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Encyclopedia > Central Pacific Railroad
Central Pacific Railroad
Locale Sacramento, CA-Ogden, Utah
Dates of operation 1863April 1, 1885 but continued as SP Subsidiary
Track gauge ft 8½ in (1435 mm) (standard gauge)
Headquarters San Francisco, CA
The Gov. Stanford locomotive
The Gov. Stanford locomotive

The Central Pacific Railroad, was the California-to-Utah portion of the First Transcontinental Railroad in North America. Many proposals to build a transcontinenal failed because of the disputes over slavery in Washington; with the secession of the South, the modernizers in the Republican party took over Congress and passed the necessary legislation and subsidies. It was planned by Theodore Judah, authorized by Congress in 1862 and financed and built through the "The Big Four" (who also called themselves "The Associates"), who were Sacramento, California businessmen Leland Stanford, Collis Huntington, Charles Crocker, and Mark Hopkins. Crocker was in charge of construction; much of the labor were Chinese workers. The first rails were laid in 1863 and the golden spike, connecting it to the Union Pacific railroad to Omaha, was hammered on May 10, 1869. Coast-to-coast travel in 8 days now replaced wagon trains or months-long sea voyages. Sacramento is the county seat of Sacramento County, California and the capital of the U.S. state of California. ... Ogden sign over Washington Boulevard at the Ogden River; toward downtown Overlooking Ogdens George S. Eccles Dinosaur Park Ogden is the county seat of Weber County,GR6 Utah, United States. ... 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar). ... April 1 is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 274 days remaining. ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Rail gauge is the distance between two rails of a railroad. ... A foot (plural: feet) is any of several old units of distance or length, measuring around a quarter to a third of a meter. ... Mid-19th century tool for converting between different standards of the inch An inch is an Imperial and U.S. customary unit of length. ... A millimetre (American spelling: millimeter, symbol mm) is an SI unit of length that is equal to one thousandth of a metre. ... As railways developed and expanded one of the key issues to be decided was that of the rail gauge (the distance between the two rails of the track) which should be used. ... This article is about the city in California. ... Public domain (old) Governor Stanford Central Pacific Railroad This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Public domain (old) Governor Stanford Central Pacific Railroad This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Gov. ... Poster announcing railroads opening The First Transcontinental Railroad was a transcontinental railroad in North America that was finished in 1869. ... Theodore Judah (March 4, 1826 - November 2, 1863) was an American engineer who dreamed of the First Transcontinental Railroad. ... Alternate meaning: The Big Four (novel) The Big Four were the chief entrepreneurs in the building of the Central Pacific Railroad, the western portion of the First Transcontinental Railroad in the United States. ... Nickname: City of Trees Location of Sacramento in California County Sacramento Mayor Heather Fargo Area    - City 99. ... Amasa Leland Stanford (March 9, 1824 – June 21, 1893) was an American business tycoon, politician and founder of Stanford University. ... Collis Potter Huntington (October 22, 1821 – August 13, 1900) was one of the Big Four of western railroading (along with Leland Stanford, Mark Hopkins and Charles Crocker) who built the Southern Pacific Railroad and other major interstate train lines. ... subject_name=Charles Crocker| image_name=ccrocker. ... Mark Hopkins (September 1, 1813 – March 29, 1878) was one of four principal investors who formed the Central Pacific Railroad along with Leland Stanford, Charles Crocker and Collis Huntington in 1861. ... The Union Pacific Railroad (NYSE: UNP) is the largest railroad in the United States. ...


The road was built with loans from major financial centers, backed by land grants and subsidies. The federal government gave away land-grants in a checkerboard pattern. The railroad sold every-other square. The government also loaned money--later repaid--at $16,000 per mile on level stretches, and $32,000 to $48,000 in mountainous terrain. Local and state governments also aided the financing.


In 1885 the Central Pacific Railroad was leased by the Southern Pacific, though it technically remained a corporate entity until 1959 when it was formally merged into Southern Pacific. The original right of way is now part of the Union Pacific which purchased Southern Pacific in 1996. The Southern Pacific Railroad (AAR reporting mark SP) was an American railroad. ... The Union Pacific Railroad (NYSE: UNP) is the largest railroad in the United States. ...


The first "transcontinental", the Union Pacific-Central Pacific (Southern Pacific) mainline made up the historic "Overland Route" from Omaha to San Francisco Bay.

