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Encyclopedia > Central nervous system
A diagram showing the CNS:1. Brain2. Central nervous system    (brain and spinal cord)3. Spinal cord
A diagram showing the CNS:
1. Brain
2. Central nervous system
    (brain and spinal cord)
3. Spinal cord

The central nervous system (CNS) of the vertebrate nervous system which is enclosed in meninges. It contains the majority of the nervous system, and consists of the brain (in vertebrates which have brains), and the spinal cord. Together with the peripheral nervous system, it has a fundamental role in the control of behavior. The CNS is contained within the dorsal cavity, with the brain within the cranial cavity, and the spinal cord in the spinal cavity. The brain is also protected by the skull, and the spinal cord is, in vertebrates, also protected by the vertebrae. [1] Image File history File links Central_nervous_system. ... Image File history File links Central_nervous_system. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The nervous system is a highly specialized network whose principal components are nerves called neurons. ... The meninges (singular meninx) are the system of membranes that envelop the central nervous system. ... For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ... The Spinal cord nested in the vertebral column. ... The Peripheral nervous system resides or extends outside the CNS central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord) to serve the limbs and organs. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The human body consists of the following body cavities: dorsal body cavity cranial cavity, enclosed by the Skull and contains the brain, eyes, and ears. ...   The cranial cavity isj the relatively large space formed inside the skull. ... The spinal canal is the space in vertebrae through which the spinal cord passes. ...

Contents

3 Parts

1.) Brain


2.)Spinal Cord


3.)PNS or the peripheral nervous system


Function

Main article: Brain Function

Since the strong theoretical influence of cybernetics in the fifties, the central nervous system is conceived as a system devoted to information processing, where an appropriate motor output is computed as a response to a sensory input. Yet, many threads of research suggest that motor activity exists well before the maturation of the sensory systems and then, that the senses only influence behaviour without dictating it. Visual system Auditory system Olfactory system Gustatory system Somatosensory system Visual perception Motor cortex Brocas area (aka Language Area) Lateralization of brain function Phrenology Cybernetics Connectionism Modularity of mind Artificial intelligence Society of Mind Neuropsychology Electroencephalography Electrophysiology Magnetoencephalography Functional MRI Positron emission tomography Categories: | ... For other uses, see Cybernetics (disambiguation). ...


Neuroanatomy

Main article: Neuroanatomy

The telencephalon gives rise to the striatum (caudate nucleus and putamen), the hippocampus and the neocortex, its cavity becomes the lateral ventricles (first and second ventricles). The diencephalon give rise to the subthalamus, hypothalamus, thalamus and epithalamus, its cavity to the third ventricle. The mesencephalon gives rise to the tectum, pretectum, cerebral peduncle and its cavity develops into the mesencephalic duct or cerebral aqueduct. Finally, the rhombencephalon gives rise to the pons, the cerebellum and the medulla oblongata, its cavity becomes the fourth ventricle. Neuroanatomy is the anatomy of the nervous system. ... Coronal slices of human brain showing the basal ganglia, the striatum and pallidum globus pallidus: external segment (GPe), subthalamic nucleus (STN), globus pallidus: internal segment (GPi), and substantia nigra (SN). ... For other uses, see Hippocampus (disambiguation). ... The neocortex (Latin for new bark or new rind) is a part of the brain of mammals. ... The ventricular system is a fluid conducting system within the brain. ... The subthalamus, or ventral thalamus, is part of the diencephalon. ... The hypothalamus links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis). ... The thalamus (from Greek θάλαμος = bedroom, chamber, IPA= /ˈθæləməs/) is a pair and symmetric part of the brain. ... The epithalamus is a dorsal posterior segment of the diencephalon (a segment in the middle of the brain also containing the hypothalamus and the thalamus) which includes the habenula, the stria medullaris and the pineal body. ... The third ventricle is one of the four connected fluid-filled cavities within the human brain. ... The tectum is the dorsal part of the midbrain, derived in embryonic development from the alar plate of the neural tube. ... Pretectum is a structure located in the forebrain. ... The cerebral peduncle, by most classifications, is everything in the mesencephalon except the tectum. ... The mesencephalic duct, also known as the aqueduct of Silvius or the cerebral aqueduct, contains cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), is within the mesencephalon (or midbrain) and connects the third ventricle in the thalamus (or diencephalon) to the fourth ventricle, which is between the pons and cerebellum. ... For other uses, see Pons (disambiguation). ... The cerebellum (Latin: little brain) is a region of the brain that plays an important role in the integration of sensory perception and motor control. ... The medulla oblongata is the lower portion of the brainstem. ...

