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Encyclopedia > Ceramics (art)
Ancient Egyptian ceramic art: Louvre Museum.
Ancient Egyptian ceramic art: Louvre Museum.

Ceramics and ceramic art in the art world means artwork made out of clay bodies and fired into the hardened ceramic form. Some ceramic pieces are classified as fine art, while many others can be classified as one of the decorative, industrial or applied arts (the application of design and aesthetics to objects of function and everyday use). The identification of a specific pottery piece as a "work of art" is not always clear. Ceramic art usually, but not always, was intended by the maker as art. It may have a signature, designer name or brand name stamp on the bottom. Ceramic art can be either manufactured by individuals or in a factory that employs artists to design, produce or decorate the ware. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (996x1952, 657 KB) fr: Antiquité égyptienne du musée du Louvre. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (996x1952, 657 KB) fr: Antiquité égyptienne du musée du Louvre. ... In fine art, a work of art (or artwork or work) is a creation, such as a song, book, sculpture or a painting, that has been made in order to be a thing of beauty in itself or a symbolic statement of meaning, rather than having a practical function. ... Crown The word ceramic is derived from the Greek word κεραμικος (keramikos, having to do with pottery). The term covers inorganic non-metallic materials whose formation is due to the action of heat. ... Fixed Partial Denture, or Bridge The word ceramic is derived from the Greek word κεραμικός (keramikos). ... Fine art refers to arts that are concerned with beauty or which appealed to taste (SOED 1991). ... The decorative arts are traditionally defined as ornamental and functional works in ceramic, wood, glass, metal, or textile. ... Example of a cup figuring a tortise. ... Unfired green ware pottery on a traditional drying rack at Conner Prairie living history museum. ... This article is about brands in marketing. ... A factory worker in 1940s Fort Worth, Texas. ...


Historically, ceramic articles were prepared by shaping the clay body, a clay rich mixture of various minerals, into the desired shapes before being subjected to high temperatures in a kiln. However ceramics now refers to a very diverse group of materials which, while all are fired to high temperature, may not have been shaped from material containing any clay. The origin of the word is the ancient Greek keramikos, from Keramos, meaning "potter's clay." [1] Fixed Partial Denture, or Bridge The word ceramic is derived from the Greek word κεραμικός (keramikos). ... The Gay Head cliffs in Marthas Vineyard are made almost entirely of clay. ... The Gay Head cliffs in Marthas Vineyard are made almost entirely of clay. ... Minerals are natural compounds formed through geological processes. ... Charcoal Kilns, California Gold Kiln, Victoria, Australia Hop kiln. ... Fixed Partial Denture, or Bridge The word ceramic is derived from the Greek word κεραμικός (keramikos). ... The Gay Head cliffs in Marthas Vineyard are made almost entirely of clay. ...

Contents

Ancient history

Etruscan: Diomedes and Polyxena, from the Etruscan amphora of the Pontic group, ca. 540–530 BC. From Vulci.
Etruscan: Diomedes and Polyxena, from the Etruscan amphora of the Pontic group, ca. 540–530 BC. From Vulci.

Ceramic art has an extensive prehistoric development in the Chinese, Cretan, Greek, Roman, Persian, Mayan, and numerous other cultures. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1005x1419, 1016 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ceramics (art) Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1005x1419, 1016 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ceramics (art) Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... See: Etruscan civilization Etruscan language Etruscan alphabet Etruscan mythology See also: Tyrrhenian, Lemnian, Pelasgian. ... Crete, sometimes spelled Krete (Greek Κρήτη / Kriti) is the largest of the Greek islands and the fifth largest in the Mediterranean Sea. ... Roman or Romans may refer to: A thing or person of or from the city of Rome. ... Look up Persian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The adjective Mayan is sometimes used to refer to the indigenous peoples of parts of Mexico and Central America, their culture, language, and history. ...