Contents

Museums and archives

A replica of the Sacramento, California Central Pacific Railroad passenger station is part of the California State Railroad Museum, located in the Old Sacramento State Historic Park. Two of the company's first locomotives, the Gov. Stanford (No. 1), and C. P. Huntington (No. 3), are also both housed at the same museum. Nickname: City of Trees Location of Sacramento in California County Sacramento Mayor Heather Fargo Area    - City 99. ... The California State Railroad Museum in Old Sacramento is a tribute to the role of the iron horse in connecting California to the rest of the nation. ... Old Sacramento State Historic Park is the historic region of Sacramento, California, which has been designated as a state park. ... Gov. ... C. P. Huntington is a 4-2-4T steam locomotive currently on static display at the California State Railroad Museum in Sacramento, California. ...


Nearly all of the company's early correspondence is preserved at Syracuse University as part of the Huntington papers collection, released on microfilm (133 reels). The following libraries have this microfilm: University of Arizona at Tucson; Virginia Commonwealth University at Richmond. Additional collections of manuscript letters are held at Stanford University and the Mariner's Museum at Newport News, Virginia. Alfred A. Hart was the official photographer of the CPRR construction. Alfred A. Hart was a 19th century American photographer for the Central Pacific Railroad. ...


Timeline

June 21 is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 193 days remaining. ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 183 days remaining. ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865), sometimes called Abe Lincoln and nicknamed Honest Abe, the Rail Splitter, and the Great Emancipator, was an American politician who served as the 16th President of the United States (1861 to 1865), and the first president from the Republican Party. ... The Pacific Railway Acts were passed by the United States Congress in 1862 and 1864. ... The Union Pacific Railroad (NYSE: UNP) is the largest railroad in the United States. ... January 8 is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar). ... Nickname: City of Trees Location of Sacramento in California County Sacramento Mayor Heather Fargo Area    - City 99. ... A spring at the Sacramento River headwater The Sacramento River is the longest river in the state of California. ... October 26 is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 66 days remaining. ... 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar). ... Nickname: City of Trees Location of Sacramento in California County Sacramento Mayor Heather Fargo Area    - City 99. ... April 26 is the 116th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (117th in leap years). ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... June 3 is the 154th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (155th in leap years), with 211 days remaining. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Revenue is a U.S. business term for the amount of money that a company earns from its activities in a given period, mostly from sales of products and/or services to customers. ... A typical North American steam train In rail transport, a train consists of rail vehicles that move along guides to transport freight or passengers from one place to another. ... Nickname: City of Trees Location of Sacramento in California County Sacramento Mayor Heather Fargo Area    - City 99. ... Newcastle is in Placer County, in the Sacramento-Arden-Arcade metro area. ... October 8 is the 281st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (282nd in leap years). ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... A corporation is a legal person which, while being composed of natural persons, exists completely separately from them. ... May 13 is the 133rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (134th in leap years). ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... Auburn is the county seat of Placer County, California, USA. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 12,462. ... September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... Colfax is a city located in Placer County, California. ... December 3 is the 337th (in leap years the 338th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... December 1 is the 335th (in leap years the 336th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... The Sierra Nevada is a mountain range that is almost entirely in the eastern portion of the U.S. state of California. ... April 28 is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 247 days remaining. ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... May 10 is the 130th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (131st in leap years). ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Promontory is a location in Box Elder County, Utah, centered approximately at 41°3707N, 112°3251W, with an elevation of 1494 meters (4902 feet) above sea level. ... May 15 is the 135th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (136th in leap years). ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Nickname: City of Trees Location of Sacramento in California County Sacramento Mayor Heather Fargo Area    - City 99. ... November 8 is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 53 days remaining. ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Nickname: City of Trees Location of Sacramento in California County Sacramento Mayor Heather Fargo Area    - City 99. ... Oakland, founded in 1852, is the eighth-largest city in California and the county seat of Alameda County. ... June 23 is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 191 days remaining. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... August 22 is the 234th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (235th in leap years), with 131 days remaining. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... A corporation is a legal person which, while being composed of natural persons, exists completely separately from them. ... April 30 is the 120th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (121st in leap years), with 245 days remaining. ... 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... The California Pacific Railroad Company was incorporated in 1865 at San Francisco, California as the California Pacific Rail Road Company. ... Vallejo is a city in Solano County, California, United States. ... Location in California Founded  -Incorporated Jan. ... Ellis Lake, Marysville, CA. 2004. ... April 1 is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 274 days remaining. ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday. ... July 16 is the 197th day (198th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 168 days remaining. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Great Railroad Strike of 1877 The Great Railroad Strike of 1877 began on July 14 in Martinsburg, West Virginia, and ended some 45 days later after it was put down by local and state militias, as well as by federal troops. ... Martinsburg is a city located in Berkeley County, West Virginia. ... The presidential seal was used by President Hayes in 1880 and last modified in 1969 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... Rutherford Birchard Hayes (October 4, 1822 – January 17, 1893) was an American politician, lawyer, military leader and the 19th President of the United States (1877-1881). ... November 18 is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... A time zone is a region of the Earth that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. ... Universal Time (UT) is a timescale based on the rotation of the Earth. ... April 1 is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 274 days remaining. ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday. ... The Southern Pacific Railroad (AAR reporting mark SP) was an American railroad. ... June 30 is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 184 days remaining. ... 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) is a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar. ... July 29 is the 210th day (211th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 155 days remaining. ... 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... June 30 is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 184 days remaining. ... 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Predecessor railroads

