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Encyclopedia > Cervinae
iDeer

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Suborder: Ruminantia
Family: Cervidae
Goldfuss, 1820
Subfamilies

Odocoilinae
Cervinae
Hydropotinae
Muntiacinae
I think this is a deer, but not sure what kind. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... Phyla Subregnum Parazoa Porifera Subregnum Eumetazoa Placozoa Orthonectida Rhombozoa Radiata (unranked) Ctenophora Cnidaria Bilateria (unranked) Acoelomorpha Myxozoa Superphylum Deuterostomia Chordata Hemichordata Echinodermata Chaetognatha Superphylum Ecdysozoa Kinorhyncha Loricifera Priapulida Nematoda Nematomorpha Onychophora Tardigrada Arthropoda Superphylum Platyzoa Platyhelminthes Gastrotricha Rotifera Acanthocephala Gnathostomulida Micrognathozoa Cycliophora Superphylum Lophotrochozoa Sipuncula Nemertea Phoronida Bryozoa Entoprocta Brachiopoda... {{{subdivision_ranks}}} See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Orders Multituberculata (extinct) Palaeoryctoides (extinct) Triconodonta (extinct) Subclass Australosphenida Ausktribosphenida Monotremata Subclass Eutheria (excludes extinct ancestors) Afrosoricida Anagaloidea (extinct) Arctostylopida (extinct) Artiodactyla Carnivora Cetacea Chiroptera Cimolesta (extinct) Cingulata Creodonta (extinct) Condylarthra (extinct) Dermoptera Desmostylia (extinct) Dinocerata (extinct) Embrithopoda (extinct) Hyracoidea Insectivora Lagomorpha Leptictida (extinct) Litopterna (extinct) Macroscelidea Mesonychia (extinct) Notoungulata... Families Suidae Hippopotamidae Tayassuidae Camelidae Tragulidae Moschidae Cervidae Giraffidae Antilocapridae Bovidae The even-toed ungulates form the mammal order Artiodactyla. ... Families  Tragulidae  Moschidae  Cervidae  Giraffidae  Antilocapridae  Bovidae The biological suborder Ruminantia includes many of the well-known large grazing or browsing mammals: among them cattle, goats, sheep, deer, and antelope. ... Georg August Goldfuss (April 18, 1782 - October 2, 1848) was a German palaeontologist. ...

A deer is a ruminant mammal belonging to the family Cervidae. A number of broadly similar animals, from related families within the order Artiodactyla, are often also called deer. Families Antilocapridae Bovidae Cervidae Giraffidae Moschidae Tragulidae A ruminant is any hooved animal that digests its food in two steps, first by eating the raw material and regurgitating a semi-digested form known as cud, then eating the cud, a process called ruminating. ... Orders Multituberculata (extinct) Palaeoryctoides (extinct) Triconodonta (extinct) Subclass Australosphenida Ausktribosphenida Monotremata Subclass Eutheria (excludes extinct ancestors) Afrosoricida Anagaloidea (extinct) Arctostylopida (extinct) Artiodactyla Carnivora Cetacea Chiroptera Cimolesta (extinct) Cingulata Creodonta (extinct) Condylarthra (extinct) Dermoptera Desmostylia (extinct) Dinocerata (extinct) Embrithopoda (extinct) Hyracoidea Insectivora Lagomorpha Leptictida (extinct) Litopterna (extinct) Macroscelidea Mesonychia (extinct) Notoungulata... In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is 1) a rank or 2) a taxon in that rank. ... Scientific classification or biological classification refers to how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... Families Suidae Hippopotamidae Tayassuidae Camelidae Tragulidae Moschidae Cervidae Giraffidae Antilocapridae Bovidae The even-toed ungulates form the mammal order Artiodactyla. ...