European

Mediterranean

On the Greek island of Santorini are some of the earliest finds dating to the third millennium BC, with the original settlement at Akrotiri dating to the fourth millennium BC;[2] excavation work continues at the principal archaeological site of Akrotiri. Some of the excavated homes contain huge ceramic storage jars known as pithoi. Ancient Etruscan and Grecian ceramics are ledendary for their very fine classical and figurative painting. Satellite image of Santorini. ... Map of Akrotiri (Western) SBA Akrotiri (also known as the Western Sovereign Base Area or WSBA) and Dhekelia (also known as the Eastern Sovereign Base Area or ESBA) are UK Sovereign Base Areas (SBAs) in Cyprus, a former British Crown Colony. ... Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... Pithoi at Knossos. ... See: Etruscan civilization Etruscan language Etruscan alphabet Etruscan mythology See also: Tyrrhenian, Lemnian, Pelasgian. ... The word Greek may refer to: The Greek people The Greek language, or (only if a particular historical form needs to be specified): Ancient Greek Koine Greek Medieval Greek Modern Greek and its dialects (see Greek dialects) Greek roots in the English language Greek history, which includes, but is not...


Venus Figurines

Venus of Dolní Věstonice
Venus of Dolní Věstonice

A number of Gravettian figurines found in the Czech Republic are believed to represent the earliest known works of ceramic artwork made of the human form. One such figurine is the Venus of Dolní Věstonice (Moravian), which was made between 27,000 and 31,000 years ago. The Venus figurine was made by molding and then firing a mixture of clay and powdered bone.[3] This is the earliest known figurine made of ceramics representing the human form. Scholars do not know if it was intended as fine art, as religious icon, or some other intent; they just do not know the original meaning to the original culture. Similar figurines found throughout Eurasia are called Venus figurines and are noted for their natural looking representations of the female form with some artistic merit. Here are examples of what has been written about them: Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (482x1014, 416 KB)Scan of accurate museum reproduction of the Venus of Dolní VÄ›stonice. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (482x1014, 416 KB)Scan of accurate museum reproduction of the Venus of Dolní VÄ›stonice. ... The Venus of Dolní VÄ›stonice (VÄ›stonická VenuÅ¡e in Czech) is a so called Venus figurine, a statuette of a nude female figure dated to 29,000–25,000 BCE (Gravettian industry). ... The Gravettian was an industry of the European Upper Palaeolithic. ... The Venus of Dolní VÄ›stonice (VÄ›stonická VenuÅ¡e in Czech) is a so called Venus figurine, a statuette of a nude female figure dated to 29,000–25,000 BCE (Gravettian industry). ... A Moravian can be: an ethnic group a Christian denomination This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... External links Venus figures from the Stone Age Images of women in ancient art http://perso. ...

  • Venus figurines are the name given to a nearly universal type of art, appearing first in the Upper Paleolithic period between 30,000 and 15,000 years ago. [4]
  • The world's oldest surviving works of art fashioned after the human image appear in the archaeological strata of the Upper Paleolithic in Europe.[5]
Chinese porcelain, Tang Dynasty: Horse, glazed porcelain (funeral gift). Museum für Ostasiastische Kunst, Berlin.
Chinese porcelain, Tang Dynasty: Horse, glazed porcelain (funeral gift). Museum für Ostasiastische Kunst, Berlin.

External links Venus figures from the Stone Age Images of women in ancient art http://perso. ... The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2075x2050, 606 KB) Horse, glazed porcelain (funeral gift) Tang Dynasty Museum für Ostasiastische Kunst, Berlin Photographer: user:Dr. Meierhofer Date: 28. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2075x2050, 606 KB) Horse, glazed porcelain (funeral gift) Tang Dynasty Museum für Ostasiastische Kunst, Berlin Photographer: user:Dr. Meierhofer Date: 28. ...

Asian

The earliest known pottery vessels may be those made by the Incipient Jomon people of Japan around 10,500 BC. Chinese porcelain comes from the late Eastern Han period (100 to 200 AD), the Three Kingdoms period (220 to 280 AD), the Six Dynasties period (220 to 589 AD), and the Tang Dynasty (618 to 906 AD). The Jomon period (Japanese: 縄文時代 Jōmon-jidai) is the time in Japanese history from about 10,000 BCE to 300 BCE. Most scholars agree that by around 40,000 BCE glaciation had connected the islands with the mainland. ... The Han Dynasty (Traditional Chinese characters: 漢朝, Simplified Chinese characters: 汉朝, pinyin Hàncháo 202 BC - AD 220) followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. ... The Three Kingdoms in 262, on the eve of the conquest of Shu. ... Six Dynasties (六朝) is a collective noun for the six Chinese dynasties, namely the Kingdom of Wu, Eastern Jin Dynasty, Song Dynasty, Qi Dynasty, Liang Dynasty and Chen Dynasty. ... The Tang Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (18 June 618 – 4 June 907), lasting about three centuries, preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by the Song Dynasty and the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period in China. ...

