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Encyclopedia > Centrifugal governor

A centrifugal governor is a specific type of governor that controls the speed of an engine by regulating the amount of fuel admitted, so as to maintain a near constant speed whatever the load or fuel supply conditions. It uses the principle of proportional control. A governor is a device used to measure and regulate the speed of a machine, such as an engine. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Engine (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fuel (disambiguation). ... Load may mean: Look up Load in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... attention A proportional control system is a type of linear feedback control system. ...

Drawing of a centrifugal "flyball" governor

It is most obviously seen on steam engines where it regulates the admission of steam into the cylinder(s). It is also found on internal combustion engines and variously fueled turbines. Image File history File links Centrifugal_governor. ... Image File history File links Centrifugal_governor. ... // The term steam engine may also refer to an entire railroad steam locomotive. ... Cylinder with piston in a steam engine A cylinder in the central working part of a reciprocating engine, the space in which a piston travels. ... The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of fuel and an oxidizer (typically air) occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. ... A Siemens steam turbine with the case opened. ...


The device shown is from a steam engine. It is connected to a throttle valve and to the prime mover (not shown). The action of the governor is dependent on centrifugal force. As the speed of the prime mover increases, the central spindle of the governor rotates at a faster rate and the two masses move outwards, and this motion is translated by the series of rods and arms to the throttle valve, reducing its aperture. The rate of steam entering the cylinder is thus reduced and the speed of the prime mover falls. If the speed of the prime mover falls, the reverse effect occurs and the throttle valve opens further. In an engine, the throttle is the mechanism by which the engines power is increased or decreased. ... For the philosophical/theological concept of a prime mover (that is, a self-existent being that is the ultimate cause or mover of all things), see cosmological argument. ... Centrifugal force (from Latin centrum centre and fugere to flee) is a term which may refer to two different forces which are related to rotation. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


James Watt designed his first governor in 1788 following a suggestion from his business partner Matthew Boulton. It was a conical pendulum governor and one of the final series of innovations Watt had employed for steam engines. James Watt never claimed the centrifugal governor to be an invention of his own. Centrifugal governors were used to regulate the distance and pressure between millstones in windmills since the 17th century. It is therefore a misunderstanding that James Watt is the inventor of this device[citation needed]. For other persons named James Watt, see James Watt (disambiguation). ... 1788 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Matthew Boulton. ... This article is about the geometric object, for other uses see Cone. ... The interior of a functional water mill The basic anatomy of a millstone. ... A Dutch tower windmill, sporting sails, surrounded by tulips A windmill is an engine powered by the wind to produce energy, often contained in a large building as in traditional post mills, smock mills and tower mills. ...


A giant statue of Watt's governor stands at Smethwick in the English West Midlands. It is known as the flyball governor. For the former parliamentary constituency, see Smethwick (UK Parliament constituency). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The County of West Midlands is a metropolitan county in western central England with a population of around 2,600,000 people. ...


Another kind of centrifugal governor consists of a pair of masses on a spindle inside a cylinder, the masses or the cylinder being coated with pads. This is used in a spring-loaded record player and a spring-loaded telephone dial to limit the speed. Edison cylinder phonograph from about 1899 The phonograph, or gramophone, was the most common device for playing recorded sound from the 1870s through the 1980s. ... For other uses, see Telephone (disambiguation). ...