Central
nervous
system
Brain Prosencephalon Telencephalon

Rhinencephalon, Amygdala, Hippocampus, Neocortex, Lateral ventricles For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ... In the anatomy of vertebrates, the prosencephalon is a part of encephalon, or brain. ... The telencephalon (te-len-seff-a-lon) is the technical name for a large region within the brain which is attributed many functions, which some groups would class as unique features which make humans stand out from other species. ... In animal anatomy, the rhinencephalon is a part of the brain involved with olfaction. ... This article is about part of the human brain. ... For other uses, see Hippocampus (disambiguation). ... The neocortex (Latin for new bark or new rind) is a part of the brain of mammals. ... The ventricular system is a fluid conducting system within the brain. ...

Diencephalon

Epithalamus, Thalamus, Hypothalamus, Subthalamus, Pituitary gland, Pineal gland, Third ventricle The diencephalon is the region of the brain that includes the epithalamus, thalamus, and hypothalamus. ... The epithalamus is a dorsal posterior segment of the diencephalon (a segment in the middle of the brain also containing the hypothalamus and the thalamus) which includes the habenula, the stria medullaris and the pineal body. ... The thalamus (from Greek θάλαμος = bedroom, chamber, IPA= /ˈθæləməs/) is a pair and symmetric part of the brain. ... The hypothalamus links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis). ... The subthalamus, or ventral thalamus, is part of the diencephalon. ... | Latin = hypophysis, glandula pituitaria | GraySubject = 275 | GrayPage = 1275 | Image = Gray1180. ... The pineal gland (also called the pineal body or epiphysis) is a small endocrine gland in the brain. ... The third ventricle is one of the four connected fluid-filled cavities within the human brain. ...

Brain stem Mesencephalon

Tectum, Cerebral peduncle, Pretectum, Mesencephalic duct The brain stem is the lower part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord. ... In biological anatomy, the mesencephalon (or midbrain) is the middle of three vesicles that arise from the neural tube that forms the brain of developing animals. ... The tectum is the dorsal part of the midbrain, derived in embryonic development from the alar plate of the neural tube. ... The cerebral peduncle, by most classifications, is everything in the mesencephalon except the tectum. ... Pretectum is a structure located in the forebrain. ... The mesencephalic duct, also known as the aqueduct of Silvius or the cerebral aqueduct, contains cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), is within the mesencephalon (or midbrain) and connects the third ventricle in the thalamus (or diencephalon) to the fourth ventricle, which is between the pons and cerebellum. ...

Rhombencephalon Metencephalon

Pons, Cerebellum, The rhombencephalon (or hindbrain) is a developmental categorization of portions of the central nervous system in vertebrates. ... The metencephalon is a developmental categorization of portions of the central nervous system. ... For other uses, see Pons (disambiguation). ... The cerebellum (Latin: little brain) is a region of the brain that plays an important role in the integration of sensory perception and motor control. ...

Myelencephalon Medulla oblongata
Spinal cord

The myelencephalon is a developmental categorization of a portion of the central nervous system. ... The medulla oblongata is the lower portion of the brainstem. ... The Spinal cord nested in the vertebral column. ...

Evolution

Main article: Brain

The basic pattern of the CNS is highly conserved throughout the different species of vertebrates and during evolution. The major trend that can be observed is towards a progressive telencephalisation: while in the reptilian brain that region is only an appendix to the large olfactory bulb, it represents most of the volume of the mammalian CNS. In the human brain, the telencephalon covers most of the diencephalon and the mesencephalon. Indeed, the allometric study of brain size among different species shows a striking continuity from rats to whales, and allows us to complete the knowledge about the evolution of the CNS obtained through cranial endocasts.
See also: Encephalization, Neocortex, Archicortex For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ... Typical classes Petromyzontidae (lampreys) Placodermi - extinct Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fish) Acanthodii - extinct Actinopterygii (ray-finned fish) Actinistia (coelacanths) Dipnoi (lungfish) Amphibia (amphibians) Reptilia (reptiles) Aves (birds) Mammalia (mammals) Vertebrata is a subphylum of chordates, specifically, those with backbones or spinal columns. ... Allometry is the science studying the differential growth rates of the parts of a living organisms body part or process. ... An endocast or endocranial cast is a cast made of the mold formed by the impression the brain makes on the inside of the neurocranium (braincase), providing a replica of the brain with most of the details of its outer surface. ... Encephalization is defined as the amount of brain mass exceeding that related to an animals total body mass. ... The neocortex (Latin for new bark or new rind) is a part of the brain of mammals. ... Archicortex is basically categorized under allocortex. ...


