertile-quality cervical mucus, supports the survival and movement of sperm.

Functionality

During menstruation the cervix stretches open slightly to allow the endometrium to be shed. This stretching is believed to be part of the cramping pain that many women experience. Evidence for this is given by the fact that some women's cramps subside or disappear after their first vaginal birth because the cervical opening has widened. Menstrual cycle. ... The endometrium is the inner membrane of the mammalian uterus. ... Cramps are unpleasant, often painful sensations caused by contraction or over shortening, usually of muscles. ...


During childbirth, contractions of the uterus will dilate the cervix up to 10 cm in diameter to allow the child to pass through. Parturition redirects here. ...


During orgasm, the cervix convulses and the external os dilates. Dr. R. Robin Baker and Dr. Mark A. Bellis, both at the University of Manchester, first proposed that this behavior worked in such a way as to draw any semen in the vagina into the uterus, increasing the likelihood of conception. Later researchers, most notably Elisabeth A. Lloyd, have questioned the logic of this theory and the quality of the experimental data used to back it. An orgasm (sexual climax) is the conclusion of the plateau phase of the sexual response cycle, and is experienced by both males and females. ... The University of Manchester is a university located in Manchester, England. ... Horse semen being collected for breeding purposes. ... The vagina, (from Latin, literally sheath or scabbard ) is the tubular tract leading from the uterus to the exterior of the body in female placental mammals and marsupials, or to the cloaca in female birds, monotremes, and some reptiles. ... The uterus or womb is the major female reproductive organ of most mammals, including humans. ... The term conception can refer to more than one meaning: Concept Fertilisation This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Cervical cancer

In humans the cervix may be affected by cervical cancer, a particular form of cancer which is detectable by cytological study of epithelial cells removed from the cervix in a process known as the pap smear. Evidence now shows that those with exposure to HPV, or the human papilloma virus, are at increased risk for cervical cancer. This virus is related to the virus that causes warts. Cervical cancer is a malignant cancer of the cervix. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Cytology (also known as Cell biology) is the scientific study of cells. ... Types of epithelium In biology and medicine, epithelium is a tissue composed of a layer of cells. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell. Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green). ... The pap smear as we know it is an invention of Dr. Georgios Papanikolaou (1883-1962), an American of Greek birth, the father of cytopathology. ... Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a virus which affects humans. ... A wart is generally a small, rough tumor, typically on hands and feet, that can resemble a cauliflower or a solid blister. ...


Lymphatic drainage

The lymphatic drainage of the cervix is along the uterine arteries and cardinal ligaments to the parametrial, external iliac vein, internal iliac vein, and obturator and presacral lymph nodes. From these pelvic lymph nodes, drainage then proceeds to the paraaortic lymph nodes. In some women, the lymphatics drain directly to the paraaortic nodes. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... A ligament is a short band of tough fibrous connective tissue composed mainly of long, stringy collagen fibres. ... Veins of the abdomen and lower limb - inferior vena cava, common iliac vein, external iliac vein, internal iliac vein, femoral vein and their tributaries. ... The internal iliac vein (hypogastric vein) begins near the upper part of the greater sciatic foramen, passes upward behind and slightly medial to the hypogastric artery and, at the brim of the pelvis, joins with the external iliac to form the common iliac vein. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ... Lymph nodes are components of the lymphatic system. ... The paraaortic lymph nodes (also para-aortic, periaortic, and peri-aortic) are a group of lymph nodes that lie in front of the lumbar vertebral bodies near the aorta. ...


Additional images

References

  1. ^ a b Weschler, Toni, MPH, Taking Charge of Your Fertility, Second Edition, 2002, pg. 59,64
  2. ^ Histology at BU 19404loa
  3. ^ Histology at USC rep/c_48

  Results from FactBites:
 
Cervix Changes During the Menstrual Cycle - The Garden of Fertility (818 words)
Her cervix is firm, her os (the opening to her cervix) is closed, and she has no cervical fluid.
Her cervix is firm, her os is closed, and her mucus is dry.
Her cervix is firm, her os is closed, and her CFF is dry.
Cervix - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (675 words)
The cervix (from Latin "neck") is actually the lower, narrow portion of the uterus where it joins with the top end of the vagina.
In humans the cervix is associated with cervical cancer, a particular form of cancer which is detectable by cytological study of epidermal cells removed from the cervix in a process known as the pap smear.
The lymphatic drainage of the cervix is along the uterine arteries and cardinal ligaments to the parametrial, external iliac, internal iliac, obturator, and presacral lymph nodes.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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