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Encyclopedia > Central Powers
Central Powers
Military alliance
1914 – 1918
Red: Central Powers at their zenith.
Capital Not applicable
Political structure Military alliance
Historical era World War I
 - Established June 28, 1914
 - German and Austria-Hungarian Treaty October 7, 1879
 - Ottoman Empire Joins August 2, 1914
 - Bulgaria Joins October, 1915
 - Dissolved October 11, 1918
European military alliances in 1914. The Central Powers are depicted in purple, the Allied Powers in gray and neutral countries in yellow.
European military alliances in 1914. The Central Powers are depicted in purple, the Allied Powers in gray and neutral countries in yellow.
Participants in World War I. The Allies and their colonies in green, the Central Powers and their colonies in orange, and neutral countries in gray.
Military deaths of the Central Powers.
Military deaths of the Central Powers.


The Central Powers (German: "Mittelmächte"; Turkish: "İttifak Devletleri"; Bulgarian: "Централни сили") was one of the two sides that participated in World War I. They fought against the Allies, and consisted of Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria. The name Central Powers is derived from the location of these countries; all four were located between the Russian Empire in the east and France and the United Kingdom in the west. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... A military alliance is an agreement between two, or more, countries; related to wartime planning, commitments, or contingencies; such agreements can be both defensive and offensive. ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... For the government in parliamentary systems, see Executive (government) A government is a body that has the power to make and the authority to enforce rules and laws within a civil, corporate, religious, academic, or other organization or group . ... A military alliance is an agreement between two, or more, countries; related to wartime planning, commitments, or contingencies; such agreements can be both defensive and offensive. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... For the connotation of the term relating to chemistry, see Solvation. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1198x863, 140 KB) Description: Europe 1914 Source: www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1198x863, 140 KB) Description: Europe 1914 Source: www. ... Map of the World showing the participants in World War I. Those fighting on the Allies side (at one point or another) are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in gray. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 41 KB) // Summary Map with the Participants in World War I: Green: Allies Orange: Central Powers Gray: Neutral Countries The boundary of China in the previous version is wrong. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 41 KB) // Summary Map with the Participants in World War I: Green: Allies Orange: Central Powers Gray: Neutral Countries The boundary of China in the previous version is wrong. ... European military alliances in 1915. ... Map of the World showing the participants in World War I. Those fighting on the Allies side (at one point or another) are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in gray. ... Image File history File links WorldWarI-MilitaryDeaths-CentralPowers-Piechart. ... Image File history File links WorldWarI-MilitaryDeaths-CentralPowers-Piechart. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Map of the World showing the participants in World War I. Those fighting on the Allies side (at one point or another) are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in gray. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ...


Germany and Austria-Hungary became allies on the 7 October 1879, and were joined later on (20 May 1882) (see Triple Alliance) by Italy, which intended to limit the alliance to defensive purposes only.[1] [2] When World War I began, the petition made by Germany and Austria-Hungary for Italian intervention was rejected by the Italian Government on the grounds of these two countries declaring war on Serbia, rather than taking defensive action against it. Italy eventually entered World War I on May 23, 1915, but it fought against Germany and Austria-Hungary rather than with them. is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Triple Alliance. ... Anthem Marcia Reale dOrdinanza (Royal March of Ordinance)¹ The Kingdom of Italy at the height of its power in 1940. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Anthem: Bože Pravde [[Image:|250px|center|Location of the Kingdom of Serbia]] Capital Belgrade Largest city Belgrade Serbian Government Monarchy  - King Milan (1882-1889)  - King Aleksandar (1889-1903)  - King Peter I (1903-1918) Proclamation March 6, 1882 Area  - Total  km² ([[List of countries and outlying territories by area|]])  sq... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Following the outbreak of war in Europe during August 1914, the Ottoman Empire intervened at the end of October by taking action against Russia, resulting in declarations of war by the Triple Entente. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... European military alliances in 1914. ...


Bulgaria, still resentful after its defeat in July 1913 at the hands of Serbia, Greece, Romania and the Ottoman Empire, was the last nation to enter the war against the Entente, invading Serbia in conjunction with German and Austro-Hungarian forces in October 1915. The Balkan Wars were two wars in South-eastern Europe in 1912-1913 in the course of which the Balkan League (Serbia, Montenegro, Greece, and Bulgaria) first conquered Ottoman-held Macedonia and most of Thrace and then fell out over the division of the spoils, Bulgaria suffering defeat at the... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Austro-Hungarian Army was the ground force of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. ...