Parts of the vertebrate CNS

In addition to the structures seen to the right in table above, a vast number of structures are present in the adult brain. // medulla oblongata medullary pyramids pons paramedian pontine reticular formation fourth ventricle cerebellum cerebellar vermis cerebellar hemispheres anterior lobe posterior lobe flocculonodular lobe cerebellar nuclei fastigial nucleus globose nucleus emboliform nucleus dentate nucleus tectum inferior colliculi superior colliculi mesencephalic duct (cerebral aqueduct, Aqueduct of Sylvius) cerebral peduncle midbrain tegmentum ventral tegmental...


See also

This is a glossary of anatomical terminology, definitions and abbreviations pertinent to the description of the Central Nervous System. ... Central nervous system infections are those infections of the central nervous system (CNS). ... Neuroradiology is the branch of radiology dealing with the nervous system. ...

References

  1. ^ Maton, Anthea; Jean Hopkins, Charles William McLaughlin, Susan Johnson, Maryanna Quon Warner, David LaHart, Jill D. Wright (1993). Human Biology and Health. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA: Prentice Hall, 132-144. ISBN 0-13-981176-1. 

External links

[[zh:中樞神經系統] Bold text == Headline text == minni hi. ... This article is about cellular photoreceptors. ... Hair cells are the sensory cells of both the auditory system and the vestibular system in all vertebrates. ... Taste buds are small structures on the upper surface of the tongue, soft palate, and epiglottis that provide information about the taste of food being eaten. ... Neuroglia of the brain shown by Golgis method. ... Astrocytes (also known collectively as astroglia) are characteristic star-shaped glial cells in the brain. ... Radial glial cells are a pivotal cell type in the developing CNS involved in key developmental processes, ranging from patterning and neuronal migration to their newly described role as precursors during neurogenesis. ... Oligodendrocytes (from Greek literally meaning few tree cells), or oligodendroglia (Greek, few tree glue),[1] are a variety of neuroglia. ... Ependyma is the thin epithelial membrane lining the ventricular system of the brain and the spinal cord canal. ... Microglia cells positive for lectins Microglia are a type of glial cell that act as the immune cells of the Central nervous system (CNS). ... Myelin is an electrically insulating phospholipid layer that surrounds the axons of many neurons. ... White matter is one of the two main solid components of the central nervous system. ... Oligodendrocytes (from Greek literally meaning few tree cells), or oligodendroglia (Greek, few tree glue),[1] are a variety of neuroglia. ... Named after the German physiologist Theodor Schwann, Schwann cells are a variety of neuroglia that mainly provide myelin insulation to axons in the peripheral nervous system of jawed vertebrates. ... Neurolemma (spelled also neurolema, neurilemma and neurilema, and used interchangeably with epineurium) is the insulating myelin layer that surrounds an individual peripheral nerve fiber. ... This article is about anatomy; for the musical group see Nodes of Ranvier (band) Nodes of Ranvier are regularly spaced gaps in the myelin sheath around an axon or nerve fiber. ... The portion of nerve fiber between two Nodes of Ranvier is called an internodal segment (or internode). ... Oblique clefts may be seen in the medullary sheath, subdividing it into irregular portions, which are termed Schmidt-Lanterman incisures (or clefts of schmidt-lanterman, segments of Lantermann, medullary segments. ... Connective tissue is one of the four types of tissue in traditional classifications (the others being epithelial, muscle, and nervous tissue. ... Neurolemma (spelled also neurolema, neurilemma and neurilema, and used interchangeably with epineurium) is the insulating myelin layer that surrounds an individual peripheral nerve fiber. ... In a nerve fiber, the tubular sheath of the funiculi, perineurium, is a fine, smooth, transparent membrane, which may be easily separated, in the form of a tube, from the fibers it encloses; in structure it is made up of connective tissue, which has a distinctly lamellar arrangement. ... The nerve fibers are held together and supported within the funiculus by delicate connective tissue, called the endoneurium. ... A small bundle of fibers, enclosed in a tubular sheath, is called a funiculus; if the nerve is of small size, it may consist only of a single funiculus; but if large, the funiculi are collected together into larger bundles or nerve fascicles, which are bound together in a common... The meninges (singular meninx) are the system of membranes that envelop the central nervous system. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
nervous system. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-07 (1463 words)
Invertebrate animals show varying degrees of complexity in their nervous systems, but it is in the vertebrate animals (phylum Chordata, subphylum Vertebrata) that the system reaches its greatest complexity.
The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord.
All of the fibers of the autonomic nervous system are motor channels, and their impulses arise from the nerve tissue itself, so that the organs they innervate perform more or less involuntarily and do not require stimulation to function.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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