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Encyclopedia > Cephalopod
Cephalopods
Fossil range: Late Cambrian - Recent

A variety of cephalopod forms from Ernst Haeckel's 1904 Kunstformen der Natur.
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Cephalopoda
Cuvier, 1797
Orders

Subclass Nautiloidea
For other uses, see Cambrian (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 410 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,494 × 3,644 pixels, file size: 4. ... Ernst Haeckel. ... The 8th print, Discomedusae. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Classes Caudofoveata Aplacophora Polyplacophora Monoplacophora Bivalvia Scaphopoda Gastropoda Cephalopoda † Rostroconchia † Helcionelloida † ?Bellerophontida The molluscs (British spelling) or mollusks (American spelling) are members of the very large and diverse phylum Mollusca. ... Georges Cuvier Baron Georges Léopold Chrétien Frédéric Dagobert Cuvier (August 23, 1769–May 13, 1832) was a French naturalist and zoologist. ... 1797 (MDCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... In scientific classification used in biology, the order (Latin: ordo, plural ordines) is a rank between class and family (termed a taxon at that rank). ... Orders Nautilida Bactrida Nautiloids are a group of marine animals which all possess an external shell, the most well known example being the modern nautiluses. ...

Subclass †Ammonoidea
The primitive and ancestral Plectronoceratidae are included in the suborder, Plectronoceratina (Flower, R.H. 1964) of the Ellesmerocerida, but sometimes included in a separate order known as the Plectronocerida. ... Ellesmerocerida are the ancestral nautiloid stock which comprise all Late Cambrian and lowest of the Ordovician nautiloids from which the other orders evolved. ... families †Proterocameroceratidae †Piloceratidae †Endoceratidae The endocerids were a diverse group of cephalopods that lived during the Middle Ordovician to Late Silurian periods. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Species Allonautilus perforatus Allonautilus scrobiculatus Nautilus belauensis Nautilus macromphalus Nautilus pompilius pompilius Nautilus pompilius suluensis Nautilus stenomphalus The nautilus is a marine creature of the class Cephalopoda. ... Families Orthoceratidae Pseudorthoceratidae and many others Orthocerida are an order of extinct nautiloid cephalopods that lived from the Early Ordovician to the Late Triassic (about 500 to 200 million years ago), but were most common and diverse from the Ordovician to the Devonian. ... Ascocerida is an order of extinct nautiloid cephalopods. ... Bactritida are a small and poorly studied order of more or less straight-shelled (orthocone) nautiloids which first appeared during the Emsian Stage of the Devonian Period (390 my ago) and persisted until the Carnian Stage of the Triassic Period (235 my ago). ... This article is about the marine animal. ...

Subclass Coleoidea
Families all extinct Goniatites are an extinct group of ammonite, which are related to the nautiloids. ... Suborders Arcestina Ceratitina Lobitina Meekocerina Megaphyllitina Otoceratina Otocerina Paraceltitina Pinacocerina Prolecanitina Ptychitina Sagecerina Ceratitida is an order belonging to the extinct Cephalopod subclass Ammonoidea. ... This article is about the marine animal. ... Orders Aulacocerida (extinct) Hematitida  (extinct) Phragmoteuthida  (extinct) Belemnitida  (extinct) Sepiida Sepiolida Spirulida Teuthida Octopoda Vampyromorphida Subclass Coleoidea is the grouping of cephalopods containing all the primarily soft-bodied creatures. ...

