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Encyclopedia > Central Europe

Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. In addition, Northern, Southern and Southeastern Europe may variously delimit or overlap into Central Europe. The term and widespread interest in the region itself came back into fashion[1] after the end of the Cold War, which had divided Europe politically into East and West, with the Iron Curtain splitting "Central Europe" in half. Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Look up Region in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Statistical regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked red):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current borders: Russia (dark orange), other countries formerly part of the USSR... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Northern Europe Northern Europe is the northern part of the European continent. ... The southern half of Europe is shown in shades of red. ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Warsaw Pact countries to the east of the Iron Curtain are shaded red; NATO members to the west of it — blue. ...

Contents

States

The Central European states

The understanding of the concept of Central Europe is an ongoing source of controversy[2], varying considerably from nation to nation, and also has from time to time. The region is usually held to include:

Sometimes, the region may extend to include  Croatia and  Romania. Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hungary. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Liechtenstein. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovakia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovenia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Croatia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania. ...


Definition

Rather than a physical entity, Central Europe is a concept of shared history which contrasts with that of the surrounding regions. Immediately to the east and southeast lie regions which had for longer periods been under the Ottoman Empire and Imperial Russia, with relics of a strong Hellenic cultural influence (eg. Cyrillic descending directly from Greek). These phenomena collectively established religions such as Eastern Orthodoxy and Uniate Catholicism, with Central Europe generally defined as an overwhelmingly Roman Catholic area. Protestantism is also wide spreaded in Central Europe (especially in northern Germany, Switzerland, eastern Hungary and central Romania).[citation needed] Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... For other uses, see Greece (disambiguation). ... The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is an alphabet used for several East and South Slavic languages; (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ... ... The term Eastern Rites may refer to the liturgical rites used by many ancient Christian Churches of Eastern Europe and the Middle East that, while being part of the Roman Catholic Church, are distinct from the Latin Rite or Western Church. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ...

Historical lands and provinces in Central Europe.

Up to World War I, it was distinguished from the region immediately to its west as an area of relative political conservatism opposed to the liberalism of France and Great Britain and the influences of the French Revolution.[citation needed]. In the nineteenth century, while France developed into a republic and Britain was a liberal parliamentary monarchy in which the monarch had very little real power, Austria-Hungary and Prussia (later Germany), in contrast, remained conservative monarchies in which the monarch and his court played a central governmental role, while still subject to some influence by religion. Map:Historical regions of Central Europe I made it myself. ... Map:Historical regions of Central Europe I made it myself. ... This is a list of major historical regions of Central Europe. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favor tradition and gradual change, where tradition refers to religious, cultural, or nationally defined beliefs and customs. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... For related meanings see also Monarch (disambiguation) A monarchy, (from the Greek monos archein, meaning one ruler) is a form of government that has a monarch as Head of State. ...


In the English language, the concept of Central Europe largely fell out of usage during Cold War, overshadowed by notions of Eastern and Western Europe. However, the term is increasingly returning to everyday usage again, partly due to the recent expansion of the European Union, but mainly through the attempt by post-Communist governments in former Eastern European lands to create national images distancing themselves from their predecessors. An example is found in one of Europe's trading blocs - CEFTA - which is labelled Central European, and yet only comprises entities which were previously Communist territories. In 1992, the founding members were Czechoslovakia (now two countries in the EU), Poland and Hungary, followed by Slovenia in 1996, Romania in 1997 and Bulgaria in 1999, whilst its current members include Macedonia, Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania and Moldova) . Map of Europe indicating current CEFTA members Type Trade agreement Member states 7 Balkan states, Kosovo Establishment  -  Signed 21 December 1992  Area  -  Total 298. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ...


Physical geography

Between the Alps and the Baltics

Geography strongly defines Central Europe's borders with its neighbouring regions to the North and South, namely Northern Europe (or Scandinavia) across the Baltic Sea, the Apennine peninsula (or Italy) across the Alps and the Balkan peninsula across the Soča-Krka-Sava-Danube line. The borders to Western Europe and Eastern Europe are geographically less defined and for this reason the cultural and historical boundaries migrate more easily West-East than South-North. The Rhine river which runs South-North through Western Germany is an exception. Northern Europe Northern Europe is the northern part of the European continent. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Baltic (disambiguation). ... The Italian peninsula or the Apennine peninsula is one of the greatest peninsulas of Europe, spanning 1000 km from the Alps in the north, to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south. ... Alp redirects here. ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... Statistical regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked red):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current borders: Russia (dark orange), other countries formerly part of the USSR... The word culture, from the Latin colo, -ere, with its root meaning to cultivate, generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ... For other uses, see Rhine (disambiguation). ...


