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Encyclopedia > Ceres (dwarf planet)
Ceres  
Discovery
Discovered by: Giuseppe Piazzi
Discovery date: January 1, 1801
MPC designation: 1 Ceres
Alternative names: A899 OF; 1943 XB
Minor planet category: dwarf planet
main belt
Orbital characteristics
Epoch November 26, 2005
(JD 2453700.5)[1]
Aphelion distance: 447,838,164 km
(2.987 AU)
Perihelion distance: 381,419,582 km
(2.544 AU)
Semi-major axis: 414,703,838 km
(2.766 AU)
Eccentricity: 0.080
Sidereal period: 1679.819 d (4.599 a)
Avg. orbital speed: 17.882 km/s
Mean anomaly: 108.509°
Inclination: 10.587°
Longitude of ascending node: 80.410°
Argument of perihelion: 73.271°
Physical characteristics
Dimensions: 975×909 km[2]
Mass: 9.46±0.04×1020 kg[3][4]
Mean density: 2.08 g/cm³[2]
Equatorial surface gravity: 0.27 m/s²
Escape velocity: 0.51 km/s
Sidereal rotation period: 0.3781 d (9.074 h)[5]
Albedo: 0.113[6]
Surface temp.:
   Kelvin
min mean max
~167 K[7] 239 K[7]
Spectral type: G[8]
Absolute magnitude: 3.34[6]

Ceres (IPA: [ˈsiɹiz], Latin: Cerēs), also designated 1 Ceres (see minor planet names), is the smallest dwarf planet in the Solar System and the only one located in the main asteroid belt. Its name is derived from the Roman goddess Ceres — the goddess of growing plants, the harvest, and of motherly love. It was discovered on January 1, 1801, by Giuseppe Piazzi. With a diameter of about 950 km, Ceres is by far the largest and most massive body in the asteroid belt, and contains approximately a third of the belt's total mass. Recent observations have revealed that it is spherical, unlike the irregular shapes of smaller bodies with less gravity. Image File history File links Ceres_symbol. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Ceres_optimized. ... Giuseppe Piazzi. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... Minor planet names, including those of asteroids and dwarf planets, are managed by the Minor Planet Center, a branch of the IAU. They consist, in their final form, of a number originally assigned in approximate order of discovery, now assigned only after the orbit is determined, coupled with a name... Provisional designation of in astronomy is the naming convention applied to astronomical objects immediately following their discovery. ... Artists impression of Pluto (background) and Charon (foreground). ... The asteroid belt is a region of the solar system falling roughly between the planets Mars and Jupiter where the greatest concentration of asteroid orbits can be found. ... Two bodies with a slight difference in mass orbiting around a common barycenter. ... In astronomy, an epoch is a moment in time for which celestial coordinates or orbital elements are specified. ... November 26 is the 330th day (331st on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Julian day or Julian day number (JDN) is the (integer) number of days that have elapsed since Monday, January 1, 4713 BC in the proleptic Julian calendar [1]. That day is counted as Julian day zero. ... A diagram of Keplerian orbital elements. ... The astronomical unit (AU or au or a. ... A diagram of Keplerian orbital elements. ... The semi-major axis of an ellipse In geometry, the term semi-major axis (also semimajor axis) is used to describe the dimensions of ellipses and hyperbolae. ... (This page refers to eccitricity in astrodynamics. ... The orbital period is the time it takes a planet (or another object) to make one full orbit. ... Look up day in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In astronomy, a Julian year is a unit of time defined as exactly 365. ... The orbital speed of a body, generally a planet, a natural satellite, an artificial satellite, or a multiple star, is the speed at which it orbits around the barycenter of a system, usually around a more massive body. ... Look up second in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In the study of orbital dynamics the mean anomaly is a measure of time, specific to the orbiting body p, which is a multiple of 2π radians at and only at periapsis. ... A degree (in full, a degree of arc, arc degree, or arcdegree), usually symbolized °, is a measurement of plane angle, representing 1/360 of a full rotation. ... Inclination in general is the angle between a reference plane and another plane or axis of direction. ... The Longitude of the ascending node (☊, also noted Ω) is one of the orbital elements used to specify the orbit of an object in space. ... The argument of periapsis (ω) is the orbital element describing the angle between an orbiting bodys ascending node (the point where the body crosses the plane of reference from South to North) and its periapsis (the point of closest approach to the central body), measured in the orbital plane and... Unsolved problems in physics: What causes anything to have mass? The U.S. National Prototype Kilogram, which currently serves as the primary standard for measuring mass in the U.S. Mass is the property of a physical object that quantifies the amount of matter and energy it is equivalent to. ... The U.S. National Prototype Kilogram, which currently serves as the primary standard for measuring mass in the U.S. It was assigned to the United States in 1889 and is periodically recertified and traceable to the primary international standard, The Kilogram, held at the Bureau International des Poids et... In physics, density is mass m per unit volume V. For the common case of a homogeneous substance, it is expressed as: where, in SI units: ρ (rho) is the density of the substance, measured in kg·m-3 m is the mass of the substance, measured in kg V is... A cubic centimetre (cm3) is an SI derived unit of volume, equal to the volume of a cube with side length of 1 centi metre. ... The surface gravity of a Killing horizon is the acceleration, as exerted at infinity, needed to keep an object at the horizon. ... Space Shuttle Atlantis launches on mission STS-71. ... On a prograde planet like the Earth, the sidereal day is shorter than the solar day. ... Albedo is the ratio of reflected to incident electromagnetic radiation power. ... Fig. ... The Kelvin scale is a thermodynamic (absolute) temperature scale where absolute zero—the lowest possible temperature where nothing could be colder and no heat energy remains in a substance—is defined as zero kelvin (0 K). ... The Kelvin scale is a thermodynamic (absolute) temperature scale where absolute zero—the lowest possible temperature where nothing could be colder and no heat energy remains in a substance—is defined as zero kelvin (0 K). ... G-type asteroid is a subdivision of C-type asteroids distinguished spectrally by differences in the ultraviolet absorption. ... In astronomy, absolute magnitude is the apparent magnitude, m, an object would have if it were at a standard luminosity distance away from us, in the absence of interstellar extinction. ... Not to be confused with the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Minor planet names, including those of asteroids and dwarf planets, are managed by the Minor Planet Center, a branch of the IAU. They consist, in their final form, of a number originally assigned in approximate order of discovery, now assigned only after the orbit is determined, coupled with a name... Artists impression of Pluto (background) and Charon (foreground). ... Major features of the Solar System (not to scale; from left to right): Pluto, Neptune, Uranus, Saturn, Jupiter, the asteroid belt, the Sun, Mercury, Venus, Earth and its Moon, and Mars. ... For details on the physical properties of bodies in the asteroid belt see Asteroid and Main-belt comet. ... Roman mythology, the mythological beliefs of the people of Ancient Rome, can be considered as having two parts. ... Statue of Ceres, the Roman goddess of agriculture A goddess is a female deity, in contrast with a male deity known as a god. Many cultures have goddesses. ... In Roman mythology, Ceres was the goddess of growing plants (particularly cereals) and of motherly love. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... Giuseppe Piazzi. ... The following is a collection of lists of noteworthy asteroids in the Solar system, sometimes also including minor planets beyond the orbit of Jupiter. ...