The cephalopods (Greek plural Κεφαλόποδα (kephalópoda); "head-foot") are the mollusc class Cephalopoda characterized by bilateral body symmetry, a prominent head, and a modification of the mollusk foot, a muscular hydrostat, into the form of arms or tentacles. Teuthology, a branch of malacology, is the study of cephalopods. Extinct Orders Aulacocerida Phragmoteuthida Belemnitida Diplobelida Belemnoteuthina Belemnites (or belemnoids) are an extinct group of marine cephalopod, very similar in many ways to the modern squid and closely related to the modern cuttlefish. ... Families †Aulacoceratidae †Dictyoconitidae †Hematitidae †Palaeobelemnopseidae †Xiphoteuthididae Aulacocerida is an extinct order of belemnoids. ... Families Sepiadariidae Sepiidae Cuttlefish are animals of the order Sepiida, and are marine cephalopods, small relatives of squids and nautilus. ... Families Idiosepiidae Sepiolidae Classification CLASS CEPHALOPODA Subclass Nautiloidea: nautilus Subclass Coleoidea: squid, octopus, cuttlefish Superorder Decapodiformes Order Spirulida: Rams Horn Squid Order Sepiida: cuttlefish Order Sepiolida: bobtail squid Family Idiosepiidae Family Sepiolidae Order Teuthida: squid Superorder Octopodiformes Categories: Animal stubs | Bobtail squid ... Binomial name Spirula spirula (Linnaeus, 1758) Rams Horn Squid (Spirula spirula) is a unique and peculiar species of mollusc which constitutes a family (Spirulidae) and order (Spirulida) by itself. ... Suborders Myopsina Oegopsina Squids are the large, diverse group of marine mollusks, popular as food in cuisines as widely separated as the Japanese and the Italian. ... Families 14 in two suborders, see text The octopus is a cephalopod of the order Octopoda that inhabits many diverse regions of the ocean, especially coral reefs. ... Binomial name Vampyroteuthis infernalis Chun, 1903 The Vampire Squid (Vampyroteuthis infernalis, lit. ... Classes Caudofoveata Aplacophora Polyplacophora - Chitons Monoplacophora Bivalvia - Bivalves Scaphopoda - Tusk shells Gastropoda - Snails and Slugs Cephalopoda - Squids, Octopuses, etc. ... A class is the rank in the scientific classification of organisms in biology below Phylum and above Order. ... In biology, bilateral symmetry is a characteristic of multicellular organisms, particularly animals. ... A muscular hydrostat is a biological structure, found in animals. ... Look up ARM in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Tentacles can refer to the elongated flexible organs that are present in some animals, especially invertebrates, and sometimes to the hairs of the leaves of some insectivorous plants. ... Classes Caudofoveata Aplacophora Polyplacophora - Chitons Monoplacophora Bivalvia - Bivalves Scaphopoda - Tusk shells Gastropoda - Snails and Slugs Cephalopoda - Squids, Octopuses, etc. ...


The class contains two extant subclasses. In the Coleoidea, the mollusk shell has been internalized or is absent; this subclass includes the octopuses, squid, and cuttlefish. In the Nautiloidea the shell remains; this subclass includes the nautilus. There are around 786 distinct living species of Cephalopods. Two important extinct taxa are Ammonoidea, the ammonites, and Belemnoidea, the belemnites. In biology, extant taxon is commonly used in discussions of living and fossil species. ... In biology, a subclass is one level below a class. ... Orders Aulacocerida (extinct) Hematitida  (extinct) Phragmoteuthida  (extinct) Belemnitida  (extinct) Sepiida Sepiolida Spirulida Teuthida Octopoda Vampyromorphida Subclass Coleoidea is the grouping of cephalopods containing all the primarily soft-bodied creatures. ... For other uses, see Octopus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Squid (disambiguation). ... Orders and Families †Vasseuriina †Vasseuriidae †Belosepiellidae Sepiina †Belosaepiidae Sepiadariidae Sepiidae Cuttlefish are marine animals of the order Sepiida belonging to the Cephalopoda class (which also includes squid, octopuses, and nautiluses). ... Orders Nautilida Bactrida Nautiloids are a group of marine animals which all possess an external shell, the most well known example being the modern nautiluses. ... Genera Allonautilus Nautilus Nautilus (from Greek ναυτίλος, sailor) is the common name of any marine creatures of the cephalopod family Nautilidae, the sole family of the suborder Nautilina. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... A taxon (plural taxa), or taxonomic unit, is a grouping of organisms (named or unnamed). ... For other uses, see Ammonite (disambiguation). ... Extinct Orders Aulacocerida Phragmoteuthida Belemnitida Diplobelida Belemnoteuthina Belemnites (or belemnoids) are an extinct group of marine cephalopod, very similar in many ways to the modern squid and closely related to the modern cuttlefish. ...