Contents

Names

Depending on their species, male deer are called stags, harts, bucks or bulls, and females are called hinds, does or cows. Young deer are called fawns or calves. Hart is an expression for a stag, particularly a Red Deer stag past its fifth year. It is not commonly used, but an example is in Shakespeare's "Romeo and Juliet" when Tybalt refers to the brawling Montagues and Capulets as hartless hinds. "The White Hart" and "The Red Hart" are common English pub names. Buck may refer to any of the following: Look up Buck in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The word Hind can refer to: A female deer, usually the red deer. ... Doe is the term used for the females of various species of animal, including: some species of deer rabbits In job and classified ads, DOE is an acronym for Depending On Experience and usually indicated in pay rates. ... COW is an acronym for a number of things: Can of worms The COW programming language, an esoteric programming language. ... Cattle calf A Calf (plural calves) is the young of an animal. ... Binomial name Cervus elaphus Linnaeus, 1758 Red Deer (Cervus elaphus), known as Elk in North America, are the second largest species of deer in the world, after Alces alces (the moose or, in Europe, elk). ... William Shakespeare—born April 1564; baptised April 26, 1564; died April 23, 1616 (O.S.), May 3, 1616 (N.S.)—has a reputation as the greatest of all writers in English. ... The Most Excellent and Lamentable Tragedie of Romeo and Juliet, commonly referred to as Romeo and Juliet, is a tragedy by William Shakespeare concerning the fate of two young star-crossd (ill-fated) lovers. ... I AM GHEY LOL BUTSECKS In William Shakespeares 1595 play, Tybalt is the cousin of Juliet Capulet, and the rival of Romeo Montague. ... An amusingly named pub (the Old New Inn) at Bourton-on-the-Water, in the Cotswold Hills of South West England A pub in the Haymarket area of Edinburgh, Scotland A public house, usually known as a pub, is a drinking establishment found mainly in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Canada...


Habitat

Deer are widely distributed, and hunted, with representatives in all continents except Antarctica. Australia has six introduced species of deer that have established sustainable wild populations from Acclimatisation Society releases in the 19th Century. These are Fallow Deer, Red Deer, Sambar Deer, Hog Deer, Rusa deer, and Chital Deer[1]. There are Red Deer in Northern Africa. The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a biocentric view. ... Binomial name Dama dama (Linnaeus, 1758) The Fallow Deer (Dama dama) is a ruminant mammal belonging to the family Cervidae. ... Binomial name Cervus elaphus Linnaeus, 1758 Red Deer (Cervus elaphus), known as Elk in North America, are the second largest species of deer in the world, after Alces alces (the moose or, in Europe, elk). ... Binomial name Cervus unicolor (Kerr, 1792) Sambar Sambar, common name for several large dark brown and maned Asian deer, particularly for the Indian species, which attains a height of 102 to 160 cm (40 to 63 in) at the shoulder and may weigh as much as 272 kg (600 lb). ... Binomial name Axis porcinus Zimmermann, 1780 The Hog Deer (Axis porcinus) is small deer whose habitat ranges from Pakistan, through northern India, to Myanmar, with a secondary range in southeast Asia. ... [[Image:Example. ... Binomial name Axis axis ( Erxleben, 1777) The chital (also spelled cheetal) is a large spotted deer which commonly inhabits wooded regions of Sri Lanka and most of India. ... Binomial name Cervus elaphus Linnaeus, 1758 Red Deer (Cervus elaphus), known as Elk in North America, are the second largest species of deer in the world, after Alces alces (the moose or, in Europe, elk). ...


Red Deer introduced into New Zealand in early 1900s (a gift from United States President Theodore Roosevelt) have been largely domesticated in deer farms since the late 1960s and are common farm animals there now. Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. ... A deer farm is a fenced piece of land suitable for grazing that is populated with deer raised for the purpose of hunting tourism or as livestock. ...

Fallow Deer walking
Fallow Deer walking

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (723x766, 687 KB) Summary This photo shows a few deer running slowly. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (723x766, 687 KB) Summary This photo shows a few deer running slowly. ...

Physical characteristics

Deer differ from other ruminants in that they have antlers instead of horns. Antlers are bony growths that develop each year (usually in summer) and, in general, it is only male deer that develop them (although there are exceptions). A young buck's first pair of antlers grow from two tiny bumps on their head that they have had from birth. The antlers grow wrapped in a thick layer of velvet and remain that way for one month, until the bone inside is hard; later the velvet is torn away (not shed contrary to popular belief). the one way that many hunters are able to track main paths that the deer travel on is because of their "rubs". a rub is where the deer rubs its antlers on a tree to remove the velvet. During the mating season, bucks use their antlers to fight one another for the opportunity to attract mates in a given herd. The two bucks circle each other, bend back their legs, lower their heads, and charge. For the Poet Laureate of Milwaukee, see Antler (Poet). ... Highland cow, a very old long-horned breed from Scotland. ...