Contents

Name

Piazzi's Book "Della scoperta del nuovo pianeta Cerere Ferdinandea" outlining the discovery of Ceres
Piazzi's Book "Della scoperta del nuovo pianeta Cerere Ferdinandea" outlining the discovery of Ceres

Piazzi originally suggested the name Ceres Ferdinandea (Ital­ian, Cerere Ferdinan­dea) for this body, after both the mythological figure Ceres (Roman goddess of plants) and King Ferdinand III of Sicily.[9] "Ferdinandea" was not acceptable to other nations of the world and was thus dropped. Ceres was also called Hera for a short time in Germany. In Greece, it is called Δήμητρα (Demeter), after the goddess Ceres' Greek equivalent; in English usage, Demeter is the name of a different asteroid (1108 Demeter). Image File history File links Piazzi_Cerere. ... Image File history File links Piazzi_Cerere. ... In Roman mythology, Ceres was the goddess of growing plants (particularly cereals) and of motherly love. ... Roman mythology, the mythological beliefs of the people of Ancient Rome, can be considered as having two parts. ... King Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies (January 12, 1751 - January 4, 1825). ... In the Olympian pantheon of classical Greek Mythology, Hera (IPA pronunciation: ; Greek or ) was the wife and older sister of Zeus. ... Ceres (Demeter), allegory of August: detail of a fresco by Cosimo Tura, Palazzo Schifanoia, Ferrara, 1469-70 Demeter was a god of the ancient greeks. ... 1108 Demeter is an asteroid named after the Greek goddess of fertility, Demeter. ...


Due to the rarity of the usage, there is no consensus as to the proper adjectival form of the name, although the nonce forms Cerian and Cerean have been used in fiction. Grammatically, the form Cererean would be correct (cf. its genitive, Cereris). A nonce word is a word used only for the nonce—to meet a need that is not expected to recur. ... The genitive case is a grammatical case that indicates a relationship, primarily one of possession, between the noun in the genitive case and another noun. ...


Symbol

Ceres' astronomical symbol is a sickle, ( Sickle variant symbol of Ceres), similar to Venus' symbol ( Astronomical symbol of Venus) which is the female gender symbol and Venus' hand mirror. There have been several variants of the sickle design, including Old symbol of Ceres, Mirror variant symbol of Ceres and . Chinese Celestial symbols on an antique bronze mirror Astronomical symbols are symbols used to represent various celestial objects, theoretical constructs and observational events in astronomy. ... Using a sickle A Adam is a curved, hand-held agricultural tool typically used for harvesting grain crops before the advent of modern harvesting machinery. ... Image File history File links Ceres_symbol. ... Adjectives: Venusian or (rarely) Cytherean Atmosphere Surface pressure: 9. ... Image File history File links Venus_symbol. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Ceres2. ... Image File history File links 1_Ceres_(3). ...