Cephalopods are found in all the oceans of Earth, at all depths. None of them can tolerate freshwater, but a few species tolerate more or less brackish water. Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... For the village on the Isle of Wight, see Freshwater, Isle of Wight. ... Brackish redirects here. ...

Contents

Number of species

There are still discoveries of new species of cephalopods:

  • 1998 - 703 recent species [1]
  • 2001 - 786 recent species [2]
  • 2004 - approximate guess, from 1000 to 1200 species [3]

There are many more fossil species. It is estimated there are around 11,000 extinct taxa.[4] Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A taxon (plural taxa), or taxonomic unit, is a grouping of organisms (named or unnamed). ...


Nervous system and behaviour

Cephalopods are widely regarded as the most intelligent of the invertebrates and have well developed senses and large brains; larger than the brains of gastropods or bivalves. Except nautiluses, cephalopods have special skin cells called chromatophores that change color and are used for communication and camouflage. The nervous system of cephalopods is the most complex of the invertebrates. The giant nerve fibers of the cephalopod mantle have been a favorite experimental material of neurophysiologists for many years; their large diameter (due to lack of myelination) makes them easier to study. Invertebrate is an English word that describes any animal without a spinal column. ... The human brain In animals, the brain (enkephale) (Greek for in the skull), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. ... Subclass Subclass Eogastropoda     Patellogastropoda Subclass Orthogastropoda   Superorder Cocculiniformia   Superorder Hot Vent Taxa     Neomphaolida   Superorder Vetigastropoda   Superorder Neritaemorphi     Neritopsina   Superorder Caenogastropoda     Architaenioglossa     Sorbeoconcha   Superorder Heterobranchia     Heterostropha     Opisthobranchia     Pulmonata The gastropods, or univalves, are the largest and most successful class of mollusks, with 60,000-75,000 species, and second largest class... Orders Subclass Protobranchia Solemyoida Nuculoida Subclass Pteriomorphia - oysters Arcoida Mytiloida Pterioida Subclass Paleoheterodonta - mussels Trigoinoida Unionoida Subclass Heterodonta - clams, zebra mussels Veneroida Myoida Subclass Anomalosdesmata Pholadomyoida Animals of the Class Bivalvia are known as bivalves because they typically have two-part shells, with both parts being more or less symmetrical. ... Genera Allonautilus Nautilus Nautilus (from Greek ναυτίλος, sailor) is the common name of any marine creatures of the cephalopod family Nautilidae, the sole family of the suborder Nautilina. ... Zebrafish chromatophores mediate background adaptation on exposure to dark (top) and light environments (bottom). ... This article is about protective camouflage used to disguise people, animals, or military targets. ... The Human Nervous System. ... Nerves (yellow) Nerves redirects here. ... The mantle is an organ found in mollusks. ... Neurophysiology is a part of physiology as a science, which is concerned with the study of the nervous system. ... Myelin is an electrically-insulating phospholipid layer that surrounds the axons of many neurons. ...