A doe generally has one or two fawns at a time (triplets, while not unknown, are uncommon). The gestation period is anywhere between 160 days (just over 5 months) in the musk deer to ten months for the roe deer. Most fawns are born with their fur covered with white spots, though they lose their spots once they get older (excluding the Fallow Deer who keeps its spots for life). In the first twenty minutes of a fawn's life, the fawn begins to take its first steps. Its mother licks it clean until it is almost free of scent, so predators will not find it. Its mother leaves often, and the fawn does not like to be left behind. Sometimes its mother must gently push it down with her foot. The fawn stays hidden in the grass for one week until it is strong enough to walk with its mother. The fawn and its mother stay together for about one year. A male usually never sees his mother again, but females sometimes come back with their own fawns and form small herds. The four species of musk deer make up the family Moschidae. ... Binomial name Capreolus capreolus, Capreolus pygargus (Linnaeus, 1758) There are two species of Roe Deer. ...


Deer generally have lithe, compact bodies and long, powerful legs suited for rugged woodland terrain. Deer are also excellent swimmers. Their lower cheek teeth have crescent ridges of enamel, which enable them to grind a wide variety of vegetation. Snow on a Deer's back can stay for hours. Deer are ruminants or cud-chewers and have a four-chambered stomach. Nearly all deer have a facial gland in front of each eye. The gland contains a strongly scented pheromone, used to mark its home range. Bucks of a wide range of species open these glands wide when angry or excited. Except for the musk deer, all deer have a liver without a gallbladder. The musk deer, along with the Chinese water deer also differ from other species in that they have no antlers and bear upper canines developed into tusks. Fanning honeybee exposes Nasonov gland (white-at tip of abdomen) releasing pheromone to entice swarm into an empty hive A pheromone is any chemical or set of chemicals produced by a living organism that transmits a message to other members of the same species. ... The four species of musk deer make up the family Moschidae. ... The liver is an organ in living beings, including humans. ... Gallbladder is #5 Gall bladder Histology Digestive system diagram showing the bile duct The gallbladder (or cholecyst sometimes gall bladder) is a pear-shaped organ that stores about 50 mL of bile (or gall) until the body needs it for digestion. ... Binomial name Hydropotes inermis (Swinhoe, 1870) The Water Deer is superficially more similar to a musk deer than a true deer (cervidae) but it is classified as a cervid despite having tusks (downward-pointing canine teeth) instead of antlers and other anatomical anomalies. ...


Deer are selective feeders. They feed on leaves. They have small, unspecialised stomachs by herbivore standards, and high nutrition requirements. Rather than attempt to digest vast quantities of low-grade, fibrous food as, for example, sheep and cattle do, deer select easily digestible shoots, young leaves, fresh grasses, soft twigs, fruit, fungi, and lichens. The leaves of a Beech tree A leaf with laminar structure and pinnate venation In botany, a leaf is an above-ground plant organ specialized for photosynthesis. ... In anatomy, the stomach (in ancient Greek στόμαχος) is an organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ... A deer and two fawns feeding on some foliage A herbivore is often defined as any organism that eats only plants[1]. By that definition, many fungi, some bacteria, many animals, about 1% of flowering plants and some protists can be considered herbivores. ... Species See text. ... Binomial name Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758 Cattle (often called cows in vernacular and contemporary usage, or kye as the Scots plural of cou) are domesticated ungulates, a member of the subfamily Bovinae of the family Bovidae. ... Genera See: List of Poaceae genera The true grasses are monocot (class Liliopsida) plants of the family Poaceae (formerly Graminae). ... A twig is a small terminal branch section that bears leaves, buds and usually the flowers and fruit of plants. ... Fruit stall in Barcelona, Spain. ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... Lichenes from Ernst Haeckels Artforms of Nature, 1904 Crustose and foliose lichens on a wall A foliose lichen on basalt. ...

Fawn
Fawn

Photograph that I took File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Photograph that I took File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

Taxonomy

There are about 34 species of deer worldwide, divided into two broad groups: the old world group includes the subfamilies Muntiacinae and Cervinae; the new world deer the subfamilies Hydropotinae and Odocoilinae. Note that the terms indicate the origin of the groups, not their modern distribution: the Water Deer, for example, is a New World species but is found only in China and Korea. In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biodiversity. ... Binomial name Hydropotes inermis (Swinhoe, 1870) The Water Deer is superficially more similar to a musk deer than a true deer (cervidae) but it is classified as a cervid despite having tusks (downward-pointing canine teeth) instead of antlers and other anatomical anomalies. ... Korea (Korean: 한국 or 조선, see below) is a geographic area, civilization, and former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. ...


