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Encyclopedia > Cervical vertebrae
Bone: Cervical vertebrae
Vertebral column
A cervical vertebra
Latin vertebrae cervicales
Gray's subject #21 97
MeSH Cervical+vertebrae
Dorlands/Elsevier v_07/12854511

In vertebrates, cervical vertebrae (singular: vertebra) are those vertebrae immediately behind (caudal to) the skull. Image File history File links Illu_vertebral_column. ... File links The following pages link to this file: Wikipedia:Grays Anatomy images with missing articles 2 Cervical vertebrae Categories: Public domain images ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... Elseviers logo. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses of Skull, see Skull (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Variation among species

In some species, some parts of the skull may be composed of vertebra-like elements, e.g. the occipital bone in humans is composed of four vertebra-like segments. The occipital bone, a saucer-shaped membrane bone situated at the back and lower part of the cranium, is trapezoid in shape and curved on itself. ...


In many vertebrate species, cervical vertebrae are variable in number; however, almost all mammals have seven (including those with very short necks, such as elephants or whales, and those with very long necks, such as giraffes). Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including milk producing sweat glands, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... Genera and Species Loxodonta Loxodonta cyclotis Loxodonta africana Elephas Elephas maximus Elephas antiquus † Elephas beyeri † Elephas celebensis † Elephas cypriotes † Elephas ekorensis † Elephas falconeri † Elephas iolensis † Elephas planifrons † Elephas platycephalus † Elephas recki † Stegodon † Mammuthus † Elephantidae (the elephants) is a family of pachyderm, and the only remaining family in the order Proboscidea... This article is about the animal. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Range map The giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) is an African even-toed ungulate mammal, the tallest of all land-living animal species. ...


The few exceptions include the manatee and the two-toed sloth, which each have only six cervical vertebrae, and the three-toed sloth with nine cervical vertebrae. For other uses, see Manatee (disambiguation). ... Species Choloepus didactylus Choloepus hoffmanni The two extant species of two-toed sloths are Linnaeuss and Hoffmanns Two-toed Sloth. ... Green: , Blue: , Red: Species Bradypus pygmaeus Bradypus torquatus Bradypus tridactylus Bradypus variegatus The three-toed sloths are the only members of the Bradypus genus and the Bradypodidae family. ...


Thoracic vertebrae in all species are defined as those vertebrae which also carry a pair of ribs, and lie caudal to the cervical vertebrae. A typical thoracic vertebra The thoracic vertebrae (vertebrae thoracales) compose the middle segment of the vertebral column, between the cervical vertebrae and the lumbar vertebrae. ... The human rib cage. ...


In humans, cervical vertebrae are the smallest of the true vertebrae, and can be readily distinguished from those of the thoracic or lumbar regions by the presence of a foramen (hole) in each transverse process, through which passes the vertebral artery. A diagram of a thoracic vertebra. ... A typical thoracic vertebra The thoracic vertebrae (vertebrae thoracales) compose the middle segment of the vertebral column, between the cervical vertebrae and the lumbar vertebrae. ... The lumbar vertebrae are the largest segments of the movable part of the vertebral column, and are characterized by the absence of the foramen transversarium within the transverse process, and by the absence of facets on the sides of the body. ... In anatomy, a foramen is any opening. ... A diagram of a thoracic vertebra. ... The vertebral arteries are branches of the subclavian arteries. ...


The remainder of this article focuses upon human anatomy.


General characteristics (C3-C6)

Side view of a typical cervical vertebra
Side view of a typical cervical vertebra

These are the general characteristics of the third through sixth cervical vertebrae. (The first, second, and seventh vertebrae are extraordinary, and detailed later.) File links The following pages link to this file: Wikipedia:Grays Anatomy images with missing articles 2 Cervical vertebrae Categories: Public domain images ... File links The following pages link to this file: Wikipedia:Grays Anatomy images with missing articles 2 Cervical vertebrae Categories: Public domain images ...