Discovery

Piazzi was searching for a star listed by Francis Wollaston as Mayer 87 because it was not in Mayer's zodiacal catalogue in the position given. Instead, Piazzi found a moving star-like object, which he thought at first was a comet. Francis Wollaston (23 November 1731 - 31 October 1815) was an English priest and astronomer. ... Johann Tobias Mayer (17 February 1723 - 20 February 1762) was a German astronomer notable for his studies of the Moon. ... Comet Hale-Bopp Comet McNaught as seen from Swifts Creek, Victoria, Australia on 23 January 2007 A comet is a small body in the solar system that orbits the Sun and (at least occasionally) exhibits a coma (or atmosphere) and/or a tail â€” both primarily from the effects of...


Piazzi observed Ceres a total of 24 times, the final time on February 11, when illness interrupted. On January 24, 1801, Piazzi announced his discovery in letters to fellow astronomers, among them his fellow countryman, Barnaba Oriani of Milan. He reported it as a comet but "since its movement is so slow and rather uniform, it has occurred to me several times that it might be something better than a comet".[10] In April, Piazzi sent his complete observations to Oriani, Bode, and Lalande in Paris. The information was published in the September, 1801 issue of the Monatliche Correspondenz. February 11 is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 24 is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... Barnaba Oriani. ... Milan (Italian: ; Lombard: Milán (listen)) is one of the biggest cities in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. ... Johann Elert Bode Johann Elert Bode (January 19, 1747 – November 23, 1826) was a German astronomer known for his contribution to the Titius-Bode law and his works to determine the orbit of Uranus, for which he also suggested the name. ... Joseph Jérôme Lefrançais de Lalande (July 11, 1732 – April 4, 1807) was a French astronomer. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Floating not submerging) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ...


To recover Ceres, Carl Friedrich Gauss, then only 24 years old, developed a method of orbit determination from three observations. In only a few weeks, he predicted its path, and sent his results to Franz Xaver, Baron von Zach, the editor of the Monatliche Correspondenz. On December 31, 1801, von Zach and Heinrich W. M. Olbers unambiguously confirmed the recovery of Ceres.   (30 April 1777 – 23 February 1855) was a German mathematician and scientist of profound genius who contributed significantly to many fields, including number theory, analysis, differential geometry, geodesy, magnetism, astronomy, and optics. ... Franz Xaver, Baron Von Zach Baron Franz Xaver von Zach (Franz Xaver Freiherr von Zach) (June 4, 1754 - September 2, 1832) was a German/Hungarian astronomer born at Pest. ... December 31 is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... Categories: Astronomers stubs | 1758 births | 1840 deaths | German astronomers | German physicists | Lists of asteroids ...


Status

Ceres (left) in comparison with the Moon (right).
Ceres (left) in comparison with the Moon (right).

The classification of Ceres has changed more than once. At the time of its discovery it was considered a planet; it was classified as an asteroid for over 150 years; and was first classified a dwarf planet in 2006. Image File history File links Confronto_Ceres_Lua. ... Image File history File links Confronto_Ceres_Lua. ... Apparent magnitude: up to -12. ... The eight planets and three dwarf planets of the Solar System. ... 253 Mathilde, a C-type asteroid. ... Artists impression of Pluto (background) and Charon (foreground). ...


Johann Elert Bode believed Ceres to be the "missing planet" that Johann Daniel Titius had proposed to exist between Mars and Jupiter, at a distance of 419 million km (2.8 AU) from the Sun. Ceres was assigned a planetary symbol, and remained listed as a planet in astronomy books and tables (along with 2 Pallas, 3 Juno and 4 Vesta) for about half a century until further asteroids were discovered. However as further objects were discovered in the area it was realised that it represented the first of a class of many similar bodies. Sir William Herschel coined in 1802 the term asteroid ("star-like") for such bodies,[11] writing "they resemble small stars so much as hardly to be distinguished from them, even by very good telescopes".[12] As the first such body to be discovered, it was given the designation 1 Ceres under the modern system of asteroid numbering. Johann Elert Bode Johann Elert Bode (January 19, 1747 – November 23, 1826) was a German astronomer known for his contribution to the Titius-Bode law and his works to determine the orbit of Uranus, for which he also suggested the name. ... Johann Daniel Titius. ... Adjectives: Martian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ... Adjectives: Jovian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 20–200 kPa[4] (cloud layer) Composition: ~86% H2 ~13% Helium 0. ... 2 Pallas (pal-us, Greek Παλλάς) was the first asteroid discovered after 1 Ceres. ... 3 Juno (jew-noe (key)) was the third asteroid to be discovered and is one of the largest main belt asteroids, being the heaviest of the stony S-type. ... 4 Vesta (ves-ta) is the second most massive asteroid in the asteroid belt, with a mean diameter of about 530 km and an estimated mass 12% the mass of the entire asteroid belt. ... William Herschel Sir Frederick William Herschel, FRS KH (15 November 1738-25 August 1822) was a German-born British astronomer and composer who became famous for discovering the planet Uranus. ... 253 Mathilde, a C-type asteroid. ...


