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Encyclopedia > Centrifuge
A laboratory tabletop centrifuge

A centrifuge is a piece of equipment, generally driven by a motor, that puts an object in rotation around a fixed axis, applying force perpendicular to the axis. The centrifuge works using the sedimentation principle, where the centripetal acceleration is used to separate substances of greater and lesser density. There are many different kinds of centrifuges, including those for very specialised purposes. Centrifuge is the name of a series of Christian summer camps for children, youth, and young adults centered on Bible study, worship, missions work, and recreational activities. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1704x2272, 1300 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1704x2272, 1300 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... The simplest three-dimensional case of rotation is rotation of a body about a fixed axis of rotation: each point of the body moves in a plane perpendicular to the axis, carrying out a circular motion, with the circle centered at the intersection of the plane and the axis. ... Sedimentation describes the motion of particles in solutions or suspensions in response to an external force such as gravity, centrifugal force or electric force. ... A centripetal force is a force pulling an object toward the center of a circular path as the object goes around the circle. ...

Protocols for centrifugation typically specify the amount of [acceleration] to be applied to the sample, rather than specifying a rotational speed such as revolutions per minute. The acceleration is often quoted in multiples of g, the acceleration due to gravity at the Earth's surface. This distinction is important because two rotors with different diameters running at the same rotational speed will subject samples to different accelerations. Rotational speed (sometimes called speed of revolution) indicates for example how fast the motor is running. ... For other uses, see Revolutions per minute (disambiguation). ... Gravity is a force of attraction that acts between bodies that have mass. ...

The acceleration can be calculated as the product of the radius and the square of the angular velocity. Remote Authentication Dial In User Service (RADIUS) is an AAA (authentication, authorization and accounting) protocol for applications such as network access or IP mobility. ... Angular velocity describes the speed of rotation and the orientation of the instantaneous axis about which the rotation occurs. ...

## History and predecessors

English military engineer Laval (1707-1751) invented a whirling arm apparatus to determine drag, and Antonin Prandl invented the first centrifuge in order to separate cream from milk to make churning butter much easier. Laval is the name of: A city in Quebec near Montreal: see Laval, Quebec An arciphelago within the limits of the above city: see ÃŽles-Laval A city in Mayenne, France: see Laval, Mayenne A city in IsÃ¨re, France: see Laval, IsÃ¨re A university in Quebec City: see... An object falling through a gas or liquid experiences a force in direction opposite to its motion. ...

## Types and uses

There are basically four types of centrifuge:

• Tabletop/clinical/desktop centrifuge or microcentrifuge
• High-speed centrifuge
• Cooling centrifuge
• Ultracentrifuge

The ultracentrifuge is a centrifuge optimized for spinning a rotor at very high speeds, capable of generating acceleration as high as 1,000,000 G (9,800 km/s²) There are two kinds of ultracentrifuges, the preparative and the analytical ultracentrifuge. ...

### Laboratory centrifuge

Main article: Laboratory centrifuge

Simple centrifuges are used in chemistry, biology, and biochemistry for isolating and separating suspensions. They vary widely in speed and capacity. They usually comprise a rotor containing two, four, six, or many more numbered wells within which the samples contained centrifuge tips may be placed. A laboratory tabletop centrifuge A laboratory centrifuge is a piece of laboratory equipment, driven by a motor, which spins liquid samples at high speed. ...

### Isotope separation

Other centrifuges, the first being the Zippe-type centrifuge, separate isotopes, and these kinds of centrifuges are in use in nuclear power and nuclear weapon programs. The Zippe-type centrifuge is a device designed to collect Uranium-235. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... This article is about applications of nuclear fission reactors as power sources. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ...

Gas centrifuges are used in uranium enrichment. The heavier isotope of uranium (uranium-238) in the uranium hexafluoride gas tend to concentrate at the walls of the centrifuge as it spins, while the desired uranium-235 isotope is extracted and concentrated with a scoop selectively placed inside the centrifuge. It takes many thousands of centrifuges to enrich uranium enough for use in a nuclear reactor (around 3.5% enrichment), and many thousands more to enrich it to atomic bomb-grade (around 90% enrichment). A cascade of gas centrifuges at a United States enrichment plant. ... Enriched uranium is uranium whose uranium-235 content has been increased through the process of isotope separation. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... There are two objects with this name: Unterseeboot 238 Uranium-238, the most common isotope of uranium This is a disambiguation page &#8212; a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Uranium hexafluoride (UF6), referred to as hex in industry, is a compound used in the uranium enrichment process that produces fuel for nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons. ... Uranium-235 is an isotope of uranium that differs from the elements other common isotope, uranium-238, by its ability to cause a rapidly expanding fission chain reaction. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ...

