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Encyclopedia > Cerebrospinal fluid

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), Liquor cerebrospinalis, is a clear bodily fluid that occupies the subarachnoid space in the brain (the space between the skull and the cerebral cortex—more specifically, between the arachnoid and pia layers of the meninges). It is an approximately isotonic solution with microglia and acts as a "cushion" or buffer for the cortex. Bodily fluids are fluids, which are generally excreted or secreted from the human body. ... The meninges (singular meninx) are the system of membranes that contain the brain. ... In animals the brain, or encephalon (Greek for in the head), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for thought. ... It has been suggested that temporal fenestra be merged into this article or section. ... Location of the cerebral cortex Slice of the cerebral cortex, ca. ... The arachnoid layer is the second or middle layer of the meninges, the membranes surrounding the brain. ... [www. ... The meninges (singular meninx) are the system of membranes that envelop the central nervous system. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Microglia are a type of glial cell that act as the immune cells of the Central nervous system (CNS). ...

Contents

Physiology

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) at glance.

Cerebrospinal fluid also occupies the ventricular system of the brain and the spinal cord. It is a prime example of the separation of brain function from the rest of the body, as all CSF is generated locally in the brain. It is produced by the choroid plexus which is formed by specialized ependymal cells. The choroid plexus enter the lateral ventricles through the choroid fissure, along the line of the fimbria/fornix, and the third and fourth ventricle through their roofs. The CSF formed by the choroid plexuses in the ventricles, circulates through the interventricular foramina (foramen of Monro) into the third ventricle and then via the mesencephalic duct (cerebral aqueduct) into the fourth ventricle, whence it exits through two lateral apertures (foramina of Luschka) and one median aperture (foramen of Magendie). It then flows through the cerebromedullary cistern down the spinal cord and over the cerebral hemispheres. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 444 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1037 × 1400 pixel, file size: 402 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Design & Production: Kosi Gramatikoff User:Kosigrim; CSF poster (intro page). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 444 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1037 × 1400 pixel, file size: 402 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Design & Production: Kosi Gramatikoff User:Kosigrim; CSF poster (intro page). ... The ventricular system is a set of structures in the brain continuous with the central canal of the spinal cord. ... The Spinal cord nested in the vertebral column. ... The choroid plexus is the area on the ventricles of the brain where cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced. ... The choroid plexus is the area on the ventricles of the brain where cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced. ... The interventricular foramen (aka the foramen of Monro) joins the lateral ventricles of the brain with the anterior third ventricle. ... The third ventricle is one of the four connected fluid-filled cavities within the human brain. ... The mesencephalic duct, also known as the aqueduct of Silvius or the cerebral aqueduct, contains cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), is within the mesencephalon (or midbrain) and connects the third ventricle in the thalamus (or diencephalon) to the fourth ventricle, which is between the pons and cerebellum. ... The fourth ventricle is one of the four connected fluid-filled cavities within the human brain. ... The two lateral apertures (or foramina of Luschka), along with the median aperture, comprise the three openings in the roof of the fourth ventricle. ... ...


Traditionally, it has been thought that CSF returns to the vascular system by entering the dural venous sinuses via the arachnoid granulations. However, some have suggested that CSF flow along the cranial nerves and spinal nerve roots allow it into the lymphatic channels and that this flow may play a substantial role in CSF reabsorbtion, particularly in the neonate (in which arachnoid granulations are sparsely distributed). [1] The dural venous sinuses (also called dural sinuses or cerebral sinuses) are venous channels found between layers of dura mater in the brain. ... Arachnoid granulations (and arachnoid villi) are small protrusions of the arachnoid (the thin second layer covering the brain) through the dura (the thick outer layer). ... Cranial nerves Cranial nerves are nerves that emerge directly from the brain in contrast to spinal nerves which emerge from segments of the spinal cord. ...