The 2006 debate surrounding Pluto and what constitutes a 'planet' led to Ceres being considered for reclassification as a planet. An unsuccessful proposal before the International Astronomical Union for the definition of a planet would have defined a planet as "a celestial body that (a) has sufficient mass for its self-gravity to overcome rigid body forces so that it assumes a hydrostatic equilibrium (nearly round) shape, and (b) is in orbit around a star, and is neither a star nor a satellite of a planet".[13][14] Had this resolution been adopted, this would have made Ceres the fifth planet in order from the Sun.[15] This draft definition was not accepted, and in its place an alternate definition of "planet" came into effect as of August 24, 2006. Under this definition, a 'planet' is "a celestial body that is in orbit around the sun, has sufficient mass for its self-gravity to overcome rigid body forces so that it assumes a ... nearly round shape, and has cleared the neighborhood around its orbit." By this definition, Ceres (along with Pluto) cannot be classified as a planet, and both are now classified as "dwarf planets", although it remains unclear as to whether or not it is also classified as an asteroid.[16] Adjectives: Plutonian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ... Logo of the IAU The International Astronomical Union (French: Union astronomique internationale) unites national astronomical societies from around the world. ... Although planets are the principal component of the solar system other than the Sun, a precise definition of the term is surprisingly elusive. ... Photograph of the planet Neptune and its moon Triton, taken by Voyager 2 as it entered the outer solar system. ... August 24 is the 236th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (237th in leap years), with 129 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Artists impression of Pluto (background) and Charon (foreground). ...


Orbit

Orbit of Ceres
Orbit of Ceres

Ceres follows an orbit between Mars and Jupiter, within the main asteroid belt, with a period of 4.6 years. The orbit is moderately inclined (i=10.6° to be compared with 7° for Mercury and 17° for Pluto) and moderately eccentric (e=0.08 to compare with 0.09 for Mars). Image File history File links Ceres_Orbit. ... Image File history File links Ceres_Orbit. ... For details on the physical properties of bodies in the asteroid belt see Asteroid and Main-belt comet. ... (This page refers to eccitricity in astrodynamics. ...


The diagram illustrates the orbits of Ceres (blue) and several planets (white/grey). The segments of orbits below the ecliptic are plotted in darker colours, and the orange plus sign is the Sun's location. The top left diagram is a polar view that shows the location of Ceres in the gap between Mars and Jupiter. The top right is a close-up demonstrating the locations of the perihelia (q) and aphelia (Q) of Ceres and Mars. Interestingly, the perihelia of Ceres (as well as those of several other of the largest main belt asteroids) and Mars are on the opposite sides of the Sun. The bottom diagram is a perspective view showing the inclination of the orbit of Ceres compared to the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. This article is about several astronomical terms (apogee & perigee, aphelion & perihelion, generic equivalents based on apsis, and related but rarer terms. ... This article is about several astronomical terms (apogee & perigee, aphelion & perihelion, generic equivalents based on apsis, and related but rarer terms. ...


Physical characteristics

Hubble Space Telescope images of Ceres, taken in 2003/4 with a resolution of about 30 km. The nature of the bright spot is uncertain. A movie was also made.
Hubble Space Telescope images of Ceres, taken in 2003/4 with a resolution of about 30 km. The nature of the bright spot is uncertain. A movie was also made.[17]
Hubble Space Telescope UV image of Ceres, taken in 1995 with a resolution of about 60 km. The "Piazzi" feature is the dark spot in the center.
Hubble Space Telescope UV image of Ceres, taken in 1995 with a resolution of about 60 km. The "Piazzi" feature is the dark spot in the center.

Ceres is the largest object in the asteroid belt, which mostly lies between Mars and Jupiter. However, it is not the largest object besides the Sun, planets and their satellites, in the solar system: the Kuiper belt is known to contain larger objects, including Eris, Pluto, 50000 Quaoar, 90482 Orcus, and 90377 Sedna. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (880x781, 93 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): 1 Ceres User:Scott3/planet ceres ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (880x781, 93 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): 1 Ceres User:Scott3/planet ceres ... The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a telescope in orbit around the Earth, named after astronomer Edwin Hubble. ... Hubble Space Telescope ultraviolet image of asteroid 1 Ceres This image shows features as small as 50 km across, including the dark spot in the middle, dubbed Piazzi. ... Hubble Space Telescope ultraviolet image of asteroid 1 Ceres This image shows features as small as 50 km across, including the dark spot in the middle, dubbed Piazzi. ... The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a telescope in orbit around the Earth, named after astronomer Edwin Hubble. ... UV redirects here. ... For details on the physical properties of bodies in the asteroid belt see Asteroid and Main-belt comet. ... Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun in the solar system, named after the Roman god of war (the counterpart of the Greek Ares), on account of its blood red color as viewed in the night sky. ... Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 70 kPa Hydrogen ~86% Helium ~14% Methane 0. ... Artists rendering of the Kuiper Belt and hypothetical more distant Oort cloud. ... Absolute magnitude: −1. ... Adjectives: Plutonian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ... Artists impression by G. Bacon of STScI / NASA 50000 Quaoar (pronounced kwah·war, kwah·wor, or kwow·ur, Tongva ) [1] is a Trans-Neptunian object orbiting the Sun in the Edgeworth-Kuiper belt. ... 90482 Orcus (originally known by the provisional designation 2004 DW) is a Kuiper Belt object (KBO) that was discovered by Michael Brown of Caltech, Chad Trujillo of the Gemini Observatory, and David Rabinowitz of Yale University. ... 90377 Sedna is a trans-Neptunian object, discovered by Michael Brown (Caltech), Chad Trujillo (Gemini Observatory) and David Rabinowitz (Yale University) on November 14, 2003. ...