Other movements supported the efforts of the Central Powers for their own reasons, such as the Irish Nationalists who launched the Easter Rising in Dublin in April 1916; they referred to their "gallant allies in Europe". During the years 1917 and 1918, the Finns under C.G.E. Mannerheim and the Ukrainian and Lithuanian nationalists fought Russia for a common cause. The Ottoman Empire also had its own allies in Azerbaijan and the Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus. The three nations fought alongside each other under the Army of Islam in the Battle of Baku. Combatants Irish Volunteers, Irish Citizen Army, Irish Republican Brotherhood British Army Royal Irish Constabulary Commanders Patrick Pearse, James Connolly Brigadier-General Lowe General Sir John Maxwell Strength 1250 in Dublin, c. ... For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... Year 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... This article is about the Finnish statesman and Commander-in-Chief. ... Flag Capital Temir-Khan-Shura Language(s) Chechen, Ingush, Ossetic, Dagestani languages Government Republic Historical era Interwar period  - Independence March, 1917  - Incorporated by the Soviet Union June, 1920 Currency Ruble The Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus (MRNC; also known as the Mountain Republic or the Republic of the Mountaineers... Army of Islam was a Field Army of the Ottoman Empire established between March 1918 - August 1918, the creation of a this military force was ordered by the Enver Pasha, War Minister. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Azerbaijan Democratic Republic British Empire United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Diktatura Tsentrokaspiya White Russians Commanders Nuri Pasha Lionel Dunsterville Strength 12,000 Ottoman and Azerbaijani troops of the Army of Islam. ...


Bulgaria signed an armistice with the Allies on 29 September 1918, following a successful Allied advance in Macedonia. The Ottoman Empire followed suit on 30 October 1918 in the face of British and Arab gains in Palestine and Syria. Austria and Hungary concluded ceasefires separately during the first week of November following the disintegration of the Habsburg Empire, and Germany signed the armistice ending the war on the morning of 11 November 1918 after the Allied Hundred Days Offensive, a succession of advances by Australian, Canadian, Belgian, British, French and US forces in north-eastern France and Belgium. is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... A 2003 satellite image of the region. ... The Habsburg Monarchy, often called Austrian Monarchy or simply Austria, are the territories ruled by the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg, and then by the successor House of Habsburg-Lorraine, between 1526 and 1867/1918. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Combatants Belgium British Empire France United States of America German Empire Commanders King Albert I Ferdinand Foch Douglas Haig Philippe Petain John Pershing Erich Ludendorff Casualties 411,636 British 531,000 French 127,000+ American 785,733 The Hundred Days Offensive was the final offensive in World War I by... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American...

Central Powers by date of surrender
Flag Name Surrendered
Flag of Bulgaria Bulgaria 01918-09-29 29 September 1918
Ottoman Empire 01918-10-30 30 October 1918
Flag of Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary 01918-11-04 4 November 1918
Flag of German Empire German Empire 01918-11-11 11 November 1918


Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Image File history File links Ottoman_Flag. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...


Leaders

Kaiser Wilhelm II, Mehmed V, Franz Joseph: The three emperors of the Central Powers.
Kaiser Wilhelm II, Mehmed V, Franz Joseph: The three emperors of the Central Powers.