The cerebrospinal fluid is produced by the ventricles (mostly the lateral ventricles) at a rate of 500 ml/day. Since the volume that may be contained by the brain is of 150 ml, it is frequently replaced (3-4 times per day turnover), exceeding amounts getting into the blood. This continuous flow through the ventricular system into the subarachnoid space and finally exiting into the venous system provides somewhat of a "sink" that reduces the concentration of larger, lipoinsoluble molecules penetrating into the brain and CSF. (Saunders et al., 1999)


The CSF contains approximately 0.3% plasma proteins, also being 15 to 40 mg/dL, depending on sampling site. (Felgenhauer, 1974)


Pathology

The cerebrospinal fluid has many putative roles including mechanical protection of the brain, distribution of neuroendocrine factors, and facilitation of pulsatile cerebral blood flow. Understanding cardiovascular dynamics is valuable as the flow pattern of arterial blood must be tightly regulated within the brain in order to ensure consistent brain oxygenation. As there is limited space for expansion in the skull, CSF pressure (as total intracranial pressure) effects the arterial profusion to the brain. When CSF pressure is elevated, cerebral blood flow may be diminished. When disorders of CSF flow occur, they may therefore impact not only CSF movement, but also the intracranial blood flow, with subsequent neuronal and glial vulnerabilities. The venous system is also important in this equation. Infants and patients shunted as small children may have particularly unexpected relationships between pressure and ventricular size, possibly due in part to venous pressure dynamics. This may have significant treatment implications but the underlying pathophysiology needs to be further explored. redirect Template:Db-reason synaptophysin ... Cerebral blood flow, or CBF, is the amount of blood that enters the brain. ... Oxygenation refers to the amount of oxygen in a medium. ... Cerebral blood flow, or CBF, is the amount of blood that enters the brain. ...


CSF connections with the lymphatic system have been demonstrated in several mammalian systems. Preliminary data suggest that these CSF-lymph connections form around the time that the CSF secretory capacity of the choroid plexus is developing (in utero). There may be some relationship between CSF disorders, including hydrocephalus and impaired CSF lymphatic transport. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Subclasses Subclass Allotheria* Order Docodonta (extinct) Order Multituberculata (extinct) Order Palaeoryctoides (extinct) Order Triconodonta (extinct) Order Volaticotheria (extinct) Subclass Prototheria Order Monotremata Subclass Theria Infraclass Trituberculata (extinct) Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals are a class of vertebrate animals characterized by the production of milk in females for the nourishment of... The choroid plexus is the area on the ventricles of the brain where cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced. ... The uterus or womb is the major female reproductive organ of most mammals, including humans. ...


Diagnosis and therapy

Cerebrospinal fluid can be tested for the diagnosis of a variety of neurological diseases. It is usually obtained by a procedure called lumbar puncture in an attempt to count the cells in the fluid and to detect the levels of protein and glucose. These parameters alone may be extremely beneficial in the diagnosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage and central nervous system infections (such as meningitis). Moreover, a cerebrospinal fluid culture examination may yield the microorganism that has caused the infection. By using more sophisticated methods, such as the detection of the oligoclonal bands, an ongoing inflammatory condition (for example, multiple sclerosis) can be recognized. A beta-2 transferrin assay is highly specific and sensitive for the detection for e.g. cerebrospinal fluid leakage. Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the central and peripheral nervous systems. ... A patient undergoes a lumbar puncture at the hands of a neurologist. ... A subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is bleeding into the subarachnoid space surrounding the brain, i. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... Meningitis is the inflammation of the protective membranes covering the central nervous system, known collectively as the meninges. ... A microbiological culture is a way to determine the cause of infectious disease by letting the agent multiply (reproduce) in predetermined media. ... A cluster of Escherichia coli bacteria magnified 10,000 times. ... Oligoclonal bands are a about two to five bands of immunoglobulins on protein electrophoresis of cerebrospinal fluid. ... Beta-2 transferrin is a carbohydrate-free (desialated) isoform of transferrin, which is almost only found in the cerebrospinal fluid. ...


Lumbar puncture can also be performed to measure the intracranial pressure, which might be increased in certain types of hydrocephalus. Intracranial pressure, (ICP), is the pressure exerted by the cranium on the brain tissue, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and the brains circulating blood volume. ...


