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Encyclopedia > Certainty
Certainty series
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A related article is titled uncertainty.
For statistical certainty, see probability

Certainty is the state of being without doubt. Something is certain only if skepticism could not exist. Philosophy (at least historically) struggles toward certainty.[citation needed] Meditations on First Philosophy is a famous pursuit of certainty by Descartes. Epistemology is the study of knowledge, certainty and truth. Contemporary views of knowledge do not demand certainty, a common alternative is "justified true belief". Nihilism is a philosophical position, often associated with Friedrich Nietzsche (though he considered it something to be overcome), which argues that the world, and especially past and current human existence, is without objective meaning, purpose, comprehensible truth, or essential value. ... Agnosticism (from the Greek a, meaning without and gnosis, knowledge, translating to unknowable) is the philosophical view that the truth value of certain claims — particularly theological claims regarding metaphysics, afterlife or the existence of God, god(s), or deities — is unknown or inherently unknowable. ... // Relation between uncertainty, probability and risk In his seminal work Risk, Uncertainty, and Profit, Frank Knight (1921) established the important distinction between risk and uncertainty: … Uncertainty must be taken in a sense radically distinct from the familiar notion of Risk, from which it has never been properly separated. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with estimation. ... Wiktionary has related dictionary definitions, such as: belief Belief is usually defined as a conviction to the truth of a proposition. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Determinism is the philosophical proposition that every event, including human cognition and action, is causally determined by an unbroken chain of prior occurrences. ... // Relation between uncertainty, probability and risk In his seminal work Risk, Uncertainty, and Profit, Frank Knight (1921) established the important distinction between risk and uncertainty: … Uncertainty must be taken in a sense radically distinct from the familiar notion of Risk, from which it has never been properly separated. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the mental state. ... In ordinary usage, skepticism or scepticism (Greek: skeptomai, to look about, to consider) refers to an attitude of doubt or a disposition to incredulity either in general or toward a particular object, the doctrine that true knowledge or knowledge in a particular area is uncertain, or the method of suspended... Meditations on First Philosophy (subtitled In which the existence of God and the real distinction of mind and body, are demonstrated) is a philosophical treatise written by René Descartes first published in Latin in 1641. ... René Descartes René Descartes (IPA: , March 31, 1596 – February 11, 1650), also known as Cartesius, worked as a philosopher and mathematician. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section should include material from Episteme Epistemology (from the Greek words episteme=science and logos=word/speech) is the branch of philosophy that deals with the nature, origin and scope of knowledge. ...


Logic

It is generally believed that Deductive reasoning does make conclusions which are certain. An example: To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

P or Q.
not P.
Therefore, Q.

The conclusion of Q however, requires "P or Q" and "not P" are true. Logic can only extend certainty to the conclusion but cannot establish certainty of the premises. A conclusion can have various specific meanings depending on the context. ...

   
Certainty
There is no such thing as absolute certainty, but there is assurance sufficient for the purposes of human life. — John Stuart Mill
   
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Certainty
Doubt is not a pleasant condition, but certainty is absurd. — Voltaire
   
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In this world nothing can be said to be certain, except death and taxes. — Benjamin Franklin
   
Certainty

Image File history File links Cquote1. ... John Stuart Mill (May 20, 1806 – May 8, 1873), an English philosopher and political economist, was an influential liberal thinker of the 19th century. ... Image File history File links Cquote2. ... Image File history File links Cquote1. ... Voltaire at 24 years of age by Nicolas de Largillière. ... Image File history File links Cquote2. ... Image File history File links Cquote1. ... Benjamin Franklin (January 17 [O.S. January 6] 1706 – April 17, 1790) was one of the most well known Founding Fathers of the United States. ... Image File history File links Cquote2. ...

See also

René Descartes (1596-1650) The Latin phrase cogito ergo sum (I think, therefore I am) is possibly the single best-known philosophical statement and is attributed to René Descartes. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (IPA: ) (April 26, 1889 – April 29, 1951) was an Austrian philosopher who contributed several ground-breaking works to contemporary philosophy, primarily on the foundations of logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of language, and the philosophy of mind. ... A skeptical hypothesis is a hypothetical situation that raises doubts about knowledge. ... In mathematics, specifically, in probability theory, the phrase almost surely is a concise, precise way to state except on a set or event of probability measure zero. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Certainty (2442 words)
Certainty is a lack of doubt about some state of affairs.
So it may be said that epistemic certainty is reducible to psychological certainty.
First, it is impossible to exclude absolute certainty in all cases.
Certainty - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (145 words)
Certainty is the state of being without doubt.
Meditations on First Philosophy is a famous pursuit of certainty by Descartes.
Epistemology is the study of knowledge, certainty and truth.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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