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Encyclopedia > Centrifugation

Centrifugation is a process that involves the use of the centrifugal force for the separation of mixtures. Centrifugal force stems from Latin centrum center and fugere to flee. In Newtonian physics [1] it is the centripetal force that induces curved motion. ... In chemistry and chemical engineering, a separation process is a process that transforms a mixture of substances into two or more compositionally-distinct products. ...

In chemistry, increasing the effective gravitational force on a test tube so as to more rapidly and completely cause the precipitate to gather on the bottom of the tube. The solution is then either quickly decanted from the tube without disturbing the precipitate or withdrawn by means of a medicine dropper. The rate of centrifugation is specified by the acceleration applied to the sample, typically measured in g. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into gravity. ... Dissolving table salt in water In chemistry, a solution is a homogeneous mixture of one or more substances (the solutes) dissolved in another substance (the solvent). ... Decantation is a process for the separation of mixtures, carefully pouring a solution from a container, leaving the precipitate (sediments) in the bottom of the container. ... Acceleration is the time rate of change of velocity, and at any point on a v-t graph, it is given by the gradient of the tangent to that point In physics, acceleration (symbol: a) is defined as the rate of change (or time derivative) of velocity. ... g (also gee, g-force or g-load) is a non-SI unit of acceleration defined as exactly 9. ...


There are various types of centrifugation:

Sucrose gradient centrifugation is a type of centrifugation often used for enveloped viruses with densities 1. ... Differential centrifugation is a procedure in which the homogenate is subjected to repeated centrifugations each time increasing the centrifugal force. ... Isopycnic (buoyant density or equilibrium) centrifugation Isopycnic Position Density of particle = Density of Medium Once both medium and sample meet the isopycnic position, they will stay at that position. ...

Other applications

  • Separating textile.
  • Removing water from lettuce after washing it.
  • Separating particles from an air-flow using cyclonic separation.

It has been suggested that Textile manufacturing be merged into this article or section. ... Cyclonic separation is a method of removing particles from an air (or gas) stream without having to use filters. ...

See also

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Centrifuge Summary (1794 words)
Protocols for centrifugation typically specify the amount of acceleration to be applied to the sample, rather than specifying a rotational speed such as revolutions per minute.
Centrifuges are used in the attraction Mission: SPACE, located at Epcot in Walt Disney World, which propels riders using a combination of a centrifuge and a motion simulator to simulate the feeling of going into space.
The heavier isotopes of uranium (uranium-238) in the uranium hexafluoride gas tend to concentrate at the walls of the centrifuge as it spins, while the desired uranium-235 isotopes are extracted and concentrated with a scoop selectively placed inside the centrifuge.
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