At certain points in its orbit, Ceres can reach a visual magnitude of 7.0. This is generally regarded as being just barely too dim to be seen with the naked eye, but under exceptional viewing conditions a very sharp-sighted person may be able to see the asteroid with the naked eye. The only other asteroids that can reach so bright a magnitude are 4 Vesta, and, during rare oppositions near perihelion, 2 Pallas and 7 Iris[18] 4 Vesta (ves-ta) is the second most massive asteroid in the asteroid belt, with a mean diameter of about 530 km and an estimated mass 12% the mass of the entire asteroid belt. ... 2 Pallas (pal-us, Greek Παλλάς) was the first asteroid discovered after 1 Ceres. ... 7 Iris (eye-ris) is one of the largest main belt asteroids. ...


Ceres' size and mass are sufficient to give it a nearly spherical shape. That is, it is close to hydrostatic equilibrium. Other large asteroids such as 2 Pallas, 3 Juno, and 4 Vesta are known to be quite irregular, while lightcurve analysis of 10 Hygiea indicates it is oblong although it appears spheroidal in low-resolution images (presumably due to viewing angle). Hydrostatic equilibrium occurs when compression due to gravity is balanced by a pressure gradient which creates a pressure gradient force in the opposite direction. ... 2 Pallas (pal-us, Greek Παλλάς) was the first asteroid discovered after 1 Ceres. ... 3 Juno (jew-noe (key)) was the third asteroid to be discovered and is one of the largest main belt asteroids, being the heaviest of the stony S-type. ... 4 Vesta (ves-ta) is the second most massive asteroid in the asteroid belt, with a mean diameter of about 530 km and an estimated mass 12% the mass of the entire asteroid belt. ... 10 Hygiea (hye-jee-a or hi-jee-a) is the fourth largest Main belt asteroid with a diameter of 407 km. ...


With a mass of 9.5 ×1020 kg, Ceres comprises about a third of the estimated total 3.0 ± 0.2 ×1021 kg mass of all the asteroids in the solar system,[3] together totalling about 4% of the mass of the Moon). Apparent magnitude: up to -12. ...


There are some indications that the surface of Ceres is relatively warm and that it may have a tenuous atmosphere and frost. The maximum temperature with the Sun overhead was estimated from measurements to be 235 K (about -38°C) on May 5, 1991.[7] Taking into account also the heliocentric distance at the time, this gives an estimated maximum of ~239 K at perihelion. Atmosphere is the general name for a layer of gases that may surround a material body of sufficient mass. ... Frost on black pipes Frost is a solid deposition of water vapor from saturated air. ... The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System. ... The Kelvin scale is a thermodynamic (absolute) temperature scale where absolute zero—the lowest possible temperature where nothing could be colder and no heat energy remains in a substance—is defined as zero kelvin (0 K). ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... May 5 is the 125th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (126th in leap years). ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In astronomy, heliocentrism is the theory that the Sun is at the center of the Universe and/or the Solar System. ... This article is about several astronomical terms (apogee & perigee, aphelion & perihelion, generic equivalents based on apsis, and related but rarer terms. ...

Diagram showing differentiated layers of Ceres
Diagram showing differentiated layers of Ceres

A study led by Peter Thomas of Cornell University suggests that Ceres has a differentiated interior: observations coupled with computer models suggest the presence of a rocky core overlain with an icy mantle. This mantle of thickness from 120 to 60 km could contain 200 million cubic kilometres of water, which is more than the amount of fresh water on the Earth.[19][2] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1200x963, 358 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): 1 Ceres Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1200x963, 358 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): 1 Ceres Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Cornell University is a private university located in Ithaca, New York, USA. Its two medical campuses are in New York City and in Education City, Qatar. ... Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ... For the village on the Isle of Wight, see Freshwater, Isle of Wight. ...


There has been some ambiguity regarding surface features on Ceres. Low resolution ultraviolet Hubble Space Telescope images taken in 1995 showed a dark spot on its surface which was nicknamed "Piazzi" in honour of the discoverer of Ceres. This was thought to be a crater. Later images with a higher resolution taken over a whole rotation with the Keck telescope using adaptive optics showed no sign of "Piazzi". However, two dark features were seen to move with the asteroid's rotation, one with a bright central region. These are presumably craters. More recent visible light Hubble Space Telescope images of a full rotation taken in 2003 and 2004 show an enigmatic white spot, the nature of which is currently unknown.[20] The dark albedo features seen with Keck are, however, not immediately recognizable in these images. UV redirects here. ... The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a telescope in orbit around the Earth, named after astronomer Edwin Hubble. ... The Mauna Kea Observatory, an institute of the University of Hawaii, is considered one of the most important land-based observatories in the world for its isolated, unobstructed views of space without interference from man-made light sources. ... A deformable mirror can be used to correct wavefront errors in an astronomical telescope. ... The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a telescope in orbit around the Earth, named after astronomer Edwin Hubble. ...


These last observations also determined that Ceres' north pole points (give or take about 5°) in the direction of right ascension 19 h 24 min, declination +59°, in the constellation Draco. This means that Ceres' axial tilt is very small (about 4±5°).[2] Equatorial Coordinates Right ascension (abbrev. ... In astronomy, declination (abbrev. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Draco (IPA: , Latin: ) is a far northern constellation that is circumpolar for many northern hemisphere observers. ... Axial tilt is an astronomical term regarding the inclination angle of a planets rotational axis in relation to its orbital plane. ...