Anasazi, North America: A canteen (pot) excavated from the ruins in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico.
Anasazi, North America: A canteen (pot) excavated from the ruins in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico.

Image File history File linksMetadata Chaco_Anasazi_canteen_NPS.jpg‎ File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ceramics (art) Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Chaco_Anasazi_canteen_NPS.jpg‎ File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ceramics (art) Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Ancient Pueblo People, or Ancestral Puebloans is the preferred term for the group of peoples often known as Anasazi who are the ancestors of the modern Pueblo peoples. ...

American

The Mayans are a relative latecomer to ceramic development, as their ceramic arts flourished in the Maya Classic Period, or the second to tenth century AD. One important site in southern Belize is known as Lubaantun, that boasts particularly detailed and prolific works. As evidence of the extent to which these ceramic art works were prized, many specimens traced to Lubaantun have been found at distant Mayan sites in Honduras and Guatemala.[6] Furthermore, the current Mayan people of Lubaantun continue to hand produce copies of many of the original designs found at Lubaantun. // Maya may refer to: The Maya, Native American peoples of southern Mexico and northern Central America Maya peoples, the contemporary indigenous peoples Maya civilization, their historical pre-Columbian civilization Mayan languages, the family of languages spoken by the Maya Yucatec Maya language, specific and most widespread Mayan language, frequently referred... Mesoamerican chronology The chronology of Pre-Columbian Mesoamerica is usually divided into the following eras: Paleo-Indian Period c. ... Lubaantun (sometimes spelled Lubaantún) is a Pre-Columbian ruined city of the Maya civilization in southern Belize, Central America. ...


Fine art ceramics

Fine art example: Madonna Moderna, created ca. 1906 by artist unknown.
Fine art example: Madonna Moderna, created ca. 1906 by artist unknown.

Fine art ceramics include ceramic art made by hand and designed to be purely art, that is to be looked at and enjoyed visually and contemplatively, without any further uses. It is often one of a kind. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (480x640, 82 KB) Madonna Moderna photo of ceramic art created in about 1906 by artist unknown. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (480x640, 82 KB) Madonna Moderna photo of ceramic art created in about 1906 by artist unknown. ...


In modern art theory, the fine art pot or expressive pot has been used as a name of pottery that aspires to the conditions of fine art, generally by prioritizing conceptual and aesthetic qualities over functionality or usefulness. Fine art pot has been used as a term opposite of the phrase ethical pot (meaning utilitarian pottery) - at least by ceramic art theorists defining art styles and their merits since the 1940's.[7] Fine art refers to arts that are concerned with beauty or which appealed to taste (SOED 1991). ... The ethical pot is a concept of pottery, which is holistic, based on tradition, locally made and generally useful. ...


Fine art pot styles were led and taught by William Staite Murray and other post-war potters such as Lucie Rie and Hans Coper. The alternative Arts and Crafts style of ethical pot (simple and utilitiarian studio pottery) was explored by potter Bernard Leach and his followers.[8][9] William Staite Murray, British studio potter (1881–1962) William Staite Murray was born in Deptford London. ... Dame Lucie Rie (1902-1995) was an influential British studio potter. ... Hans Coper (1920–1981), was an influential British studio potter. ... Artichoke wallpaper, by John Henry Dearle for William Morris & Co. ... // Studio pottery is a branch of pottery that has in the last fifty years undergone a bit of a revolution. ... Bernard Howell Leach CH (January 5, 1887 – May 6, 1979), a British studio potter. ...