Cephalopod vision is acute, and training experiments have shown that the Common Octopus can distinguish the brightness, size, shape, and horizontal or vertical orientation of objects. Cephalopods' eyes are also sensitive to the plane of polarization of light. Surprisingly in light of their ability to change color, most are probably color blind.[5] When camouflaging themselves, they use their chromatophores to change brightness and pattern according to the background they see, but their ability to match the specific color of a background probably comes from cells such as iridophores and leucophores that reflect light from the environment.[6] Evidence of color vision has been found in only one species, the Sparkling Enope Squid.[5] Binomial name Octopus vulgaris Cuvier, 1797 Synonyms Octopus vulgaris Lamarck, 1798 Octopus rugosus Bosc, 1792 The Common Octopus (Octopus vulgaris) is the most studied of all octopus species. ... In electrodynamics, polarization (also spelled polarisation) is the property of electromagnetic waves, such as light, that describes the direction of their transverse electric field. ... Color blindness in humans is the inability to perceive differences between some or all colors that other people can distinguish. ... Iridophores are a type of chromatophore cell found in the skin of many cephalopods, fish and reptiles. ... Zebrafish chromatophores mediate background adaptation on exposure to dark (top) and light environments (bottom). ... Color vision is the capacity of an organism or machine to distinguish objects based on the wavelengths (or frequencies) of the light they reflect or emit. ... Binomial name Watasenia scintillans Ishikawa, 1914 The Sparkling Enope Squid (Watasenia scintillans), also known as the Firefly Squid, is a member of the class Cephalopoda, subclass Coleoidea, order Teuthida. ...


Circulatory system

Cephalopods are the only molluscs with a closed circulatory system. They have two gill hearts (also known as branchial hearts) that move blood through the capillaries of the gills. A single systemic heart then pumps the oxygenated blood through the rest of the body.[7] The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... For other uses, see Gill (disambiguation). ...


Like most molluscs, cephalopods use hemocyanin, a copper-containing protein, rather than hemoglobin to transport oxygen. As a result, their blood is colorless when deoxygenated and turns blue when exposed to air.[8] Single Oxygenated Hemocyanin protein from Octopus Hemocyanins (also spelled haemocyanins) are respiratory proteins containing two copper atoms that reversibly bind a single oxygen molecule (O2). ... Structure of hemoglobin. ...


Locomotion

Cephalopods move primarily by jet propulsion, a very energy-consuming way to travel compared to the tail propulsion used by fish. The relative efficiency of jet propulsion degrades with larger animals. This is probably why many species prefer to use their fins or arms for locomotion if possible. Oxygenated water is taken into the mantle cavity to the gills and through muscular contraction of this cavity, the spent water is expelled through the hyponome, created by a fold in the mantle. Motion of the cephalopods is usually backward as water is forced out anteriorly through the hyponome, but direction can be controlled somewhat by pointing it in different directions.(Campbell, Reece, & Mitchell, p.612) A gas jet, fluid jet, or hydro jet is a nozzle intended to eject gas or fluid in a coherent stream into a surrounding medium, or the stream itself that is ejected by such a nozzle. ... The mantle is an organ found in mollusks. ... For other uses, see Gill (disambiguation). ... The hyponome is the organ used by cephalopods for locomotion. ...


Some octopus species are also able to walk along the sea bed. Squids and cuttlefish can move short distances in any direction by rippling of a flap of muscle around the mantle. For other uses of Muscles, see Muscles (disambiguation). ...


Reproduction and life cycle

With a few exceptions, Coleoidea live short lives with rapid growth. Most of the energy extracted from their food is used for growing. The penis in most male Coleoidea is a long and muscular end of the gonoduct used to transfer spermatophores to a modified arm called a hectocotylus. That in turn is used to transfer the spermatophores to the female. In species where the hectocotylus is missing, the penis is long and able to extend beyond the mantle cavity and transfers the spermatophores directly to the female. They tend towards a semelparous reproduction strategy; they lay many small eggs in one batch and die afterwards. The Nautiloidea, on the other hand, stick to iteroparity; they produce a few large eggs in each batch and live for a long time. A hectocotylus is one of the arms of the male of most kinds of cephalopods that is modified in various ways to effect the fertilization of the females eggs. ... Semelparous Semelparous organisms produce all their offspring in a single group. ... Iteroparity (adjective iteroparous) describes a form of reproduction. ...


