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Encyclopedia > Cereal
Oats, barley, and some products made from them

Cereal crops or grains are mostly grasses cultivated for their edible grains or seeds (i.e., botanically a type of fruit called a caryopsis). Cereal grains are grown in greater quantities and provide more energy worldwide than any other type of crop; they are therefore staple crops. They are also a rich source of carbohydrate. In some developing nations, grain constitutes practically the entire diet of poor people. In developed nations, cereal consumption is more moderate but still substantial. Look up grain in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Oats, barley, and some products made from them. ... Oats, barley, and some products made from them. ... Agriculture refers to the production of food, feed, fiber and other goods by the systematic growing of plants, animals and other life forms. ... Subfamilies There are 7 subfamilies: Subfamily Arundinoideae Subfamily Bambusoideae Subfamily Centothecoideae Subfamily Chloridoideae Subfamily Panicoideae Subfamily Pooideae Subfamily Stipoideae The true grasses are monocotyledonous plants (Class Liliopsida) in the Family Poaceae, also known as Gramineae. ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... In botany, a caryopsis is a type of simple dry fruit — one that is moncarpelate (formed from a single carpel) and indehiscent (not opening at maturity) and resembles an achene, except that in a caryopsis the pericarp is fused with the thin seed coat. ... A staple food is a food that forms the basis of a traditional diet, particularly that of the poor. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... A developing country is a country with low average income compared to the world average. ... A developed country is a country that is technologically advanced and that enjoys a relatively high standard of living. ...


The word 'cereal' derives from 'Ceres', the name of the pre-Roman goddess of harvest and agriculture. Grains are traditionally called corn in the United Kingdom and Ireland, though that word became specified for maize in the United States, Canada, New Zealand, and Australia. In Roman mythology, Ceres was the goddess of growing plants (particularly cereals) and of motherly love. ... This article is about the maize plant. ...

Contents

Production

The following table shows annual production of major cereal grains, in 1961,[1] 2005 and 2006, ranked by 2006 production.[2] All but buckwheat and quinoa are true grasses (these two are pseudocereals). Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Binomial name Fagopyrum esculentum Moench Common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) is a plant in the genus Fagopyrum (sometimes merged into genus Polygonum) in the family Polygonaceae. ... Binomial name Willd. ... // “Grain” redirects here. ...

Grain 2006 (Mt) 2005 (Mt) 1961 (Mt)
Maize 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 3 999,999,999,999,999,999,999,999,999,999,999,999,999 A staple food of peoples in North America, South America, and Africa and of livestock worldwide; often called "corn" or "Indian corn" in North America, Australia, and New Zealand.
Rice[3] 634,575,804 631,508,532 284,654,697 The primary cereal of tropical regions
Wheat 605,256,883 628,697,531 222,357,231 The primary cereal of temperate regions
Barley 138,704,379 141,334,270 72,411,104 Grown for malting and livestock on land too poor or too cold for wheat
Sorghum 56,525,765 59,214,205 40,931,625 Important staple food in Asia and Africa and popular worldwide for livestock
Millets 31,783,428 30,589,322 25,703,968 A group of similar but distinct cereals that form an important staple food in Asia and Africa.
Oats 23,106,021 23,552,531 49,588,769 Formerly the staple food of Scotland and popular worldwide for livestock
Rye 13,265,177 15,223,162 35,109,990 Important in cold climates
Triticale 11,338,788 13,293,233 0 Hybrid of wheat and rye, grown similarly to rye
Buckwheat 2,365,158 2,078,299 2,478,596 Used in Europe and Asia. Major uses include various pancakes and groats
Fonio 378,409 363,021 178,483 Several varieties of which are grown as food crops in Africa
Quinoa 58,989 58,443 32,435 Pseudocereal, grown in the Andes