The 20 G centrifuge at the NASA Ames Research Center

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3000x1178, 985 KB) The 20G centrifuge at NASAs Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3000x1178, 985 KB) The 20G centrifuge at NASAs Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. ... Aerial View of Moffett Field and NASA Ames Research Center. ...

### Aeronautics and astronautics

Human Centrifuges are exceptionally large centrifuges that test the reactions and tolerance of pilots and astronauts to acceleration above those experienced in the Earth's gravity. For other uses, see Aviator (disambiguation). ... Astronaut Bruce McCandless II using a manned maneuvering unit outside the U.S. Space Shuttle Challenger in 1984. ... Gravity is a force of attraction that acts between bodies that have mass. ...

The US Air Force at Holloman Air Force Base, NM operates a human centrifuge. The centrifuge at Holloman AFB is operated by the aerospace physiology department for the purpose of training and evaluating prospective fighter pilots for high-g flight in Air Force fighter aircraft. It is important to note that the centrifuge at Holloman AFB is unrealistic in that it is far more difficult for a pilot to tolerate the high-g environment in the centrifuge than in a real fighter aircraft. This well-known fact is based on countless accounts from experienced operational fighter pilots. [citation needed] Holloman Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base in Otero County, about 6 miles SW of Alamogordo, New Mexico. ... Aerospace physiology refers to effects on the human body caused by characteristics of the aerospace environment. ...

The use of large centrifuges to simulate a feeling of gravity has been proposed for future long-duration space missions. Exposure to this simulated gravity would prevent or reduce the bone decalcification and muscle atrophy that affect individuals exposed to long periods of freefall. An example of this can be seen in the film 2001: A Space Odyssey. There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... // Clinical settings of atrophy There are many diseases and conditions which cause a decrease in muscle mass, known as atrophy. ...

### Commercial applications

• Standalone centrifuges for drying (hand-washed) clothes - usually with a water outlet.
• Centrifuges are used in the attraction Mission: SPACE, located at Epcot in Walt Disney World, which propels riders using a combination of a centrifuge and a motion simulator to simulate the feeling of going into space.
• In soil mechanics, centrifuges utilize centrifugal acceleration to match soil stresses in a scale model to those found in reality.
• Large industrial centrifuges are commonly used in water and wastewater treatment to dry sludges. The resulting dry product is often termed cake, and the water leaving a centrifuge after most of the solids have been removed is called centrate.

This article is about the Epcot theme park. ... Cinderella Castle, at the center of the Magic Kingdom, is Walt Disney World Resorts most recognizable icon Introduction Owned and operated by The Walt Disney Company, the Walt Disney World Resort in Florida, USA is home to four theme parks, two water parks, several resort hotels and golf courses... Simulator seating St. ... Space has been an interest for philosophers and scientists for much of human history. ... Soil mechanics is a discipline that applies the principles of engineering mechanics to soil to predict the mechanical behavior of soil. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Wastewater is any water that has been adversely affected in quality by anthropogenic influence. ... SLUDGE (Scripting Language for Unhindered Development of a Gaming Environment) is a shareware adventure game engine developed by Hungry Software. ...

## Calculating relative centrifugal force (RCF)

Relative centrifugal force is the measurement of the force applied to a sample within a centrifuge. This can be calculated from the speed (RPM) and the rotational radius (cm) using the following calculation.

$g = RCF = 0.00001118,r , N^2 ,$

where

g = Relative centrifuge force
r = rotational radius (centimetre, cm)
N = rotating speed (revolutions per minute, r/min)

A centimetre (American spelling centimeter, symbol cm) is a unit of length that is equal to one hundredth of a metre, the current SI base unit of length. ... For other uses, see Revolutions per minute (disambiguation). ...

Centrifugation is a process that involves the use of the centrifugal force for the separation of mixtures. ... A cascade of gas centrifuges at a United States enrichment plant. ...

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 Centrifuge Summary (1794 words) Protocols for centrifugation typically specify the amount of acceleration to be applied to the sample, rather than specifying a rotational speed such as revolutions per minute. Centrifuges are used in the attraction Mission: SPACE, located at Epcot in Walt Disney World, which propels riders using a combination of a centrifuge and a motion simulator to simulate the feeling of going into space. The heavier isotopes of uranium (uranium-238) in the uranium hexafluoride gas tend to concentrate at the walls of the centrifuge as it spins, while the desired uranium-235 isotopes are extracted and concentrated with a scoop selectively placed inside the centrifuge.
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