Evolution

The class developed during the late Cambrian, and were during the Paleozoic and Mesozoic dominant and diverse marine life forms. Tommotia, a basal cephalopod, had squid-like tentacles but also a snail-like foot it used to move across the seabed. Early cephalopods were at the top of the food chain. For other uses, see Cambrian (disambiguation). ... The Paleozoic Era (from the Greek palaio, old and zoion, animals, meaning ancient life) is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. ... The Mesozoic Era is one of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. ... Tommotia is an extinct genus of mollusc. ... For other uses, see Squid (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Snail (disambiguation). ...


The ancient (cohort Belemnoidea) and modern (cohort Neocoleoidea) coleoids, as well as the ammonoids, all diverged from the external shelled nautiloid during the middle Paleozoic Era, between 450 and 300 million years ago. Unlike most modern cephalopods, most ancient varieties had protective shells. These shells at first were conical but later developed into curved nautiloid shapes seen in modern nautilus species. However, some of the straight-shelled nautiloids evolved into belemnites, out of which some evolved into squid and cuttlefish, and others died off. Internal shells still exist in many non-shelled living cephalopod groups but most truly shelled cephalopods, such as the ammonites, became extinct at the end of the Cretaceous. This article is about the marine animal. ... Orders Palcephalopoda †Plectronocerida †Ellesmerocerida †Actinocerida †Pseudorthocerida †Endocerida †Tarphycerida †Oncocerida †Discosorida Nautilida Neocephalopoda (in part) †Orthocerida †Ascocerida †Bactritida Nautiloids are a group of marine mollusks in the subclass Nautiloidea, which all possess an external shell, the best-known example being the modern nautiluses. ... Genera Allonautilus Nautilus Nautilus (from Greek ναυτίλος, sailor) is the common name of any marine creatures of the cephalopod family Nautilidae, the sole family of the suborder Nautilina. ... Orders Nautilida Bactrida Nautiloids are a group of marine animals which all possess an external shell, the most well known example being the modern nautiluses. ... Extinct Orders Aulacocerida Phragmoteuthida Belemnitida Diplobelida Belemnoteuthina Belemnites (or belemnoids) are an extinct group of marine cephalopod, very similar in many ways to the modern squid and closely related to the modern cuttlefish. ... For other uses, see Squid (disambiguation). ... Orders and Families †Vasseuriina †Vasseuriidae †Belosepiellidae Sepiina †Belosaepiidae Sepiadariidae Sepiidae Cuttlefish are marine animals of the order Sepiida belonging to the Cephalopoda class (which also includes squid, octopuses, and nautiluses). ... // The Cretaceous Period is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ...


Classification

Chambered Nautilus (Nautilus pompilius)
Common Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis)
Atlantic Bobtail (Sepiola atlantica)
European Squid (Loligo vulgaris)
Common Octopus (Octopus vulgaris)