  • The body of these four vertebrae is small, and broader from side to side than from front to back.
    • The anterior and posterior surfaces are flattened and of equal depth; the former is placed on a lower level than the latter, and its inferior border is prolonged downward, so as to overlap the upper and forepart of the vertebra below.
    • The upper surface is concave transversely, and presents a projecting lip on either side;
    • the lower surface is concave from front to back, convex from side to side, and presents laterally shallow concavities which receive the corresponding projecting lips of the underlying vertebra.
  • The pedicles are directed laterally and backward, and are attached to the body midway between its upper and lower borders, so that the superior vertebral notch is as deep as the inferior, but it is, at the same time, narrower.
  • The superior and inferior articular processes of neighboring vertebrae often fuse on either or both sides to form an articular pillar, a column of bone which projects laterally from the junction of the pedicle and lamina.
  • The articular facets are flat and of an oval form:
    • the superior face backward, upward, and slightly medially.
    • the inferior face forward, downward, and slightly laterally.
  • The transverse processes are each pierced by the foramen transversarium, which, in the upper six vertebrae, gives passage to the vertebral artery and vein, as well as a plexus of sympathetic nerves. Each process consists of an anterior and a posterior part. These two parts are joined, outside the foramen, by a bar of bone which exhibits a deep sulcus on its upper surface for the passage of the corresponding spinal nerve.
    • The anterior portion is the homologue of the rib in the thoracic region, and is therefore named the costal process or costal element. It arises from the side of the body, is directed laterally in front of the foramen, and ends in a tubercle, the anterior tubercle.
    • The posterior part, the true transverse process, springs from the vertebral arch behind the foramen, and is directed forward and laterally; it ends in a flattened vertical tubercle, the posterior tubercle.

The body is the largest part of a vertebra, and is more or less cylindrical in shape. ... Look up pedicel in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Lamina may refer to: Planar lamina, a 2 dimensional planar closed surface with mass and density (mathematics). ... In a typical vertebra, the vertebral foramen is the foramen formed by the anterior segment (the body), and the posterior part, the vertebral arch. ... A diagram of a thoracic vertebra. ... A Bifid rib or bifurcated rib or sternum bifidum is a congenital abnormality occurring in about 1% of the population. ... The articular processes of a vertebra, two superior and two inferior, spring from the junctions of the pedicles and laminæ. The superior project upward, and their articular surfaces are directed more or less backward; the inferior project downward, and their surfaces look more or less forward. ... An articular facet (or articular surface) is a surface where two anatomical structures (usually bones) meet. ... The transverse processes of a vertebra, two in number, project one at either side from the point where the lamina joins the pedicle, between the superior and inferior articular processes. ... The transverse processes of the cervical vertebrae are each pierced by the foramen transversarium, which, in the upper six vertebræ, gives passage to the vertebral artery and vein and a plexus of sympathetic nerves. ... The vertebral arteries are branches of the subclavian arteries. ... The vertebral vein is formed in the suboccipital triangle, from numerous small tributaries which spring from the internal vertebral venous plexuses and issue from the vertebral canal above the posterior arch of the atlas. ... Anatomy and Physiology of the A.N.S. In contrast to the voluntary nervous system, the involuntary or autonomic nervous system is responsible for homeostasis, maintaining a relatively constant internal environment by controlling such involuntary functions as digestion, respiration, and metabolism, and by modulating blood pressure. ... The term spinal nerve generally refers to the mixed spinal nerve, which is formed from the dorsal and ventral roots that come out of the spinal cord. ... The human rib cage. ... Diagram of a tsetse fly, showing the head, thorax and abdomen The thorax is a division of an animals body that lies between the head and the abdomen. ... The anterior arch forms about one-fifth of the ring: its anterior surface is convex, and presents at its center the anterior tubercle for the attachment of the Longus colli muscles. ... The posterior arch of a cervical vertebra forms about two-fifths of the circumference of the ring: it ends behind in the posterior tubercle, which is the rudiment of a spinous process and gives origin to the Recti capitis posteriores minores. ...

Special cervical vertebrae (C1, C2, and C7)

  • C1 or atlas: The Atlas is the topmost vertebra, and – along with C2 – forms the joint connecting the skull and spine. Its chief peculiarity is that it has no body, and this is due to the fact that the body of the atlas has fused with that of the next vertebra.
  • C2 or axis: It forms the pivot upon which C1 rotates. The most distinctive characteristic of this bone is the strong odontoid process (dens) which rises perpendicularly from the upper surface of the body. The body is deeper in front than behind, and prolonged downward anteriorly so as to overlap the upper and front part of the third vertebra.
  • C7 or vertebra prominens: The most distinctive characteristic of this vertebra is the existence of a long and prominent spinous process, hence the name vertebra prominens. In some subjects, the seventh cervical vertebra is associated with an abnormal pair of ribs, known as cervical ribs. These ribs are usually small, but may occasionally compress blood vessels (such as the subclavian artery) or nerves in the brachial plexus, causing unpleasant symptoms.