Maize, wheat and rice, between them, accounted for 87% of all grain production, worldwide, and 43% of all food calories in 2003.[2] Other grains that are important in some places, but that have little production globally (and are not included in FAO statistics), include: A tonne (also called metric ton) is a non-SI unit of mass, accepted for use with SI, defined as: 1 tonne = 103 kg (= 106 g). ... This article is about the maize plant. ... North America North America is a continent [1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... A noontime scene from the Philippines on a day when the Sun is almost directly overhead. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... In geography, temperate latitudes of the globe lie between the tropics and the polar circles. ... For other uses, see Barley (disambiguation). ... Malted barley Malting is a process applied to cereal grains, in which the grains are made to germinate and then are quickly dried before the plant develops. ... Species About 30 species, see text Sorghum is a genus of numerous species of grasses, some of which are raised for grain and many of which are utilised as fodder plants either cultivated or as part of pasture. ... For other uses, see Millet (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Avena sativa Carolus Linnaeus (1753) The Oat (Avena sativa) is a species of cereal grain, and the seeds of this plant. ... This article is about the country. ... Binomial name Secale cereale M.Bieb. ... Triticale Triticale (x Triticosecale) is an artificial or man-made hybrid of rye and wheat first bred in laboratories during the late 19th century. ... This article is about a biological term. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... Binomial name Secale cereale M.Bieb. ... Binomial name Secale cereale M.Bieb. ... Binomial name Fagopyrum esculentum Moench Common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) is a plant in the genus Fagopyrum (sometimes merged into genus Polygonum) in the family Polygonaceae. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Two pancakes with maple syrup. ... Groats are the hulled and crushed grains of various cereals, such as oats, wheat or buckwheat. ... Binomial name Digitaria exilis (Kippist) Stapf Synonyms Paspalum exile Kippist Syntherisma exilis (Kippist) Newbold White fonio (Digitaria exilis) is the most important of a diverse group of wild and domesticated Digitaria species that are harvested in the savannas of west Africa. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Binomial name Willd. ... This article is about the mountain system in South America. ... This article is about the maize plant. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Possible meanings: Faro Airport (Portugal) Federation of Astrobiology Organizations Financial Aid Office Food and Agriculture Organization This page expands a three-character combination which might be any or all of: an abbreviation, an acronym, an initialism, a word in English, or a word in another language. ...

  • Teff, popular in Ethiopia but scarcely known elsewhere. This ancient grain is a staple in Ethiopia. It is high in fiber and protein. Its flour is often used to make injera. It can also be eaten as a warm breakfast cereal similar to farina with a chocolate or nutty flavor. Its flour and whole grain products can usually be found in natural foods stores.
  • Wild rice, grown in small amounts in North America
  • Amaranth, ancient pseudocereal, formerly a staple crop of the Aztec Empire
  • Kañiwa, close relative of quinoa

Several other species of grain have also been domesticated, some very early in the history of agriculture: Binomial name Eragrostis tef (Zucc. ... This meal, consisting of injera and several kinds of wat or tsebhi (stew), is typical of Ethiopian and Eritrean cuisine. ... Farina cereal with shelf price at Shaws Supermarket in Watertown, MA, October 2004. ... Species Zizania aquatica Zizania latifolia Zizania palustris Zizania texana Zizania aquatica L. Hitchc. ... Amaranth has been cultivated as a grain for 8,000 years, dating back to the Maya culture of South and Central America. ... The word Aztec is usually used as a historical term, although some contemporary Nahuatl speakers would consider themselves Aztecs. ... Binomial name Chenopodium pallidicaule Aellen Kañiwa is a species of goosefoot, similar in character and uses to the closely related to quinoa. ... Binomial name Willd. ...

Look up Spelt in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Binomial name triticum boeoticum Einkorn wheat is a wild species of wheat, Triticum boeoticum. ... Binomial name Triticum dicoccon Schrank Emmer wheat is a low yielding, awned wheat. ... This map shows the extent of the Fertile Crescent. ... Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum durum) is the only tetraploid species of wheat widely cultivated today. ... Polyploid (in Greek: πολλαπλόν - multiple) cells or organisms contain more than one copy (ploidy) of their chromosomes. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... Picture of semolina Semolina grains Semolina is coarsely ground grain, usually wheat, with particles mostly between 0. ...

Farming

A wheat field in Dorset, England.

While each individual species has its own peculiarities, the cultivation of all cereal crops is similar. All are annual plants; consequently one planting yields one harvest. Wheat, rye, triticale, oats, barley, and spelt are the cool-season cereals. These are hardy plants that grow well in moderate weather and cease to grow in hot weather (approximately 30 °C but this varies by species and variety). The other warm-season cereals are tender and prefer hot weather. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Dorset (pronounced DOR-sit or [dÉ”.sÉ™t], and sometimes in the past called Dorsetshire) is a county in the south-west of England, on the English Channel coast. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Peas are an annual plant. ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ...