The classification as listed here (and on other cephalopod articles) follows largely from Current Classification of Recent Cephalopoda (May 2001), plus fossil groups from several sources. The three subclasses are traditional, corresponding to the three orders of cephalopods recognized by Bather (1888b). Parentheses indicate extinct groups. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,920 × 1,440 pixels, file size: 679 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,920 × 1,440 pixels, file size: 679 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Binomial name Nautilus pompilius Linnaeus, 1758 Subspecies Nautilus pompilius pompilius Linnaeus, 1758 Nautilus pompilius suluensis Habe & Okutani, 1988 Synonyms Nautilus repertus Iredale, 1944 The Chambered Nautilus (Nautilus pompilius) is the best known species of nautilus. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,608 × 1,952 pixels, file size: 610 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,608 × 1,952 pixels, file size: 610 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Sepia rugosa Bowdich, 1822 Sepia vicellius Gray, 1849 Sepia zebrina Risso, 1854 Sepia filliouxi Lafont, 1869 ?Sepia fischeri Lafont, 1871 Sepia officinalis mediterranea Ninni, 1884 ?Sepia veranyi P. Fischer in Lagatu, 1888 The Common Cuttlefish or European Common Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) is one of the... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2800 × 2100 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2800 × 2100 pixel, file size: 1. ... Binomial name Orbigny, 1839 (in Férussac & Orbigny, 1834–1848) The Atlantic Bobtail (Sepiola atlantica) is a species of bobtail squid native to the northeastern Atlantic Ocean (65ºN to 35ºN), from Iceland, the Faroe Islands and western Norway to the Moroccan coast. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2400x1800, 723 KB) Species European Squid (Loligo vulgaris) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Main Page Wikipedia:Main Page/Temp User:Tzaquiel User:Steinsky/todo User:Jengod... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2400x1800, 723 KB) Species European Squid (Loligo vulgaris) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Main Page Wikipedia:Main Page/Temp User:Tzaquiel User:Steinsky/todo User:Jengod... Binomial name Loligo vulgaris Lamarck, 1798 Subspecies Loligo vulgaris reynaudi Orbigny, 1839 Loligo vulgaris vulgaris Lamarck, 1798 The European Squid (Loligo vulgaris) is a large squid belonging to the family Loliginidae. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 534 pixel Image in higher resolution (1465 × 977 pixel, file size: 302 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Originally uploaded to German Wikipedia by Benutzer:Beckmannjan here. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 534 pixel Image in higher resolution (1465 × 977 pixel, file size: 302 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Originally uploaded to German Wikipedia by Benutzer:Beckmannjan here. ... Binomial name Octopus vulgaris Cuvier, 1797 Synonyms Octopus vulgaris Lamarck, 1798 Octopus rugosus Bosc, 1792 The Common Octopus (Octopus vulgaris) is the most studied of all octopus species. ...


Class Cephalopoda

  • Subclass Nautiloidea: all cephalopods except ammonoids and coleoids
    • (Order Plectronocerida): the ancestral cephalopods from the Cambrian Period
    • (Order Ellesmerocerida): include the ancestors of all later cephalopods
    • (Order Endocerida)
    • (Order Actinocerida)
    • (Order Discosorida)
    • (Order Pseudorthocerida)
    • (Order Tarphycerida)
    • (Order Oncocerida)
    • Order Nautilida: nautilus and its fossil relatives
    • (Order Orthocerida)
    • (Order Ascocerida)
    • (Order Bactritida): include the ancestors of ammonoids and coleoids
  • (Subclass Ammonoidea): extinct ammonites and kin
  • Subclass Coleoidea