The modern art movement in pottery is expiramental in nature. Many styles originated from the Arts and Crafts movement when studio potters were looking to find a place and definition for the crafts in the age of industrialisation and mechanised-production, and from the desire to re-establish ceramics as a fine art medium.[8][10] Arts and crafts comprise a whole host of activities and hobbies that are related to making things with ones own hands and skill. ... Arts and crafts comprise a whole host of activities and hobbies that are related to making things with ones own hands and skill. ... A factory in Ilmenau (Germany) around 1860 Industrialisation (also spelt Industrialization) or an Industrial Revolution is a process of social and economic change whereby a human society is transformed from a pre-industrial (an economy where the amount of capital accumulated per capita is low) to an industrial state (see... Fine art refers to arts that are concerned with beauty or which appealed to taste (SOED 1991). ...


Modern ceramic artists and potters often engage in what has become know as the "Art versus Craft debate", in which the merits of each pottery approach are perpetually reiterated without resolution.


Industrial art ceramics

Industrial art example: "Korean girl." Meissen porcelain museum.
Industrial art example: "Korean girl." Meissen porcelain museum.

Industrial art ceramics includes ceramics made in factories that employ artists to design or handpaint the ceramics, or industrial-minded art collectives, and is often known by the name of the founder or the brand name of the product line. In general, industrial ceramics are not one of a kind, and are intended to be duplicated and sold on the market, using methods of limited or mass production. Some factories are known for their fine materials, intricate designs, elaborate painting and glazing by artisans. Many are of the objects produced are decorative by design, while others adhere to the idea of form follows function and purposefully designed to be utilitarian, however still considered a "work of art." Industrial ceramic art can be identifed by brand name or distinctive styles. Examples include: Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1704x2272, 190 KB) Description: Meissen porcelain museum. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1704x2272, 190 KB) Description: Meissen porcelain museum. ... A Meissen dinner service Meissen porcelain is the first European porcelain. ... An artisan is a skilled manual worker. ... Form follows function is a principle associated with Modern architecture and industrial design in the 20th Century. ... Utilitarianism is a suggested theoretical framework for morality, law and politics, based on quantitative maximisation of some definition of utility for society or humanity. ...

Delftware panel. ... English Delftware was made in London from about the 1640s and the shapes of these jars are very distinctive with clear lettering and cartoon-like painted panels of angels heads and flying cherubs. ... . This is an example of Jasperware Jasperware is a form of pottery that has a stoneware body which is either white or colored, which is noted for its matte finish. ... A Meissen dinner service Meissen porcelain is the first European porcelain. ... The Royal Doulton Company is a quintessentially English name in tableware and collectables with a pedigree dating back to 1815. ... Wedgwood is a British pottery firm, originally founded by Josiah Wedgwood, and possibly the most famous name ever associated with pottery in any form, which in 1987 merged with Waterford Crystal to become Waterford Wedgwood. ...

Environmental issues of production

Although many of the environmental effects of the workplace of ceramic art have existed for millennia, some of these have been amplified with modern technology and scales of production. The principal factors for consideration fall into two categories: (a] effects on workers and (b) effects on the general environment. Within the effects on workers, chief impacts are indoor air quality, sound levels and possible over-illumination. Regarding the general environment, factors of interest are off-site water pollution, air pollution and disposal of hazardous materials. The Air Quality Index (AQI) is a standardized index of the air quality in a given location, given in parts per billion. ... Environmental noise can produce irreversible hearing loss Noise health effects, the collection of health consequences of elevated sound levels, constitute one of the most widespread public health threats in industrialized countries. ... This cosmetics store has lighting levels over twice recommended levels and sufficient to trigger headaches and other health effects Over-illumination is the presence of lighting intensity (illuminance) beyond that required for a specified activity. ... Water pollution is a large set of adverse effects upon water bodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater caused by human activities. ... Before flue gas desulfurization was installed, the emissions from this power plant in New Mexico contained excessive amounts of sulfur dioxide. ... A hazardous material is any solid, liquid, or gas that can cause harm to humans and other living organisms due to being flammable or explosive, irritating or damaging the skin or lungs, interfering with oxygen intake and apsorption (asphyxiants), or causing allergic reactions (allergens). ...