Barley and rye are the hardiest cereals, able to overwinter in the subarctic and Siberia. Many cool-season cereals are grown in the tropics. However, some are only grown in cooler highlands, where it may be possible to grow multiple crops in a year. The subarctic is a region in the Northern Hemisphere immediately south of the true Arctic and covering much of Canada and Siberia, the north of Scandinavia, northern Mongolia and the Chinese province of Heilongjiang. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ...


Planting

The warm-season cereals are grown in tropical lowlands year-round and in temperate climates during the frost-free season. Rice is commonly grown in flooded fields, though some strains are grown on dry land. Other warm climate cereals, such as sorghum, are adapted to arid conditions. For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... Species About 30 species, see text Sorghum is a genus of numerous species of grasses, some of which are raised for grain and many of which are utilised as fodder plants either cultivated or as part of pasture. ...


Cool-season cereals are well-adapted to temperate climates. Most varieties of a particular species are either winter or spring types. Winter varieties are sown in the autumn, germinate and grow vegetatively, then become dormant during winter. They resume growing in the springtime and mature in late spring or early summer. This cultivation system makes optimal use of water and frees the land for another crop early in the growing season. Winter varieties do not flower until springtime because they require vernalization (exposure to low temperature for a genetically determined length of time). Where winters are too warm for vernalization or exceed the hardiness of the crop (which varies by species and variety), farmers grow spring varieties. Spring cereals are planted in early springtime and mature later that same summer, without vernalization. Spring cereals typically require more irrigation and yield less than winter cereals. Dormancy is a arrested plant growth. ...


Harvest

Once the cereal plants have grown their seeds, they have completed their life cycle. The plants die and become brown and dry. As soon as the parent plants and their seed kernels are reasonably dry, harvest can begin. Life cycle refers to: Biological life cycle New product development Honeybee life cycle This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


In developed countries, cereal crops are universally machine-harvested, typically using a combine harvester, which cuts, threshes, and winnows the grain during a single pass across the field. In developing countries, a variety of harvesting methods are in use, from combines to hand tools such as the scythe or cradle. A CLAAS Caterpillar LEXION Combine. ... Threshing is the process of beating cereal plants in order to separate the seeds or grains from the straw. ... Wind winnowing is a method developed by ancient cultures for agricultural purposes. ... A traditional wooden scythe A scythe (IPA: , most likely from Old English siðe, sigði) is an agricultural hand tool for mowing and reaping grass or crops. ... An agricultural tool, based on the scythe, used to reap grain. ...


If a crop is harvested during wet weather, the grain may not dry adequately in the field to prevent spoilage during its storage. In this case, the grain is sent to a dehydrating facility, where artificial heat dries it.


In North America, farmers commonly deliver their newly harvested grain to a grain elevator, a large storage facility that consolidates the crops of many farmers. The farmer may sell the grain at the time of delivery or maintain ownership of a share of grain in the pool for later sale. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Food value

Chickens are often fed grains such as wheat

Cereal grains supply most of their food energy as starch. They are also a significant source of protein, though the amino acid balance, with exceptions as noted below, is not optimal. Whole grains (see below) are good sources of dietary fiber, essential fatty acids, and other important nutrients. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1067, 534 KB) Chickens Feeding on grain File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Cereal ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1067, 534 KB) Chickens Feeding on grain File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Cereal ... Food energy is the amount of energy in food that is available through digestion. ... Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8, chemical formula (C6H10O5)n,[1]) is a mixture of amylose and amylopectin (usually in 20:80 or 30:70 ratios). ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... This article is about the class of chemicals. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Dietary fibers are the indigestible portion of plant foods that move food through the digestive system, absorbing water and making defecation easier. ... Essential fatty acids, or EFAs, are fatty acids that cannot be constructed within an organism from other components (generally all references are to humans) by any known chemical pathways; and therefore must be obtained from the diet. ... A nutrient is either a chemical element or compound used in an organisms metabolism or physiology. ...