The California Pacific Railroad Company was incorporated in 1865 at San Francisco, California as the California Pacific Rail Road Company. ...

References

  • Ambrose, Stephen E. (2000). Nothing Like It In The World; The men who built the Transcontinental Railroad 1863-1869. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-84609-8.
  • David Haward Bain, Empire Express: Building the First Transcontinental Railroad (2000)
  • Cooper, Bruce C., "Riding the Transcontinental Rails: Overland Travel on the Pacific Railroad 1865-1881" (2005), Polyglot Press, Philadelphia ISBN 1-4115-9993-4
  • Cerinda W. Evans; Collis Potter Huntington Vol. 1 Mariners Museum, 1954
  • Fleisig, Heywood. "The Central Pacific Railroad and the Railroad Land Grant Controversy" Journal of Economic History 1975 35(3): 552-566. Issn: 0022-0507 Fulltext in JSTOR. Questions whether promoters of the Central Pacific Railroad were oversubsidized. Confirms the traditional view that subsidies were not an economic necessity because they "influenced neither the decision to invest in the railroad nor the speed of its construction." Notes that estimates of rate of return for the railroad developers using government funds range from 71% to 200%, while estimates of private rates of return range from 15% to 25%.
  • John Debo Galloway; The First Transcontinental Railroad: Central Pacific, Union Pacific (1950)
  • Kraus, George. "Chinese Laborers and the Construction of the Central Pacific." Utah Historical Quarterly 1969 37(1): 41-57. Issn: 0042-143x. Shows how Chinese railroad workers lived and worked, how they managed the finances associated with their employment, and concludes that Central Pacific officials responsible for employing the Chinese, even those at first opposed to the policy, came to appreciate the cleanliness and reliability of this group of laborers. There are many quotations from accounts by contemporary observers.
  • Lake, Holly. "Construction of the CPRR: Chinese Immigrant Contribution" Northeastern Nevada Historical Society Quarterly 1994 94(4): 188-199. Issn: 0160-9602
  • Mercer, Lloyd J. "Rates of Return for Land-grant Railroads: the Central Pacific System" Journal of Economic History 1970 30(3): 602-626. Issn: 0022-0507 Fulltext in JSTOR. Analyzes the impact of land grants, during 1864-90, on rates of return from investment in the Central Pacific Railroad. Results suggest that even without land grants, rates of return were high enough to induce investment. Also, land grants did not pay for the construction of the railroad. Land grants, however, did produce large social returns in western states by accelerating construction of the system.
  • Mercer, Lloyd J. "Land Grants to American Railroads: Social Cost or Social Benefit?" Business History Review 1969 43(2): 134-151. Issn: 0007-6805 Fulltext in Jstor. Attempts by the use of econometrics to determine the values of railroad land grants of the 19th century to the railroads and to society as a whole. The author summarizes and criticizes previous treatments of this subject and then discusses his own findings. Using only the Central Pacific and the Union Pacific systems as the basis for his investigation, the author concludes that the railroad owners received unaided rates of return which substantially exceeded the private rate of return on the average alternative project in the economy during the same period. Thus the projects turned out to be profitable although it was generally expected by contemporary observers that the roads would be privately unprofitable without the land grant aid. The land grants did not have a major effect, increasing the private rate of return only slightly. Nevertheless, it is contended that the policy of subsidizing those railroad systems was beneficial for society since the social rate of return from the project was substantial and exceeded the private rate by a significant margin.
  • Ong, Paul M. "The Central Pacific Railroad and Exploitation of Chinese Labor." Journal of Ethnic Studies 1985 13(2): 119-124. Issn: 0091-3219. Ong tries to resolve the apparent inconsistency in the literature on Asians in early California, with contradictory studies showing evidence both for and against the exploitation of Chinese labor by the Central Pacific Railroad, using monopsony theory as developed by Joan Robinson. Monopsonists are buyers whose share of the market is large enough to affect prices, or whose supply curves are not completely elastic. By setting different wages for whites and Chinese - each having different elasticities of supply - and using Chinese in the menial and dangerous jobs, with whites in the better positions, the two groups were complementary rather than interchangeable. Calculations thus prove higher levels of exploitation of the Chinese than in previous studies.
  • Saxton, Alexander. "The Army of Canton in the High Sierra" Pacific Historical Review 1966 35(2): 141-151. Issn: 0030-8684 on Chinese workers.
  • Tutorow, Norman E. "Stanford's Responses to Competition: Rhetoric Versus Reality." Southern California Quarterly 1970 52(3): 231-247. Issn: 0038-3929 Leland Stanford and the men who ran the Central Pacific Railroad system paid lip-service to the idea of free competition but in practice sought to destroy or weaken competing railroad and shipping lines. Focusing on the years between the completion of the first transcontinental railroad line (1869) and Stanford's death (1893), the author shows how Stanford and the Central Pacific associates repeatedly entered into pooling arrangements to prevent competition, brought out competitors, or forced rivals to agree not to compete with them. He concludes that Stanford and his partners viewed laissez-faire as applicable only to government controls and not to destruction of competition within the system by those involved
  • White, Richard, "Information, Markets, and Corruption: Transcontinental Railroads in the Gilded Age". The Journal of American History 90.1 (2003)
  • Williams, John Hoyt. A Great and Shining Road: The Epic Story of the Transcontinental Railroad (1988)
  • Goodwin, Neil, prod. The Iron Road. Video. Color. 58min. (American Experience series.) Publication: Peace River Films, 1990. Distrib. by PBS Video