In anatomy, the atlas (C1) is the topmost (first) cervical vertebra of the spine. ... For other uses of Skull, see Skull (disambiguation). ... The vertebral column seen from the side Different regions (curvatures) of the vertebral column The vertebral column (backbone or spine) is a column of vertebrae situated in the dorsal aspect of the abdomen. ... In anatomy, the second cervical vertebra (C2) of the spine is named the axis or epistropheus. ... This article is about the skeletal organs. ... The most distinctive characteristic of the seventh cervical vertebra is the existence of a long and prominent spinous process, hence the name vertebra prominens. ... A cervical rib is a supernumerary (extra) rib which arises from the seventh cervical vertebra. ... The subclavian artery is a major artery of the upper thorax that mainly supplies blood to the head and arms. ... The brachial plexus is an arrangement of nerve fibres (a plexus) running from the spine (vertebrae C5-T1), through the neck, the axilla (armpit region), and into the arm. ...

Movements of the cervical spine

The movements of flexion and extension of the head take place predominantly at the joint between the first cervical vertebra and the occipital bone, the atlanto-occipital joint. However, the cervical spine is comparatively mobile, and some component of this movement is due to flexion and extension of the vertebral column itself. It has been suggested that Kinesiology#Motions be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that Kinesiology#Motions be merged into this article or section. ... The Atlanto-occipital joint (articulation between the atlas and the occipital bone) consists of a pair of condyloid joints. ...


The movement of rotating the head to left and right happens almost entirely at the joint between the first and second cervical vertebrae, the atlanto-axial joint. A small amount of rotation of the vertebral column itself contributes to the movement. The Atlanto-axial joint (articulation of the atlas with the axis) is of a complicated nature, comprising no fewer than four distinct joints. ...


Landmarks

The thyroid cartilage is from C4 to C5.[1] The cartilages of the larynx. ...


The cricoid cartilage is from C6 to C7.[1] The cricoid cartilage, or simply cricoid, is the only complete ring of cartilage around the trachea. ...


Clinical significance

Injuries to the cervical spine are common at the level of the second cervical vertebrae, but neurological injury is uncommon.


If it does occur, however, it may cause death or profound disability, including paralysis of the arms, legs, and diaphragm, which leads to respiratory failure. For other types of diaphragm, see Diaphragm. ... Respiratory failure is a medical term for inadequate gas exchange by the respiratory system. ...


Common patterns of injury include the odontoid fracture and the hangman's fracture, both of which are often treated with immobilization in a cervical collar or Halo brace. In anatomy, the second cervical vertebra (C2) of the spine is named the axis or epistropheus. ... A Hangmans fracture is the colloquial name given to a combination of fracture of the odontoid process of the second cervical vertebra and disruption of the transverse atlantal ligament. ... A cervical collar is a plastic, foam, or plastazole neck brace that can be rigid or soft and is used to secure the cervical vertebrae in the normal position. ... A halo, also known as a halo ring, halo vest or halo crown, is a cervical brace used to aid spinal injuries. ...


Additional images

References

  1. ^ a b Mnemonic at medicalmnemonics.com 3548

For other uses, see Mnemonic (disambiguation). ...

External links

  • Diagram at kenyon.edu
  • Cervical Spine Anatomy
  • Degenerative Cervical Spine Disorders

This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained herein may be outdated. Please edit the article if this is the case, and feel free to remove this notice when it is no longer relevant. The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... An illustration from the 1918 edition Henry Grays Anatomy of the Human Body (or Grays Anatomy as it has more commonly become known) is an anatomy textbook widely regarded as a classic work on human anatomy. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
II. Osteology. 3a. 1. The Cervical Vertebræ. Gray, Henry. 1918. Anatomy of the Human Body. (1556 words)
Second cervical vertebra, epistropheus, or axis, from the side.
transversarium may be as large as that in the other cervical vertebræ;, but is generally smaller on one or both sides; occasionally it is double, sometimes it is absent.
On the left side it occasionally gives passage to the vertebral artery; more frequently the vertebral vein traverses it on both sides; but the usual arrangement is for both artery and vein to pass in front of the transverse process, and not through the foramen.
Cervical Vertebrae Overview (120 words)
The next 12 are the thoracic vertebrae which articulate with the 12 pairs of ribs.
Note the bifid spinous process on the vertebra on the left which is characteristic of C2 through C6.
The vertebra on the right (C7) has a prominent nonbifid spinous process that can be felt at the base of the neck.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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