Rice is eaten as cooked entire grains, although rice flour is also produced. Oats are rolled, ground, or cut into bits (steel-cut oats) and cooked into porridge. Most other cereals are ground into flour or meal, which is milled. The outer layers of bran and germ are removed (see seed). This lessens the nutritional value but makes the grain more resistant to degradation and makes the grain more appealing to many palates. Health-conscious people tend to prefer whole grains, which are not milled. Overconsumption of milled cereals is sometimes blamed for obesity. Milled grains do keep better because the outer layers of the grains are rich in rancidity-prone fats. The waste from milling is sometimes mixed into a prepared animal feed. ‹ The template below is being considered for deletion. ... For other uses, see Flour (disambiguation). ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... The Nutrition Facts table indicates the amounts of nutrients which experts recommend you limit or consume in adequate amounts. ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... Fodder growing from barley In agriculture, fodder or animal feed is any foodstuff that is used specifically to feed domesticated livestock, including cattle, goats, sheep, horses, chickens and pigs. ...


Once (optionally) milled and ground, the resulting flour is made into bread, pasta, desserts, dumplings, and many other products. Besides cereals, flour is sometimes made from potatoes, chestnuts and pulses (especially chickpeas, which is known as besan). For other uses, see Bread (disambiguation). ... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Not to be confused with Desert. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Potato (disambiguation). ... Species Castanea alnifolia - Bush Chinkapin* Castanea crenata - Japanese Chestnut Castanea dentata - American Chestnut Castanea henryi - Henrys Chestnut Castanea mollissima - Chinese Chestnut Castanea ozarkensis - Ozark Chinkapin Castanea pumila - Allegheny Chinkapin Castanea sativa - Sweet Chestnut Castanea seguinii - Seguins Chestnut * treated as a synonym of by many authors Chestnut is a... The Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) defines pulses as annual leguminous crops yielding from one to 12 grains or seeds of variable size, shape and colour within a pod. ... Binomial name Cicer arietinum L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Gram flour (also known as chana dall, chana flour, besan or chickpea flour) is an ingredient used in Indian cuisine. ...


Cereals are the main source of energy providing about 350 kcal per 100 grams. Cereal proteins are typically poor in nutritive quality, being deficient in essential amino acid lysine. The proteins of maize are particularly poor, being deficient in lysine and tryptophan (a precursor of niacin). Rice proteins are richer in lysine than other common cereal proteins and for this reason, rice protein is considered to be of better quality. Rice is a good source of B group vitamins, especially thiamine. It is devoid of vitamins A, D, C and is a poor source of calcium and iron. Lysine is one of the 20 amino acids normally found in proteins. ... Tryptophan (abbreviated as Trp or W)[1] is one of the 20 standard amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins, and an essential amino acid in the human diet. ... Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid or vitamin B3, is a water-soluble vitamin whose derivatives such as NADH, NAD, NAD+, and NADP play essential roles in energy metabolism in the living cell and DNA repair. ... Retinol (Vitamin A) For the record label, see Vitamin Records A vitamin is an organic compound required in tiny amounts for essential metabolic reactions in a living organism. ... For the similarly spelled nucleic acid, see Thymine Thiamine or thiamin, also known as vitamin B1, is one of the B vitamins. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ...


Certain grains, including quinoa, buckwheat, and grain amaranth (Pseudocereal, non-grasses), are exceptionally nutrious. Quinoa was classified as a "supercrop" by the United Nations because of its high protein content (12-18%).[citation needed] Quinoa contains a balanced set of essential amino acids for humans, making it an unusually complete source of protein in plants. Binomial name Willd. ... Binomial name Fagopyrum esculentum Moench Common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) is a plant in the genus Fagopyrum (sometimes merged into genus Polygonum) in the family Polygonaceae. ... Species See text. ... // “Grain” redirects here. ... Binomial name Willd. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ...


In English, cold breakfast cereals, as opposed to cooked porridges such as oatmeal, are simply called cereal. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In the United States and Canada, oatmeal means any crushed oats, rolled oats, or cut oats used in recipes such as oatmeal cookies. ...


Notes

  1. ^ 1961 is the earliest year for which FAO statistics are available.
  2. ^ a b FAO. ProdSTAT. FAOSTAT. Retrieved on 2006-12-26.
  3. ^ The weight given is for paddy rice

Possible meanings: Faro Airport (Portugal) Federation of Astrobiology Organizations Financial Aid Office Food and Agriculture Organization This page expands a three-character combination which might be any or all of: an abbreviation, an acronym, an initialism, a word in English, or a word in another language. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Cereal site - All About Cereal
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