Other classifications differ, primarily in how the various decapod orders are related, and whether they should be orders or families. Orders Nautilida Bactrida Nautiloids are a group of marine animals which all possess an external shell, the most well known example being the modern nautiluses. ... The primitive and ancestral Plectronoceratidae are included in the suborder, Plectronoceratina (Flower, R.H. 1964) of the Ellesmerocerida, but sometimes included in a separate order known as the Plectronocerida. ... For other uses, see Cambrian (disambiguation). ... Ellesmerocerida are the ancestral nautiloid stock which comprise all Late Cambrian and lowest of the Ordovician nautiloids from which the other orders evolved. ... families †Proterocameroceratidae †Piloceratidae †Endoceratidae The endocerids were a diverse group of cephalopods that lived during the Middle Ordovician to Late Silurian periods. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Species Allonautilus perforatus Allonautilus scrobiculatus Nautilus belauensis Nautilus macromphalus Nautilus pompilius pompilius Nautilus pompilius suluensis Nautilus stenomphalus The nautilus is a marine creature of the class Cephalopoda. ... Families Orthoceratidae Pseudorthoceratidae and many others Orthocerida are an order of extinct nautiloid cephalopods that lived from the Early Ordovician to the Late Triassic (about 500 to 200 million years ago), but were most common and diverse from the Ordovician to the Devonian. ... Ascocerida is an order of extinct nautiloid cephalopods. ... Bactritida are a small and poorly studied order of more or less straight-shelled (orthocone) nautiloids which first appeared during the Emsian Stage of the Devonian Period (390 my ago) and persisted until the Carnian Stage of the Triassic Period (235 my ago). ... This article is about the marine animal. ... Families all extinct Goniatites are an extinct group of ammonite, which are related to the nautiloids. ... Suborders Arcestina Ceratitina Lobitina Meekocerina Megaphyllitina Otoceratina Otocerina Paraceltitina Pinacocerina Prolecanitina Ptychitina Sagecerina Ceratitida is an order belonging to the extinct Cephalopod subclass Ammonoidea. ... This article is about the marine animal. ... Orders Aulacocerida (extinct) Hematitida  (extinct) Phragmoteuthida  (extinct) Belemnitida  (extinct) Sepiida Sepiolida Spirulida Teuthida Octopoda Vampyromorphida Subclass Coleoidea is the grouping of cephalopods containing all the primarily soft-bodied creatures. ... Extinct Orders Aulacocerida Phragmoteuthida Belemnitida Diplobelida Belemnoteuthina Belemnites (or belemnoids) are an extinct group of marine cephalopod, very similar in many ways to the modern squid and closely related to the modern cuttlefish. ... Families †Aulacoceratidae †Dictyoconitidae †Hematitidae †Palaeobelemnopseidae †Xiphoteuthididae Aulacocerida is an extinct order of belemnoids. ... Orders Sepiida Sepiolida Spirulida Teuthida Decapodiformes is a superorder of Cephalopoda, which includes all species with ten limbs; the name derives from the Latin meaning ten feet. ... Binomial name Spirula spirula (Linnaeus, 1758) Rams Horn Squid (Spirula spirula) is a unique and peculiar species of mollusc which constitutes a family (Spirulidae) and order (Spirulida) by itself. ... Families Sepiadariidae Sepiidae Cuttlefish are animals of the order Sepiida, and are marine cephalopods, small relatives of squids and nautilus. ... Families Idiosepiidae Sepiolidae Classification CLASS CEPHALOPODA Subclass Nautiloidea: nautilus Subclass Coleoidea: squid, octopus, cuttlefish Superorder Decapodiformes Order Spirulida: Rams Horn Squid Order Sepiida: cuttlefish Order Sepiolida: bobtail squid Family Idiosepiidae Family Sepiolidae Order Teuthida: squid Superorder Octopodiformes Categories: Animal stubs | Bobtail squid ... Suborders Myopsina Oegopsina Squids are the large, diverse group of marine mollusks, popular as food in cuisines as widely separated as the Japanese and the Italian. ... Orders Vampyromorphida Octopoda Octopodiformes is a superorder of the subclass Coleoidea. ... Binomial name Vampyroteuthis infernalis Chun, 1903 The Vampire Squid (Vampyroteuthis infernalis, lit. ... Families 14 in two suborders, see text The octopus is a cephalopod of the order Octopoda that inhabits many diverse regions of the ocean, especially coral reefs. ... Orders Sepiida Sepiolida Spirulida Teuthida Decapodiformes is a superorder of Cephalopoda, which includes all species with ten limbs; the name derives from the Latin meaning ten feet. ...


Shevyrev classification

Shevyrev (2005) suggested a division into eight subclasses, mostly comprising the more diverse and numerous fossil forms.


Class Cephalopoda Cuvier 1795

  • Subclass Ellesmeroceratoidea Flower 1950
  • Subclass Endoceratoidea Teichert, 1933
  • Subclass Actinoceratoidea Teichert, 1933
  • Subclass Nautiloidea Agassiz, 1847
  • Subclass Orthoceratoidea Kuhn, 1940
  • Subclass Bactritoidea Shimansky, 1951
  • Subclass Ammonoidea Zittel, 1884
  • Subclass Coleoidea Bather, 1888

The first mention of Coleoidea appears in (Bather, 1888a) among this article's references.