The centrifugal governor is often used in the cognitive sciences as an example of a dynamic system, in which the representation of information cannot be clearly separated from the operations being applied to the representation. And because the governor is a servomechanism, its analysis in a dynamic system is far from trivial. James Clerk Maxwell wrote a famous paper "On governors"[1], which is quite frequently considered a classical paper in feedback control theory, in 1868. Maxwell distinguishes moderators (a centrifugal brake) and governors which control motive power input. He considers devices by Watt, Professor James Thomson, Mr. Fleeming Jenkin, Sir William Thomson, M. Leon Foucault and Mr Carl Wilhelm Siemens (a liquid governor). Tim van Gelder is an associate professor of philosophy and a fellow of the Philosophy Department at the University of Melbourne. ... Small R/C servo mechanism 1. ... James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish mathematician and theoretical physicist from Edinburgh, Scotland, UK. His most significant achievement was aggregating a set of equations in electricity, magnetism and inductance — eponymously named Maxwells equations — including an important modification (extension) of the Ampères... For control theory in psychology and sociology, see control theory (sociology). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Look up control in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In thermodynamics, motive power is an agency, as water or steam, used to impart motion. ... Input3 is the term denoting either an entrance or changes which are inserted into a system and which activate/modify a process. ... For other persons named James Watt, see James Watt (disambiguation). ... James Thomson (February 16, 1822 - May 8, 1892) was an Irish engineer and physicist whose reputation would have been substantial had it not been overshadowed by that of his brother William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin. ... Henry Charles Fleeming Jenkin (March 25, 1833 - June 12, 1885) was Professor of Engineering at Edinburgh University, remarkable for his versatility. ... There have been a number of people named William Thomson: William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, usually known as Lord Kelvin, was a 19th century British physicist. ... J. B. Léon Foucault Jean Bernard Léon Foucault (18 September 1819–11 February 1868) was a French physicist best known for the invention of the Foucault pendulum, a device demonstrating the effect of the Earths rotation. ... Wilhelm Siemens Carl Wilhelm Siemens (en: Charles William Siemens) (April 4, 1823 – November 19, 1883) was a German engineer. ...


In a largely overlooked passage of his famous 1858 paper to the Linnean Society (which led Darwin to publish his monumental On the Origin of Species) Wallace says of the evolutionary principle: The Linnean Society of London is the worlds premier society for the study and dissemination of taxonomy. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... The 1859 edition of On the Origin of Species First published in 1859, The Origin of Species (full title On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life) by British naturalist Charles Darwin is one of the pivotal... For the Cornish painter, see Alfred Wallis. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ...

The action of this principle is exactly like that of the centrifugal governor of the steam engine, which checks and corrects any irregularities almost before they become evident; and in like manner no unbalanced deficiency in the animal kingdom can ever reach any conspicuous magnitude, because it would make itself felt at the very first step, by rendering existence difficult and extinction almost sure soon to follow.[2].

The cybernetician and anthropologist Gregory Bateson would observe in the 1970s that though seeing it only as an illustration, Wallace had "probably said the most powerful thing that’d been said in the 19th Century".[3] Bateson revisited the topic in his 1979 book Mind and Nature: A Necessary Unity, and other scholars have continued to explore the connection between natural selection and systems theory.[4] For other uses, see Cybernetics (disambiguation). ... Gregory Bateson (9 May 1904–4 July 1980) was a British anthropologist, social scientist, linguist and cyberneticist whose work intersected that of many other fields. ... Systems theory is an interdisciplinary field of science. ...


References

  1. ^ J.C.Maxwell "On Governors" Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Vol. 16, 1868, pp. 270-283
  2. ^ Wallace, Alfred. the Tendency of Varieties to Depart Indefinitely From the Original Type
  3. ^ Brand, Stewart. For God’s Sake, Margaret. CoEvolutionary Quarterly, June 1976. Retrieved on 2007-04-04.
  4. ^ Smith, Charles H.. Wallace's Unfinished Business. Complexity (publisher Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) Volume 10, No 2, 2004. Retrieved on 2007-05-11.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Centrifugal force - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1650 words)
Centrifugal force (from Latin centrum "center" and fugere "to flee") is a term which may refer to two different forces which are related to rotation.
Similarly, the potential energy of the centrifugal force is often used in the calculation of the height of the tides on the Earth (where the centrifugal force is included to account for the rotation of the Earth around the Earth-Moon center of mass).
Centrifuges are used in science and industry to separate substances by their relative masses.
Centrifugal governor - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (403 words)
A centrifugal governor is a specific type of governor that controls the speed of an engine by regulating the amount of fuel admitted, so as to maintain a near constant speed whatever the load or fuel supply conditions.
As the speed of the prime mover increases, the central spindle of the governor rotates at a faster rate and the two masses move outwards, and this motion is translated by the series of rods and arms to the throttle valve, reducing its aperture.
The centrifugal governor is often used in the cognitive sciences as an example of a dynamic system, in which the representation of information cannot be clearly separated from the operations being applied to the representation.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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