Pannonian Plain and Carpathian Basin

The Pannonian Plain, between the Alps (west), the Carpathians (north and east), and the Sava/Danube (south)
Carpathian countries (north to south): AT, CZR, PL, SK, HU, UA, RO, RS

Geographically speaking, Carpathian mountains divide the European Plain in two sections: the Central Europe's Pannonian Plain in the west,[3] and the East European Plain, which lie eastward of the Carpathians. Southwards, the Pannonian Plain is bounded by the rivers Sava and Danube- and their respective floodplains.[4] This area mostly corresponds to the borders of the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... The Pannonian Plain is a large plain in Central Europe that remained when the Pliocene Pannonian Sea (see below) dried out. ... Alp redirects here. ... Satellite image of the Carpathians. ... Sava also Save (in Serbian: Сава; German: Save; Hungarian: Száva) is a river in Europe, a right side tributary of Danube at Belgrade. ... This article is about the Danube River. ... Satellite image of the Carpathians. ... For other uses, see Austria (disambiguation). ... Motto: (Czech) Truth prevails Anthem:  Czech Republic() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() [] Capital (and largest city) Prague Official languages Czech Demonym Czech Government Parliamentary republic  -  President Václav Klaus  -  Prime Minister Mirek Topolánek Independence (formed 9th century)   -  October 28, 1918   -  January 1, 1993  EU accession May... This article is about the country in Europe. ... Anthem: Nad Tatrou sa blýska Lightning over the Tatras Slovakia() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() [] Capital (and largest city) Bratislava Official languages Slovak Demonym Slovak Government Parliamentary republic  -  President Ivan GaÅ¡parovič  -  Prime Minister Robert Fico Independence due to dissolution of Czechoslovakia   -  Date January 1, 19931... This article is about the European country. ... Anthem Ще не вмерла України ні слава, ні воля(Ukrainian) Shche ne vmerla Ukrayiny ni slava, ni volya(transliteration) Ukraines glory has not yet perished, nor her freedom Ukraine() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Kiev (Kyiv) Official languages Ukrainian Demonym Ukrainian Government Semi-presidential system  -  President Viktor Yushchenko  -  Prime Minister Viktor Yanukovych Independence from... Motto:  (each main institution has its own motto) Anthem: DeÅŸteaptă-te, române! Romania() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() [] Capital (and largest city) Bucharest (BucureÅŸti) Official languages Romanian1 Demonym Romanian Government Unitary semi-presidential republic  -  President Traian Băsescu  -  Prime Minister Călin Popescu-T... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Satellite image of the Carpathians. ... Toporaphy of Europe Toporaphy of Europe The European Plain or Great European Plain is a plain in Europe. ... The Pannonian Plain is a large plain in Central Europe that remained when the Pliocene Pannonian Sea (see below) dried out. ... Toporaphy of Europe Toporaphy of Europe The East European Plain (also Eastern-European Lowland, Eastern European Lowlands, Eastern European Plain, and Russian Plain) is a plain and series of broad river basins in Eastern Europe. ... The Pannonian Plain is a large plain in Central Europe that remained when the Pliocene Pannonian Sea (see below) dried out. ... Sava also Save (in Serbian: Сава; German: Save; Hungarian: Száva) is a river in Europe, a right side tributary of Danube at Belgrade. ... This article is about the Danube River. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ...


The Pannonian Plain extends into the following countries: Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia and Ukraine. The Pannonian Plain is a large plain in Central Europe that remained when the Pliocene Pannonian Sea (see below) dried out. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ...


Climate and flora

The European floristic regions

The Central Europe states possess a wide range of climates. Rainfall varies from over 50 inches annually in some areas, to 32 inches in the western part.[citation needed]

Central European floristic region

The Central European Flora region streches from Central France (Massif Central) to Central Romania (Carpathians) and Southern Scandinavia.[5] For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ...


Central Europe behind the Iron Curtain

Following World War II, large parts of Europe that were culturally and historically Western became part of the Eastern bloc. Consequently, the English term Central Europe was increasingly applied only to the westernmost former Warsaw Pact countries (East Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary) to specify them as communist states that were culturally tied to Western Europe[6]. This usage continued after the end of the Warsaw Pact when these countries started to undergo transition. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... A map of the Eastern Bloc 1948-1989. ...