Cladistic classification

Another recent system divides all cephalopods into two clades. One includes nautilus and most fossil nautiloids. The other clade (Neocephalopoda or Angusteradulata) is closer to modern coleoids, and includes belemnoids, ammonoids, and many orthocerid families. There are also stem group cephalopods of the traditional Ellesmerocerida that belong to neither clade (Berthold & Engeser, 1987; Engeser 1997). A clade is a term belonging to the discipline of cladistics. ... subgroups Order Orthocerida  (in part)† Order Ascocerida† Order Bactritida† Subclass Ammonoidea† Subclass Coleoidea Belemnoidea† Neocoleoidea Synonyms (= Angusteradulata Lehmann 1967) Neocephalopods are a group of cephalopod mollusks that include the coleoids and all extinct species that are more closely related to extant coleoids than to the nautilus. ... Families Orthoceratidae Pseudorthoceratidae and many others Orthocerida are an order of extinct nautiloid cephalopods that lived from the Early Ordovician to the Late Triassic (about 500 to 200 million years ago), but were most common and diverse from the Ordovician to the Devonian. ... In palaeontology, a stem group is a systematic grouping that is required to accommodate fossils in the classification of organisms. ... Ellesmerocerida are the ancestral nautiloid stock which comprise all Late Cambrian and lowest of the Ordovician nautiloids from which the other orders evolved. ...


See also

An octopus keeping watch. ... The giant squid (Architeuthis sp. ... For other uses, see Kraken (disambiguation). ...

Notes

  1. ^ [updated 28-Nov-2000] [cit. 12-Dec-2003] http://www.cephbase.dal.ca/spdb/allsp.cfm
  2. ^ [updated 13-Jun-2003] [cit. 27-Feb-2005] http://www.cephbase.utmb.edu/spdb/allsp.cfm
  3. ^ Brune, R., H. (2004) Encyklopedie ulit a lastur. – Rebo Productions, Dobřejovice, 1. vydání, 336 pp., page 16. (in Czech)
  4. ^ Ivanov M., Hrdličková, S. & Gregorová, R. (2001) Encyklopedie zkamenělin. – Rebo Productions, Dobřejovice, 1. vydání, 312 pp., page 139. (in Czech)
  5. ^ a b Messenger, John B.; Roger T. Hanlon (1998). Cephalopod Behaviour. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 17-21. ISBN 0-521-64583-2. 
  6. ^ Hanlon and Messenger, 68.
  7. ^ Wells, M.J. (1980). "Nervous control of the heartbeat in octopus". Journal of Experimental Biology 85 (1): 112. 
  8. ^ Ghiretti-Magaldi, A.; Ghiretti, F. (October 1992). "The Pre-history of Hemocyanin. The Discovery of Copper in the Blood of Molluscs". Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 48 (10). Birkhäuser Basel. 

References

  • Bather, F.A. 1888a. Shell-growth in Cephalopoda (Siphonopoda). Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Series 6, Vol. 1: 298-310
  • Bather, F.A. 1888b. Professor Blake and Shell-Growth in Cephalopoda. Annals and Magazine of Natural History. Series 6, Vol. 1: 421-426.
  • Berthold, Thomas, & Engeser, Theo. 1987. Phylogenetic analysis and systematization of the Cephalopoda (Mollusca). Verhandlungen Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins in Hamburg. (NF) 29: 187-220.
  • Engeser, Theo. 1997. Fossil Nautiloidea Page. <http://userpage.fu-berlin.de/~palaeont/fossilnautiloidea/fossnautcontent.htm>
  • Felley, J., Vecchione, M., Roper, C. F. E., Sweeney, M. & Christensen, T., 2001-2003: Current Classification of Recent Cephalopoda. internet: National Museum of Natural History: Department of Systematic Biology: Invertebrate Zoology: http://www.mnh.si.edu/cephs/
  • Shevyrev, A.A. 2005. The Cephalopod Macrosystem: A Historical Review, the Present State of Knowledge, and Unsolved Problems: 1. Major Features and Overall Classification of Cephalopod Mollusks. Paleontological Journal. 39(6):606-614. Translated from Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal No. 6, 2005, 33-42.
  • Campbell, Neil A., Reece, Jane B., and Mitchell, Lawrence G.: Biology, fifth edition. Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. Menlo Park, California. 1999 ISBN 0-8053-6566-4

External links

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Cephalopoda

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