Ceres was long thought to be the parent body of the "Ceres asteroid family". However, that grouping is now defunct because Ceres has been shown to be an interloper in its "own" family, and physically unrelated. The bulk of that asteroid group is now called the Gefion family. Minor planet is the official term for asteroids and trans-Neptunian objects. ... The Gefion family of asteroids is a grouping of S-type asteroids in the intermediate main belt. ...


Observations

Some notable observation milestones for Ceres include:


An occultation of a star by Ceres was observed in Mexico, Florida and across the Caribbean on November 13, 1984. In this July, 1997 still frame captured from video, the bright star Aldebaran has just reappeared on the dark limb of the waning crescent moon in this predawn occultation. ... STAR is an acronym for: Organizations Society for Telescopy, Astronomy, and Radio, a non-profit New Jersey astronomy club. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ... West Indian redirects here. ... November 13 is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 48 days remaining. ... 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Features on Ceres' surface have been telescopically imaged several times in recent years.


These include:

Radio signals from spacecraft in orbit around Mars and on its surface have been used to estimate the mass of Ceres from the perturbations induced by it onto the motion of Mars.[3] UV redirects here. ... The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a telescope in orbit around the Earth, named after astronomer Edwin Hubble. ... The Mauna Kea Observatory, an institute of the University of Hawaii, is considered one of the most important land-based observatories in the world for its isolated, unobstructed views of space without interference from man-made light sources. ... A deformable mirror can be used to correct wavefront errors in an astronomical telescope. ... Image of two girls in mid-infrared (thermal) light (false-color) Infrared (IR) radiation is electromagnetic radiation of a wavelength longer than that of visible light, but shorter than that of radio waves. ... The Mauna Kea Observatory, an institute of the University of Hawaii, is considered one of the most important land-based observatories in the world for its isolated, unobstructed views of space without interference from man-made light sources. ... A deformable mirror can be used to correct wavefront errors in an astronomical telescope. ... The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a telescope in orbit around the Earth, named after astronomer Edwin Hubble. ... Adjectives: Martian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ...


Exploration of Ceres

Artist's conception of Dawn visiting Ceres and Vesta.
Artist's conception of Dawn visiting Ceres and Vesta.

To date no space probes have visited Ceres. However, NASA is currently preparing the Dawn Mission for a launch window that opens up on June 30, 2007. According to the current mission profile, Dawn is expected to explore the asteroid 4 Vesta in 2011 before arriving at Ceres in 2015. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1500x1147, 950 KB) Dawn spacecraft (final configuration) Source: http://dawn. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1500x1147, 950 KB) Dawn spacecraft (final configuration) Source: http://dawn. ... The NASA worm logo. ... The Dawn Mission is a NASA mission currently under development to send an orbiting, robotic space probe to examine the two most massive members of the asteroid belt, the dwarf planet Ceres and the asteroid Vesta. ... 4 Vesta (ves-ta) is the second most massive asteroid in the asteroid belt, with a mean diameter of about 530 km and an estimated mass 12% the mass of the entire asteroid belt. ...


Namesakes

  • The chemical element cerium (atomic number 58) was discovered in 1803 by Berzelius and Klaproth, working independently. Berzelius named the element after Ceres.[25]
  • William Hyde Wollaston discovered palladium (atomic number 46) as early as 1802 and at first called it Ceresium. By the time he openly published his discovery in 1805, the name was already taken (by Berzelius) and he switched it to palladium in honour of 2 Pallas.[26]

General Name, Symbol, Number cerium, Ce, 58 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 140. ... Jöns Jakob Berzelius Statue of Berzelius in the centre of Berzelii Park, Stockholm Jöns Jakob Berzelius (August 20, 1779 - August 7, 1848) was a Swedish chemist. ... Martin Heinrich Klaproth Martin Heinrich Klaproth (December 1, 1743 – January 1, 1817) was a German chemist. ... William Hyde Wollaston William Hyde Wollaston FRS (August 6, 1766 – December 22, 1828) was an English chemist and physicist who is famous for discovering two chemical elements and for developing a way to process platinum ore. ... General Name, Symbol, Number palladium, Pd, 46 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 5, d Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 106. ... 2 Pallas (pal-us, Greek Παλλάς) was the first asteroid discovered after 1 Ceres. ...

See also

Solar System Portal

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x1274, 113 KB) Original caption released with image This is a montage of planetary images taken by spacecraft managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, CA. Included are (from top to bottom) images of Mercury, Venus, Earth (and Moon), Mars... Ceres As the largest body in the asteroid belt, the dwarf planet Ceres (formally 1 Ceres) frequently appears in science fiction: Mentioned in passing in Robert A. Heinleins The Cat Who Walks Through Walls, Podkayne of Mars, Red Planet and Time for the Stars. ... The table below lists Solar System bodies formerly considered to be planets: ^ Recently (2006) reclassified as a dwarf planet. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Colonization of the asteroids. ... Artists impression of Pluto (background) and Charon (foreground). ...