Stephen Ambrose, at the 2001 premier of Band of Brothers Stephen Edward Ambrose (January 10, 1936 - October 13, 2002) was a popular historian and biographer of Dwight Eisenhower and Richard Nixon. ...

See also

The establishment of Americas transcontinental rail lines permanently linked California to the rest of the country, and the far-reaching transportation systems that grew out of them during the century that followed contributed immeasurably to the state’s unrivaled social, political, and economic development. ... Donner Pass is a mountain pass in the northern Sierra Nevada, close to Lake Tahoe and Reno, Nevada. ...

External links

  • Central Pacific Railroad Photographic History Museum


Central Pacific Railroad | The Big Four Charles Crocker | Mark Hopkins | Collis P. Huntington | Leland Stanford
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  Results from FactBites:
 
Central Pacific Railroad - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (607 words)
June 23, 1870: Central Pacific is consolidated with the Western Pacific and San Francisco Bay Railroad Co.
August 22, 1870: Central Pacific Railroad Co. is consolidated with the California and Oregon; San Francisco, Oakland and Alameda; and San Joaquin Valley Railroad; to form the "Central Pacific Railroad Co.", a new corporation.
June 29, 1899: Central Pacific is reorganized as the "Central Pacific Railway".
LearnCalifornia.org - Central Pacific Railroad (5790 words)
The winter of 1866-67 was one of the harshest on record, and caught the crews of the railroad in the midst of drilling eleven tunnels at the highest elevations.
The Union Pacific was to receive the same land grants and government bond loans as the Central Pacific, but got off to a much slower start than the CP because of the Civil War raging literally in its backyard.
Completing the Pacific railroad (it wouldn't be commonly called the "transcontinental railroad" for another year or two) had the same effect on the popular imagination as would man's walking on the moon one hundred years and a couple of months later.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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