It is thought that the new world group evolved about 5 million years ago in the forests of North America and Siberia, the old world deer in Asia. World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... Siberian Federal District (dark red) and the broadest definition of Siberia (red) Udachnaya pipe Siberia (Russian: , Sibir; Tatar: ) is a vast region of Russia constituting almost all of Northern Asia. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ...


Subfamilies, genera & species

The family Cervidae is organized as follows:

Fawn
Fawn
Pudú, the smallest deer in the world
Pudú, the smallest deer in the world
  • Subfamily Hydropotinae (Water Deer)
  • Subfamily Odocoilinae (New World Deer)
    • White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)
    • Mule Deer (Odocoileus hemionus)
    • Marsh Deer (Blastocerus dichotomus)
    • Pampas Deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus)
    • Red Brocket (Mazama americana)
    • Merioa Brocket (Mazama bricenii)
    • Dwarf Brocket (Mazama chunyi)
    • Grey Brocket (Mazama gouazoubira)
    • Pygmy Brocket (Mazama nana)
    • Yucatan Brown Brocket (Mazama pandora)
    • Little Red Brocket (Mazama rufina)
    • Northern Pudú (Pudu mephistophiles) (smallest deer in the world)
    • Southern Pudú (Pudu pudu)
    • Peruvian Guemal or North Andean Deer (Hippocamelus antisensis)
    • Chilean Huemul or South Andean Deer (Hippocamelus bisulcus)
    • European Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus)
    • Siberian Roe Deer (Capreolus pygargus)
    • Caribou/Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus)
    • Moose (Alces alces; called Elk in England) (largest deer in the world)