Remnants of the Holy Roman Empire

The German term Mitteleuropa (or alternatively its literal translation into English, Middle Europe) is sometimes used in English to refer to an area somewhat larger than most conceptions of 'Central Europe'; it refers to territories under German(ic) cultural hegemony until World War I (encompassing Austria-Hungary and Germany in their antebellum formations but usually excluding the Baltic countries north of East Prussia).[citation needed] In Germany the connotation is also heavily linked to the pre-war German provinces east of the Oder-Neisse line which were lost, annexed by People's Republic of Poland and the Soviet Union, and ethnically cleansed of Germans by national and communist authorities and forces (see expulsion of Germans after World War II). In this view Bohemia, with its Western Slavic heritage combined with its historical "Sudetenland", is a core region illustrating the problems and features of the entire Central European region. The approximate area of Mitteleuropa Mitteleuropa (Central/Middle Europe) is a German term approximately equal to Central Europe. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Antebellum is a Latin word meaning before war(ante means before and bellum is war). ... The three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania The terms Baltic countries, Baltic Sea countries, Baltic states, and Balticum refer to slightly different combinations of countries in the general area surrounding the Baltic Sea. ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... The Oder-Neisse line (Polish: , German: ) marked the border between German Democratic Republic and Poland between 1950 and 1990. ... Capital Warsaw Language(s) Polish Government Socialist republic Leaders  - 1948–1956 BolesÅ‚aw Bierut (First)  - 1981-1989 Wojciech Jaruzelski (Last) Prime minister  - 1944-1947 E. Osóbka-Morawski  - 1947-1952 and 1954-1970 Józef Cyrankiewicz  - 1952-1954 BolesÅ‚aw Bierut  - 1970-1980 Piotr Jaroszewicz  - 1980 Edward Babiuch  - 1980-1981... A stereotypical German The Germans (German: die Deutschen), or the German people, are a nation in the meaning an ethnos (in German: Volk), defined more by a sense of sharing a common German culture and having a German mother tongue, than by citizenship or by being subjects to any particular... Germans expelled from the Sudetenland // The expulsion of Germans after World War II refers to the forced migration of people considered Germans (Reichsdeutsche and some Volksdeutsche) from various European states and territories during 1945 and in the first three years after World War II 1946-48. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... Western Slavic can refer to: Western Slavic languages Western Slavic peoples Category: ... Sudetenland (Czech and Polish: Sudety) was the German name used in English in the first half of the 20th century for the Western regions of Czechoslovakia inhabited mostly by Germans, specifically the border areas of Bohemia, Moravia, and those parts of Silesia associated with Bohemia. ...


See also

The Central European Initiative or CEI, is a cultural and scientific international cooperative of at present 17 countries, founded in 1991/92 as a successor of the Pentagonale group1. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries that do not observe summer time Central European Time (CET) is one of the names of the time zone that is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... This map shows some of the locations of claimants to the title of Centre of Europe An ongoing debate concerns where the geographical centre of Europe is to be found. ... Międzymorze (Myen-dzih-MOH-zheh): name for Józef Piłsudskis proposed federation of Poland, Lithuania, Belarus and Ukraine. ... The approximate area of Mitteleuropa Mitteleuropa (Central/Middle Europe) is a German term approximately equal to Central Europe. ...

References

  1. ^ http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb5037/is_200504/ai_n18257033
  2. ^ http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P2-1124570.html?refid=gg_x_02
  3. ^ http://www.christinefeehan.com/dark_series/research.php
  4. ^ www.icpdr.org/icpdr-files/14017
  5. ^ Wolfgang Frey and Rainer Lösch; Lehrbuch der Geobotanik. Pflanze und Vegetation in Raum und Zeit. Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, München 2004
  6. ^ "Central versus Eastern Europe"

Further reading

  • Jacques Rupnik, "In Search of Central Europe: Ten Years Later", in Gardner, Hall, with Schaeffer, Elinore & Kobtzeff, Oleg, (ed.), Central and South-central Europe in Transition, Westport, Connecticut: Praeger, 2000 (translated form French by Oleg Kobtzeff)
  • Article 'Mapping Central Europe' in hidden europe, 5, pp. 14-15 (November 2005)

External links

Look up Central Europe in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Central Europe travel guide - Wikitravel (1172 words)
Central Europe comprises the countries in the center of Europe.
Central Europe has some of the oldest and best preserved cities on the continent.
With the peaceful reunification of Germany and the recent expansion of the EU to encompass the former Warsaw Pact states in the region, this problem finally seemes to have been solved.
Central Europe - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (880 words)
Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe.
It is sometimes joked that Central Europe is the part of the continent that is considered Eastern by Western Europeans and Western by Eastern Europeans.
Geography strongly defines Central Europe's borders to its neighbouring regions to the North and South: namely Northern Europe (or Scandinavia) across the Baltic Sea and the Apennine peninsula (or Italy) across the Alps.
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