Flag of Austria-Hungary Franz Josef I - Emperor of Austria-Hungary
Flag of Austria-Hungary Karl I - Emperor of Austria-Hungary
Flag of Austria-Hungary Conrad von Hötzendorf - Chief of the Austro-Hungarian General Staff
Flag of Austria-Hungary Arthur Arz von Straussenburg - Chief of the Austro-Hungarian General Staff
Flag of Austria-Hungary Anton Haus - Commander-in-Chief of the Austro-Hungarian Navy
Flag of Austria-Hungary Maximilian Njegovan - Commander-in-Chief of the Austro-Hungarian Navy
Flag of German Empire Wilhelm II - German Emperor
Flag of German Empire Erich von Falkenhayn - Chief of the German General Staff
Flag of German Empire Paul von Hindenburg - Chief of the German General Staff
Flag of German Empire Reinhard Scheer - Commander of the Imperial High Seas Fleet
Flag of German Empire Erich Ludendorff - Deputy Chief of Staff of the German Army
Mehmed V - Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
İsmail Enver - Commander-in-Chief of the Ottoman Army
Flag of German Empire Wilhelm Souchon - German Naval Advisor to the Ottoman Empire
Flag of German Empire Otto Liman von Sanders - German Army Advisor to the Ottoman Empire
Mustafa Kemal
Flag of Bulgaria Ferdinand I - Tsar of Bulgaria
Flag of Bulgaria Vladimir Vazov - Bulgarian Lieutenant General
Flag of Bulgaria Nikola Zhekov - Bulgarian Lieutenant General Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Wilhelm II of Prussia and Germany, Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert von Hohenzollern (January 27, 1859 - June 4, 1941) was the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and the last King (König) of Prussia from 1888 - 1918. ... Sultan Mehmed V Mehmed V (sometimes also Mahommed V; known as Mehmed V ReÅŸad (or ReÅŸat) or Reshid Effendi) (November 2, 1844 – July 3, 1918) was the 39th Ottoman Sultan. ... Franz Joseph I (in Slovenian Franc Jožef I, in Hungarian I. Ferenc József, in Croatian Franjo Josip I, in Czech FrantiÅ¡ek Josef I, in English Francis Joseph I) (August 18, 1830 – November 21, 1916) of the Habsburg Dynasty was Emperor of Austria, Apostolic King of Hungary, King... Franz Joseph I (in Slovenian Franc Jožef I, in Hungarian I. Ferenc József, in Croatian Franjo Josip I, in Czech FrantiÅ¡ek Josef I, in English Francis Joseph I) (August 18, 1830 – November 21, 1916) of the Habsburg Dynasty was Emperor of Austria, Apostolic King of Hungary, King... Emperor Charles I of Austria The Blessed Charles I (Karl Franz Josef Ludwig Hubert Georg Maria von Habsburg-Lothringen) (17 August 1887 – 1 April 1922) (Hungarian: IV. Károly (Károly Ferenc József)) was (among other titles) the last Emperor of Austria, the last King of Hungary and Bohemia... Graf Conrad von Hötzendorf Franz Graf Conrad von Hötzendorf, or Count Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf. ... Arthur Freiherr Arz von Straussenburg 1917 Arthur Arz von Straussenburg (June 16, 1857, Hermannstadt, present day Sibiu – June 1, 1935, Budapest) was the last military leader of the Austro-Hungarian Army, until the end of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. ... Anton Haus (June 13, 1851-August 2, 1917) was an Austrian naval officer. ... Maximilian Njegovan (October 31, 1858 Zagreb - July 1, 1930 Zagreb) was a Croatian admiral in the Austro-Hungarian Navy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... William II (German: ) (born Prince Frederick William Victor Albert of Prussia; German: ) (27 January 1859 – 4 June 1941) was the last German Emperor and King of Prussia (German: Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen), ruling both the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from 15 June 1888... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... Erich von Falkenhayn Chief of the General Staff Erich von Falkenhayn (11 November 1861 - 8 April 1922) was a German soldier and Chief of the General Staff during World War I. Falkenhayn was a career soldier. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known universally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a German field marshal and statesman. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... Reinhard Scheer Reinhard Scheer (September 30, 1863 – November 26, 1928) was a Vice-admiral in the German navy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... Ludendorff in 1918 Erich Friedrich Wilhelm Ludendorff (sometimes given incorrectly as von Ludendorff) (April 9, 1865–December 20, 1937, Tutzing, Bavaria, Germany) was a German Army officer, Generalquartiermeister during World War I, victor of Liege, and, with Paul von Hindenburg, one of the victors of the battle of Tannenberg. ... Image File history File links Ottoman_Flag. ... Sultan Mehmed V Mehmed V (sometimes also Mahommed V; known as Mehmed V ReÅŸad (or ReÅŸat) or Reshid Effendi) (November 2, 1844 – July 3, 1918) was the 39th Ottoman Sultan. ... Image File history File links Ottoman_Flag. ... Ä°smail Enver (Ottoman Turkish: اسماعيل انور) , known to Europeans during his political career as Enver Pasha (Turkish: Enver PaÅŸa) or Enver Bey was a Turkish military officer and a leader of the Young Turk revolution. ... Image File history File links Ottoman_Flag. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... Admiral Wilhelm Souchon Wilhelm Souchon (1864-1946) was a German admiral in World War I who commanded the Kaiserliche Marines Mediterranean squadron in the early days of the war. ... Image File history File links Ottoman_Flag. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... Otto Liman von Sanders (February 17, 1855 - August 22, 1929) was a German general who served as adviser to the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed V during World War I. He was born in Stolp in Pomerania. ... Image File history File links Ottoman_Flag. ... “Mustafa Kemal” redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria. ... Ferdinand I, Tsar of Bulgaria (February 26, 1861 - September 10, 1948),[1] born Prince Ferdinand Maximilian Karl Leopold Maria of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, was the Prince Regnant and later Tsar of Bulgaria as well as an author, botanist, entomologist and philatelist. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria. ... Vladimir Minchev Vazov is a Bulgarian officer, lieutenant-general. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria. ... Nikola Zhekov (1864 - 1949) was a Minister of War of Bulgaria in 1915 and served as Commander-in-Chief from 1916-1918 during World War I. Zhekov served during two earlier conflicts: Serbo-Bulgarian War in 1885, and the Balkan Wars 1912-1913, where during the latter he served as...


See also

World War I Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ... European military alliances in 1914. ... European military alliances in 1915. ... Black: Zenith of the Axis Powers Capital Not applicable Political structure Military alliance Historical era World War II  - Tripartite Pact September 27, 1940  - Anti-Comintern Pact November 25, 1936  - Pact of Steel May 22, 1939  - Dissolved 1945 This article is about the independent countries (states) that comprised the Axis powers. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Map of the World showing the participants in World War I. Those fighting on the Allies side (at one point or another) are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in gray. ...

References

  1. ^ The Triple Alliance (First 8 Articles) The World War I Document Archive, Brigham Young University Library, accessed 2008-04-21
  2. ^ Triple Alliance, 1882 Dickinson College, Carlisle, Pennsylvania, accessed 2008-04-21

  Results from FactBites:
 
Central Powers during World War 1 - Introduction (228 words)
The Central Powers Alliance was described from the German and Austrian side as a "Bund", an association.
The Central Powers reached what was to be their full strength on October 14, 1915 with Bulgaria's opportunistic entry into the war against Serbia as massed German and Austro-Hungarian armies attacked from the north.
The alliance therefore became "der Vierbund", The Association of Four, which was to remain until the disintegration of late 1918 as each of the Centrals sought armistice and peace in turn.
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