Species See text. ... Binomial name Muntiacus muntjak Zimmermann, 1780 The Common muntjac, also called Indian muntjac (Muntiacus muntjak) is the most numerous muntjac species. ... Binomial name Muntiacus reevesi (Ogilby, 1839) Formosan Reevess muntjac (Scientific name: Muntiacus reevesi; Chinese name: 山羌) is an endemic muntjac species of Taiwan. ... Binomial name Muntiacus Crinifrons (Sclater, 1885) The Hairy-fronted muntjac, also known as Black muntjac, lives in Zhejiang, Anhui, Jiangxi and Fujian in South China, also reported in Myanmar. ... Binomial name Muntiacus Feae (Thomas & Doria, 1889) Feas muntjac (also known as Tenasserim muntjac from the region of Myanmar) is a rare species of muntjac living in the Myanmar-Thailand-Laos-China border region. ... Binomial name Muntiacus Atherodes (Groves & Grubb, 1982) The Bornean Yellow Muntjac is restricted to the moist forests of Borneo where it lives alongside the common muntjac. ... Binomial name Muntiacus Rooseveltorum (, ) A single specimen of the Roosevelts Muntjac was presented to the Field Museum in 1929 following a hunting expedition led by Theodore (Jnr) and Kermit Roosevelt. ... Binomial name Muntiacus Gongshanensis (Ma, 1990) The Gongshan muntjac was recently identified by Chinese scientists as a new species of muntjac living in the Gongshan mountains in Yunnan, western China and neighbouring Tibet. ... Binomial name Muntiacus vuquangensis Wemmer et al. ... Binomial name Muntiacus truongsonensis Giao et al. ... Binomial name Muntiacus putaoensis Amato, Egan & Rabinowitz, 1999 The leaf muntjac or leaf deer (Muntiacus putaoensis) is a small species of muntjac. ... Binomial name Elaphodus cephalophus (Milne-Edwards, 1872) The Tufted Deer is a close relative of the muntjac, living somewhat further north over a wide area of central China and northeastern India and Myanmar. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (968x840, 306 KB) Deer fawn seen in Forests near Desert Lake in southeastern Ontario, Canada. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (968x840, 306 KB) Deer fawn seen in Forests near Desert Lake in southeastern Ontario, Canada. ... Binomial name Cervus elaphus Linnaeus, 1758 Red Deer (Cervus elaphus), known as Elk in North America, are the second largest species of deer in the world, after Alces alces (the moose or, in Europe, elk). ... Binomial name Cervus affinis New species designate The Central Asian Red Deer (Cervus affinis) (also known as Asian Red Deer and Himalayan (or Tibetan) Red Deer) is one of three species of Red Deer that consist of five known isolated populations (subspecies) of primitive red deer that live in the... This article is about red deer. ... Thorolds deer has the scientific name Cervus Albirostris Przewalski. ... Thorolds deer has the scientific name Cervus Albirostris Przewalski. ... Binomial name Cervus nippon Temminck, 1838 Subspecies The Sika Deer Cervus nippon is a typical member of the family Cervidae. ... Binomial name Cervus duvaucelii Considered one of the most handsome deer in the world, barasinghas most attractive feature are their antlers with 10-14 tines on a mature stag, though some have been known to have even up to 20. ... what animales and plants are extincted and endanger in Afghanistan? This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... The Dodo, shown here in illustration, is an often-cited[1] example of extinction. ... 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Binomial name Cervus eldii (MClelland, 1842) The Elds Deer or Brow-antlered Deer Cervus eldii is a deer indigenous to Southeast Asia. ... Sambar may refer to: Sambar, a kind of deer Sambar, a lentil-based dish common in South India and Sri Lanka Sambhar Salt Lake in Rajasthan, India. ... Binomial name Cervus timorensis Blainville, 1822 The Rusa Deer or Sunda Sambar, Cervus timorensis, are native to the islands of Java eastwards towards Bali, and Timor in Indonesia. ... [[Image:Example. ... Binomial name Cervus alfredi Sclater, 1870 The Philippine Spotted Deer (Cervus alfredi) is a species of deer that is native to the forests of the Philippines. ... Binomial name Cervus alfredi Sclater, 1870 The Philippine Spotted Deer (Cervus alfredi) is a species of deer that is native to the forests of the Philippines. ... Binomial name Axis axis (Erxleben, 1777) The chital (or cheetal) deer, also known as the spotted deer or axis deer is a large spotted deer which commonly inhabits wooded regions of Sri Lanka and most of India. ... Binomial name Axis axis (Erxleben, 1777) The chital (or cheetal) deer, also known as the spotted deer or axis deer is a large spotted deer which commonly inhabits wooded regions of Sri Lanka and most of India. ... Binomial name Axis porcinus Zimmermann, 1780 The Hog Deer (Axis porcinus) is small deer whose habitat ranges from Pakistan, through northern India, to Myanmar, with a secondary range in southeast Asia. ... Binomial name Axis calamianensis Huede, 1888 The Calamian Deer, Axis calamianensis also known as Calamian Hog Deer is a species of deer found only in the Calamian Group of Islands of Palawan Province of the Philippines. ... The Bawean deer or Kuhls deer (Axis kuhlii) is a species of deer found only the island of Bawean in Indonesia. ... Binomial name Elaphurus davidianus Milne-Edwards, 1866 Père Davids deer (Elaphurus davidianus, other names: Cerf du Père David, Ciervo del Padre David, and Milu in Chinese (麋鹿)), is a species of deer known only in captivity. ... Binomial name Dama dama (Linnaeus, 1758) The Fallow Deer (Dama dama) is a ruminant mammal belonging to the family Cervidae. ... Binomial name Dama mesopotamica (Brooke,, 1875) The Persian Fallow Deer (Dama mesopotamica) is a ruminant mammal belonging to the family Cervidae. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (927x695, 123 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Deer Pudú ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (927x695, 123 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Deer Pudú ... The pudú (Pudu spp. ... Binomial name Hydropotes inermis (Swinhoe, 1870) The Water Deer is superficially more similar to a musk deer than a true deer (cervidae) but it is classified as a cervid despite having tusks (downward-pointing canine teeth) instead of antlers and other anatomical anomalies. ... Binomial name Odocoileus virginianus Zimmermann, 1780 The White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), also known as the Virginia deer, is a medium-sized deer found throughout most of the continental United States, southern Canada, Mexico, Central America and northern portions of South America as far south as Peru. ... Binomial name Odocoileus hemionus (Rafinesque, 1817) The Mule Deer (Odocoileus hemionus) is a deer whose habitat is in the western half of North America. ... Binomial name Blastocerus dichotomus (Illiger, 1815) The Marsh Deer, Blastocerus dichotomus, is the largest deer species from South America. ... Binomial name Blastocerus dichotomus (Linnaeus, 1758) The Pampas Deer, Ozotocerus bezoarticus, is a deer species from South America. ... Species Brocket Deer are a group of deer species found in South America and the Yucatan Peninsula. ... Binomial name Mazama gouazoubyra (Fischer, 1814) The Gray Brocket, Mazama gouazoubyra, is a Brocket Deer species from South America and from Panama. ... The Mazama nana, or Pygmy Brocket Deer, is very small in size. ... The pudú (Pudu spp. ... The pudú (Pudu spp. ... Binomial name Capreolus capreolus, Capreolus pygargus (Linnaeus, 1758) There are two species of Roe Deer. ... Binomial name Capreolus pygargus Pallas, 1771 Subspecies C. p. ... Binomial name Rangifer tarandus (Linnaeus, 1758) The reindeer, known as caribou when wild in North America, is an Arctic and Subarctic-dwelling deer (Rangifer tarandus). ... Binomial name Alces alces (Linnaeus, 1758) Moose range map Alces alces is called moose in North America and elk in Europe (see also elk for other animals called elk). ...