References

  1. ^ Ted Bowell, Bruce v (January 2, 2003). Asteroid Observing Services. Lowell Observatory. Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
  2. ^ a b c d P. C. Thomas et al Differentiation of the asteroid Ceres as revealed by its shape, Nature, Vol. 437, pp. 224 (2005).
  3. ^ a b c Pitjeva, E. V. (2005). "High-Precision Ephemerides of Planets—EPM and Determination of Some Astronomical Constants" (PDF). Solar System Research 39 (3): 176. DOI:10.1007/s11208-005-0033-2. 
  4. ^ D. T. Britt et al Asteroid density, porosity, and structure, pp. 488 in Asteroids III, University of Arizona Press (2002).
  5. ^ Harris, A. W.; Warner, B.D.; Pravec, P.; Eds. (2006). Asteroid Lightcurve Derived Data. EAR-A-5-DDR-DERIVED-LIGHTCURVE-V8.0.. NASA Planetary Data System. Retrieved on 2007-03-15.
  6. ^ a b Tedesco, E.F.; Noah, P.V.; Noah, M.; Price, S.D. (2004). IRAS Minor Planet Survey. IRAS-A-FPA-3-RDR-IMPS-V6.0.. NASA Planetary Data System. Retrieved on 2007-03-15.
  7. ^ a b c O. Saint-Pé Ceres surface properties by high-resolution imaging from earth, Icarus, vol. 105 pp. 271 (1993).
  8. ^ Neese, C.; Ed. (2005). Asteroid Taxonomy.EAR-A-5-DDR-TAXONOMY-V5.0.. NASA Planetary Data System. Retrieved on 2007-03-15.
  9. ^ Hoskin, Michael. Bodes' Law and the Discovery of Ceres. Osservatorio Astronomico Di Palermo Giuseppe S. Vaiana. Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
  10. ^ Hoskin, Michael. 8. Piazzi and the Discovery of Ceres. Bode's Law and the Disovery of Ceres. Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Giuseppe S. Vaiana. Retrieved on 2006-08-16.
  11. ^ Hilton, Dr. J. L. (September 17, 2001). When Did the Asteroids Become Minor Planets?. Retrieved on 2006-08-16.
  12. ^ Herschel, William (May 6, 1802). Observations on the two lately discovered celestial Bodies..
  13. ^ http://www.iau2006.org/mirror/www.iau.org/iau0601/iau0601_release.html
  14. ^ http://www.latimes.com/news/science/la-sci-planets16aug16,0,3652893.story?coll=la-home-headlines?invade Proposal would increase from 9 to 12
  15. ^ http://www.spacedaily.com/reports/The_IAU_Draft_Definition_Of_Planets_And_Plutons_999.html
  16. ^ http://www.iau2006.org/mirror/www.iau.org/iau0603/iau0603_Q_A2.html "Ceres was an asteroid" - but note it then talks about "other asteroids" crossing Ceres' path.
  17. ^ Cooke, Bill. "An icy interior for Ceres?", Astronomy, September 12, 2005. movie credit J. Parker, Southwest Research Institute
  18. ^ Martinez, Patrick, The Observer's Guide to Astronomy, page 298. Published 1994 by Cambridge University Press
  19. ^ "Largest Asteroid Might Contain More Fresh Water than Earth", SPACE.com, 07 September 2005. Retrieved on 2006-08-16.
  20. ^ a b "Largest Asteroid May Be 'Mini Planet' with Water Ice", HubbleSite, September 7, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-08-16.
  21. ^ Observations reveal curiosities on the surface of asteroid Ceres. Retrieved on 2006-08-16.
  22. ^ J. W. Parker et al Analysis of the first disk-resolved images of Ceres from ultraviolet observations with the Hubble Space Telescope, The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 123 pp. 549 (2002).
  23. ^ http://s1.simpload.com/10034341d7edcf588.jpg
  24. ^ Keck Adaptive Optics Images the Dwarf Planet Ceres
  25. ^ Cerium Historical Information. Retrieved on 2006-08-21.
  26. ^ Amalgamator Features 2003: 200 Years Ago. Retrieved on 2006-08-21.

James Lindsay Hilton (born February 21, 1957) has been an astronomer at the United States Naval Observatory since 1986. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... March 20 is the 79th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (80th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... January 17 is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Elena Vladimirovna Pitjeva is a Russian theoretical physicist at the Institute of Applied Astronomy, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The Planetary Data System (PDS) is a distributed data system that NASA uses to archive data collected by Solar System robotic missions managed by NASA Headquarters Planetary Sciences Division. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... March 15 is the 74th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (75th in leap years). ... The Planetary Data System (PDS) is a distributed data system that NASA uses to archive data collected by Solar System robotic missions managed by NASA Headquarters Planetary Sciences Division. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... March 15 is the 74th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (75th in leap years). ... The Planetary Data System (PDS) is a distributed data system that NASA uses to archive data collected by Solar System robotic missions managed by NASA Headquarters Planetary Sciences Division. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... March 15 is the 74th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (75th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... January 17 is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 16 is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... James Lindsay Hilton (born February 21, 1957) has been an astronomer at the United States Naval Observatory since 1986. ... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 16 is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... May 6 is the 126th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (127th in leap years). ... --69. ... September 12 is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 16 is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... September 7 is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 16 is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 16 is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 21 is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 21 is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Minor planets
(asteroid navigator) 1 Ceres Next minor planet
List of asteroids
 v  d  e The Solar System
The Sun Mercury Venus The Moon Earth Phobos and Deimos Mars Ceres The asteroid belt Jupiter Jupiter's natural satellites Saturn Saturn's natural satellites Uranus Uranus' natural satellites Neptune's natural satellites Neptune Charon, Nix, and Hydra Pluto The Kuiper belt Dysnomia Eris The scattered disc The Oort cloud
The Sun · Mercury · Venus · Earth · Mars · Ceres · Jupiter · Saturn · Uranus · Neptune · Pluto · Eris
Planets · Dwarf planets · Moons: Terrestrial · Martian · Asteroidal · Jovian · Saturnian · Uranian · Neptunian · Plutonian · Eridian
Small bodies:   Meteoroids · Asteroids (Asteroid belt) · Centaurs · TNOs (Kuiper belt/Scattered disc) · Comets (Oort cloud)
See also astronomical objects, the solar system's list of objects, sorted by radius or mass, and the Astronomy Portal