Historically plumbism, lead poisoning, was a significant health to those glazing pottery. This was recognised at least as early as the nineteenth century, and the first legislation in the United Kingdom to limit pottery workers’ exposure was introduced in 1899. [11] Whilst the risk of to those working in ceramics is now much reduced it can still not be ignored. With respect to indoor air quality, workers can be exposed to fine particulate matter, carbon monoxide and certain heavy metals. The greatest health risk is the potential to develop silicosis from the long-term exposure to crystalline silica. Proper ventilation can reduce the risks, and the first legislation in the United Kingdom to govern ventilation was introduced in 1899. [12]. Another, more recent study at Laney College, Oakland, California suggests that all these factors can be controlled in a well designed workshop environment.[13] Lead poisoning is a medical condition, also known as saturnism, plumbism or painters colic, caused by increased blood lead levels. ... Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) deals with the content of interior air that could affect health and comfort of building occupants. ... Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM), aerosols or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid (a smoke) or liquid (an aerosol) suspended in a gas. ... Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colourless, odourless, and tasteless gas. ... A heavy metal is any of a number of higher atomic weight elements, which has the properties of a metallic substance at room temperature. ... Silicosis (also known as Grinders disease) is a form of pneumoconiosis caused by inhalation of crystalline silica dust, and is marked by inflammation and scarring in forms of nodular lesions in the upper lobes of the lungs. ... The chemical compound silicon dioxide, also known as silica, is the oxide of silicon, chemical formula SiO2. ... Laney College is a community college located in Oakland, California. ... Oakland, founded in 1852, is the eighth-largest city in California[1] and the county seat of Alameda County. ...


See also

Artists: Unfired green ware pottery on a traditional drying rack at Conner Prairie living history museum. ... // Studio pottery is a branch of pottery that has in the last fifty years undergone a bit of a revolution. ... A contemporary ceramic studio is a paint your own pottery studio. ...

Bennett Bean (1941 - ) is an American ceramic artist living in Blairstown, New Jersey. ... Bernard Palissy. ... Grayson Perry (born 1960) is an English artist, best known for his ceramics. ... Robert Archambeau is a Canadian ceramic artist. ... Sculptor, Kathy Butterly, was born in 1963. ... Jun Kaneko is a Japanese ceramic artist living in the United States. ... Hideaki Miyamura (1955 - ) is a Japanese-born American potter working in Kensington, New Hampshire. ... Paul Soldner (b. ... Akio Takamori is a Japanese ceramic artist. ... Camille Le Tallec, (November 9, 1906 - August 21, 1991) was a French porcelain craftman and artist. ... Peter Voulkos (January 29, 1924 - 2002) popular name of Panagiotis Voulkos, was an American artist known for his Abstract Expressionist ceramic sculptures, which bounded the traditional divide between ceramic crafts and fine art. ...

References

  1. ^ The Webster Encyclopedic Dictionary
  2. ^ Archaeological site of Akrotiri, Santorini, Greece
  3. ^ Chris Stringer. Homo Britannicus, Alan Lane, 2006, ISBN 9780713997958.
  4. ^ Archeaology.about.com - Venus, K. Kris Hirst
  5. ^ Self-Representation in Upper Paleolithic Female Figurines, LeRoy McDermott
  6. ^ C. M.Hogan, Comparison of Mayan sites in southern and western Belize, Lumina Technologies (2006)
  7. ^ The fine art pot, called "expressive art" by Studio Potter review
  8. ^ a b de Waal, Edmund.
  9. ^ According to the popular post-war book A Potter's Book by Bernard Leach, an ethical pot is a natural looking utilitarian pot, compared to the fine art pot - source Collecting Ceramics.
  10. ^ Studio Potter review
  11. ^ Health Risks In A Victorian Pottery
  12. ^ Health Risks In A Victorian Pottery
  13. ^ Indoor air quality evaluation for the Butler Building Ceramics Laboratory, Laney College, Oakland, California, Earth Metrics Incorporated, Alameda County Schools Insurance Association, December, 1989
  • de Waal, Edmund. A Ceramic History: Pioneering Definitions 1900-1940 The Studio Pot. File retrieved February 10, 2007.

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