Hybrid deer

In Origin of Species (1859) Charles Darwin wrote "Although I do not know of any thoroughly well-authenticated cases of perfectly fertile hybrid animals, I have some reason to believe that the hybrids from Cervulus vaginalis and Reevesii [...] are perfectly fertile." These two varieties of muntjac are currently considered the same species. The 1859 edition of On the Origin of Species First published in 1859, The Origin of Species (full title On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life) by British naturalist Charles Darwin is one of the pivotal... Charles Robert Darwin FRS (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist [1] who achieved lasting fame by producing considerable evidence that species originated through evolutionary change, at the same time proposing the scientific theory that natural selection is the mechanism by which such change occurs. ...


A number of deer hybrids are bred to improve meat yield in farmed deer. American Elk (or Wapiti) and Red Deer from the Old World can produce fertile offspring in captivity, and were once considered one species. Hybrid offspring, however, must be able to escape and defend themselves against predators, and these hybrid offspring are unable to do so in the wild state. Resent DNA, animal behavior studies, and morphology and antler characteristics have shown there are are not one but three species of Red Deer: European Red Deer, Central Asian Red Deer, and American Elk or Wapiti. (The European Elk is a different species and is known as moose in North America.) The hybrids are about 30% more efficient in producing antler by comparing velvet to body weight. Wapiti have been introduced into some European Red Deer herds to improve the Red Deer type, but not always with the intended improvement. Binomial name Cervus elaphus Linnaeus, 1758 Red Deer (Cervus elaphus), known as Elk in North America, are the second largest species of deer in the world, after Alces alces (the moose or, in Europe, elk). ... Binomial name Cervus affinis New species designate The Central Asian Red Deer (Cervus affinis) (also known as Asian Red Deer and Himalayan (or Tibetan) Red Deer) is one of three species of Red Deer that consist of five known isolated populations (subspecies) of primitive red deer that live in the... This article is about red deer. ... Binomial name Alces alces (Linnaeus, 1758) Moose range map Alces alces is called moose in North America and elk in Europe (see also elk for other animals called elk). ...


In New Zealand, where deer are introduced species, there are hybrid zones between Red Deer and North American Wapiti populations and also between Red Deer and Sika Deer populations. In New Zealand Red Deer have been artificially hybridized with Pere David Deer in order to create a farmed deer which gives birth in spring. The initial hybrids were created by artificial insemination and back-crossed to Red Deer. However, such hybrid offspring can only survive in captivity free of predators.


In Canada, the farming of European Red Deer and Red Deer hybrids is considered a threat to native Wapiti. In Britain, the introduced Sika Deer is considered a threat to native Red Deer. Initial Sika Deer/Red Deer hybrids occur when young Sika stags expand their range into established red deer areas and have no Sika hinds to mate with. They mate instead with young Red hinds and produce fertile hybrids. These hybrids mate with either Sika or Red Deer (depending which species is prevalent in the area), resulting in mongrelization. Many of the Sika Deer which escaped from British parks were probably already hybrids for this reason. These hybrids do not properly inherit survival strategies and can only survive in either a captive state or when there are no predators.


In captivity, Mule Deer have been mated to White-tail Deer. Both male Mule Deer/female White-tail and male White-tail/female Mule deer matings have produced hybrids. Less than 50% of the hybrid fawns survived their first few months. Hybrids have been reported in the wild but are disadvantaged because they don't properly inherit survival strategies. Mule Deer move with bounding leaps (all 4 hooves hit the ground at once, also called "stotting") to escape predators. Stotting is so specialized that only 100% genetically pure Mule Deer seem able to do it. In captive hybrids, even a one-eighth White-tail/seven-eighths Mule Deer hybrid has an erratic escape behaviour and would be unlikely to survive to breeding age. Hybrids do survive on game ranches where both species are kept and where predators are controlled by man. Escape response, escape reaction, or escape behaviour is a possible reaction in response to stimuli indicative of danger, in particular, it initiates an escape motion of an animal. ...