Minor planets, or asteroids or planetoids, are minor celestial bodies of the Solar system orbiting the Sun (mostly Small solar system bodies) that are smaller than major planets, but larger than meteoroids (commonly defined as being 10 meters across or less[1]), and that are not comets. ... 2 Pallas (pal-us, Greek Παλλάς) was the first asteroid discovered after 1 Ceres. ... This is a list of numbered minor planets, nearly all of the asteroids, in sequential order. ... Major features of the Solar System (not to scale; from left to right): Pluto, Neptune, Uranus, Saturn, Jupiter, the asteroid belt, the Sun, Mercury, Venus, Earth and its Moon, and Mars. ... The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Adjectives: Venusian or (rarely) Cytherean Atmosphere Surface pressure: 9. ... Adjectives: Terrestrial, Terran, Telluric, Tellurian, Earthly Atmosphere Surface pressure: 101. ... Adjectives: Martian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ... Adjectives: Jovian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 20–200 kPa[4] (cloud layer) Composition: ~86% H2 ~13% Helium 0. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Adjectives: Uranian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 120 kPa (at the cloud level) Composition: 83% Hydrogen 15% Helium 1. ... Adjectives: Neptunian Atmosphere Surface pressure: (?)≫(?) 100 kPa : is asked the pressure at the cloud level. ... Adjectives: Plutonian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ... Absolute magnitude: −1. ... The eight planets and three dwarf planets of the Solar System. ... Artists impression of Pluto (background) and Charon (foreground). ... A natural satellite is an object that orbits a planet or other body larger than itself and which is not man-made. ... Apparent magnitude: up to -12. ... The relative sizes of and distance between Mars, Phobos, and Deimos, to scale. ... 243 Ida and its moon Dactyl An asteroid moon is an asteroid that orbits another asteroid. ... Some of Jupiters moons and their highly inclined orbits Jupiter has 63 known natural satellites. ... The Saturnian system (photographic montage) Saturn has fifty-six confirmed natural satellites, plus three unconfirmed moons. ... Uranus has 27 known moons. ... Neptune (top) and Triton (bottom), 3 days after Voyager 2 flyby Neptune has 9 known moons. ... The planet Pluto has three known moons. ... Dysnomia (officially designated (136199) Eris I Dysnomia) is a moon of the dwarf planet Eris. ... A Small Solar System Body (SSSB) is a term defined in 2006 by the International Astronomical Union to describe objects in the Solar System that are neither planets nor dwarf planets: [1] This encompasses: all minor planets apart from the dwarf planets, : the classical asteroids, (except for 1 Ceres, the... It has been suggested that bolide be merged into this article or section. ... 253 Mathilde, a C-type asteroid. ... For details on the physical properties of bodies in the asteroid belt see Asteroid and Main-belt comet. ... The centaurs are a class of icy planetoids that orbit the Sun between Jupiter and Neptune, named after the mythical race of centaurs. ... A trans-Neptunian object (TNO) is any object in the solar system that orbits the sun at a greater distance on average than Neptune. ... Artists rendering of the Kuiper Belt and hypothetical more distant Oort cloud. ... The scattered disc (or scattered disk) is a distant region of our solar system, thinly populated by icy planetoids known as scattered disk objects (SDOs), a subset of the broader family of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs). ... Comet Hale-Bopp Comet McNaught as seen from Swifts Creek, Victoria, Australia on 23 January 2007 A comet is a small body in the solar system that orbits the Sun and (at least occasionally) exhibits a coma (or atmosphere) and/or a tail â€” both primarily from the effects of... This image is an artists rendering of the Oort cloud and the Kuiper Belt. ... See also Lists of astronomical objects Category: ... Below is a list of solar system objects with diameter >500km: The Sun, a spectral class G2 star Mercury Venus Earth Moon Mars Jupiter Io Europa Ganymede Callisto complete list of Jupiters natural satellites Saturn Tethys Dione Rhea Titan Iapetus complete list of Saturns natural satellites Uranus Ariel... This is a list of solar system objects by radius, arranged in descending order of mean volumetric radius. ... This is a list of Solar system objects by mass, in decreasing order. ...


 
 

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