This fluid has an importance in anethesiology. Baricity refers to the density of a substance compared to the density of human cerebral spinal fluid. Baricity is used in anesthesia to determine the manner in which a particular drug will spread in the intrathecal space. Baricity refers to the density of a substance compared to the density of human cerebral spinal fluid. ... Anesthesia or anaesthesia (see spelling differences) has traditionally meant the condition of having the perception of pain and other sensations blocked. ... Intrathecal: Delivered into the spinal canal (intrathecal space surrounding the spinal cord), as in a spinal anaesthesia. ...

List of bones of the human skeleton Human anatomy is primarily the scientific study of the morphology of the adult human body. ... The meninges (singular meninx) are the system of membranes that envelop the central nervous system. ... In animals the brain, or encephalon (Greek for in the head), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for thought. ... The Spinal cord nested in the vertebral column. ... The dura mater (from the Latin hard mother), or pachymeninx, is the tough and inflexible outermost of the three layers of the meninges surrounding the brain. ... The falx cerebri (Latin: scythe of the brain) is an extension of the protective dura mater that projects into the longitudinal fissure that seperates the two cerebral hemispheres. ... The tentorium cerebelli (Latin: tent of the cerebellum) is an extension of the dura mater that seperates the cerebellum from the inferior portion of the occipital lobes. ... The falx cerebelli is a small triangular process of dura mater, received into the posterior cerebellar notch. ... The Arachnoid mater is one of the three layers of the meninges, interposed between the dura mater and the pia mater and separated from the pia mater by the subarachnoid space. ... Arachnoid granulations (and arachnoid villi) are small protrusions of the arachnoid (the thin second layer covering the brain) through the dura (the thick outer layer). ... The meninges (singular meninx) are the system of membranes that contain the brain. ... [www. ... In neuroanatomy, a cistern (Latin: box) is any opening in the subarachnoid space of the brain created by a separation of the arachnoid and dura mater. ... The cisterna magna (or cerebellomedullary cistern) is a large cistern between the cerebellum and medulla. ... The Pontine cistern is a considerable space on the ventral aspect of the pons. ... The interpeduncular cistern (basal cistern) is a wide cavity where the arachnoid extends across between the two temporal lobes. ... In front, the cisterna interpeduncularis extends forward across the optic chiasma, forming the cistern of chiasma, and on to the upper surface of the corpus callosum, for the arachnoid stretches across from one cerebral hemisphere to the other immediately beneath the free border of the falx cerebri, and thus leaves... The cistern of lateral cerebral fossa is formed in front of either temporal lobe by the arachnoid bridging across the lateral fissure. ... The cistern of great cerebral vein occupies the interval between the splenium of the corpus callosum and the superior surface of the cerebellum; it extends between the layers of the tela chorioidea of the third ventricle and contains the great cerebral vein. ...

Notes

  1. ^ A. Zakharov et al. "Lymphatic cerebrospinal fluid absorption pathways in neonatal sheep revealed by subarachnoid injection of Microfil". Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology (29):563-573

  Results from FactBites:
 
IX. Neurology. 4h. The Cerebrospinal Fluid. Gray, Henry. 1918. Anatomy of the Human Body. (554 words)
The cerebrospinal fluid, 129 for the most part elaborated by the choroid plexuses, is poured into the cerebral ventricles which are lined by smooth ependyma.
That portion of the fluid formed in the lateral ventricles escapes by the foramen of Monro into the third ventricle and thence by the aqueduct into the fourth ventricle.
The absorption of the cerebrospinal fluid is a dual process, being chiefly a rapid drainage through the arachnoid villi into the great dural sinuses, and, in small part, a slow escape into the true lymphatic vessels, by way of an abundant but indirect perineural course.
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, Information about Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis (839 words)
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis is a laboratory test to examine a sample of the fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
The procedure to remove cerebrospinal fluid is called a lumbar puncture, or spinal tap, because the area of the spinal column used to obtain the sample isin the lumbar spine, or lower section of the back.
The doctor measures the cerebrospinal fluid pressure with a specialinstrument called a manometer and withdraws several vials of fluid for laboratory analysis.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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