Antlers

White-tailed deer
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White-tailed deer

All male deer have antlers that are shed and regrown each year from a structure called a pedicle. Sometimes a female will have a small stub. The only female deer with antlers are Caribou and their cousins, the Reindeer. Antlers grow as highly vascular spongy tissue covered in a skin called velvet. Before the beginning of a species' mating season, the antlers calcify under the velvet and become hard. The velvet is then shed leaving hard bone antlers. After the mating season, the pedicle and the antler base are separated by a layer of tissue, and the antler falls off. Each species has a general antler growth pattern, e.g. White-tailed Deer tend to grow antlers out and forward with points arising from the top of the main beam of the antler. Mule deer, a species within the same genus as White-tailed deer, have similar antler growth except that the second point is usually forked. In the Northeast, the white-tailed deer is the primary host for adult blacklegged ticks. ... In the Northeast, the white-tailed deer is the primary host for adult blacklegged ticks. ... For the Poet Laureate of Milwaukee, see Antler (Poet). ...


For Wapiti and Red Deer, a stag having 14 points is an "imperial", and a stag having 12 points is a "royal". If the antlers deviate from the pattern of the species, the deer is considered a non-typical deer.


Economic significance

Deer have long had economic significance to humans. Deer meat, for which they are hunted and farmed, is called venison. Venison is the modern term for the meat of deer, elk, red deer, moose, caribou, and pronghorn. ...


Musk, which comes from the gland on the abdomen of musk deer, is used in medicines and perfumes. Deerskin is used for shoes, boots, and gloves, and antlers are made into buttons and knife handles. The Saami of Scandinavia and the Kola Peninsula of Russia and other nomadic peoples of northern Asia used reindeer for food, clothing, and transport. The caribou is not domesticated or herded as is the case in Europe but is important to the Inuit. Most commercial venison in the United States is imported from New Zealand. Deer were originally brought to New Zealand by European settlers, and the deer population rose rapidly. This caused great environmental damage and was controlled by hunting and poisoning until the concept of deer farming in the 1960s. Deer farms in New Zealand number more than 3,500, with more than 400,000 deer in all. Musk is the name originally given to a perfume obtained from the strong-smelling substance, secreted by the testicles of the musk deer, and hence applied to other animals, and also to plants, possessing a similar odor. ... The abdomen is a part of the body. ... The Sami people (also Sámi, Saami, Lapps and Laplanders) are the indigenous people of Sápmi, which encompasses parts of northern Sweden, Norway, Finland and the Kola Peninsula of Russia. ... Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe. ... Location of Kola south of the Barents Sea. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... Binomial name Rangifer tarandus (Linnaeus, 1758) The reindeer, known as caribou when wild in North America, is an Arctic and Subarctic-dwelling deer (Rangifer tarandus). ... Binomial name Rangifer tarandus The reindeer, known as caribou in North America, is an Arctic-dwelling deer (Rangifer tarandus). ... World map showing Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is one of the six inhabited continents of the Earth. ... For other uses, see Inuit (disambiguation). ...


Trivia

Several Norwegian municipalities have a deer in their coat-of-arms: Gjemnes, Hitra, Hjartdal and Voss. Gjemnes is a municipality in the county of Møre og Romsdal, Norway. ... County Sør-Trøndelag District Municipality NO-1617 Administrative centre Hitra Mayor (2003) Egil Hestnes (H) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 163 685 km² 646 km² 0. ... The municipality Hjartdal in the county of Telemark, Norway, has 1,635 inhabitants as of January 1, 2004. ... County Hordaland District Municipality NO-1235 Administrative centre Vossevangen Mayor (2003) Bjørn Christensen (Ap) Official language form Nynorsk Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 38 1,806 km² 1,732 km² 0. ...


Literature

Deer running
Deer running
"Nature and Appearance of Deer, and how they can be hunted with Dogs," taken from "Livre du Roy Modus," created in the 14th century
"Nature and Appearance of Deer, and how they can be hunted with Dogs," taken from "Livre du Roy Modus," created in the 14th century

Deer running from http://www. ... Deer running from http://www. ... Download high resolution version (1457x833, 55 KB)Nature and Appearance of Deer, and how they can be hunted with Dogs. ... Download high resolution version (1457x833, 55 KB)Nature and Appearance of Deer, and how they can be hunted with Dogs. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... // The word mythology (Greek: μυθολογία, from μυθος mythos, a story or legend, and λογος logos, an account or speech) literally means the (oral) retelling of myths – stories that a particular culture believes to be true and that use supernatural events or characters to explain the nature of the universe and humanity. ... Deer have significant roles in the mythology of various peoples. ... Christmas or Christmas Day is an annual Christian and secular[1] holiday that celebrates the birth of Jesus, along with themes such as family, goodwill, giving and compassion. ... Cover of a 1912 edition of the poem. ... Binomial name Rangifer tarandus (Linnaeus, 1758) The reindeer, known as caribou when wild in North America, is an Arctic and Subarctic-dwelling deer (Rangifer tarandus). ... For the cricket meaning, see Sledging (cricket) A sled, sledge or sleigh is a vehicle with runners for sliding instead of wheels for rolling. ... A Santa Claus doll. ... Walt Disney Pictures is an American movie studio, with off-shoot studios in Japan and other sites in the United States. ... Bambi is the fifth animated feature in the Disney animated features canon, originally released to theatres by RKO Radio Pictures on August 13, 1942 and produced by Walt Disney. ... Binomial name Odocoileus virginianus Zimmermann, 1780 The White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), also known as the Virginia deer, is a medium-sized deer found throughout most of the continental United States, southern Canada, Mexico, Central America and northern portions of South America as far south as Peru. ... Felix Salten (September 6, 1869 – October 8, 1945) was an Austrian writer. ... Bambi, ein Leben im Walde (Bambi, A Life in the Woods) is a book by Felix Salten, first printed in 1923. ... Binomial name Capreolus capreolus, Capreolus pygargus (Linnaeus, 1758) There are two species of Roe Deer. ... Saint Hubertus or Hubert (born circa 656 to 658, probably in Toulouse; died May 30, 727 or 728 in Tervuren near Brussels, Belgium), called the Apostle of the Ardennes was the first Bishop of Liège. ... A crucifix amidst the cornfields near Mureck in rural Styria, Austria A handheld crucifix A crucifix in front of the Holy Spirit Church in KoÅ¡ice, Slovakia A crucifix is a cross with a representation of Jesuss body, or corpus. ... Good Friday is a holy day celebrated by most Christians on the Friday before Easter or Pascha. ... This article is becoming very long. ... Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban is the third book in the Harry Potter series of childrens books by J. K. Rowling. ... Harry performing the Patronus Charm, from the movie version of Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban In the Harry Potter fantasy novels by J. K. Rowling, a Patronus is an insubstantial animal form protector created by the advanced Patronus Charm spell, and the only known means of defence against... Cover of the first book in JK Rowlings series: Harry Potter and the Philosophers Stone (British/Canadian/Australian version) The Harry Potter books are an extremely popular series of fantasy novels by British writer J. K. Rowling. ... A dementor is an utterly foul fictional being, the worst creature J. K. Rowlings Harry Potter book series has to offer. ... James Potter and Lily Potter (née Evans) are fictional characters of the Harry Potter series. ... Registered Animagus Minerva McGonagall mid transformation In the Harry Potter books, an Animagus is a wizard or witch capable of turning into a particular animal and back at will. ... Angel is a spin-off from the American television series Buffy the Vampire Slayer. ... Dorés caricature of Münchhausen Karl Friedrich Hieronymus, Freiherr von Münchhausen (11 May 1720 – 22 February 1797) was a German baron who in his youth was sent to serve as page to Anthony Ulrich II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and later joined the Russian military. ... A cherry is both a tree and its fleshy fruit, a type known as a drupe with a single hard pit enclosing the seed. ... Japanese samurai in armour, 1860s. ... Honda Tadakatsu (本多忠勝, 1548 – December 3, 1610), also called Honda Heihachirō (本多平八郎), was a general in the service of Tokugawa Ieyasu. ... It has been suggested that Chinese Painting Arts be merged into this article or section. ... The Animals of Farthing Wood is a series of childrens books written by Colin Dann, which was turned into an afternoon animated series by the European Broadcasting Union between 1992 and 1995. ... The Great White Stag is a fictional character from the animated childrens television series The Animals of Farthing Wood based upon the books of the same name by author Colin Dann. ... A nature reserve (natural reserve, nature preserve, natural preserve) is an area of importance for wildlife, flora, fauna or features of geological or other special interest, which is reserved and managed for conservation and to provide special opportunities for study or research. ... White deer park is a fictional place from the animated television series The Animals of Farthing Wood based upon the books of the same name author Colin Dann. ...

See also

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Cervidae
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Cervidae

 
 

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