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Encyclopedia > Central Asia
Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region
Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region
Central Asia located as a region of the world
Central Asia located as a region of the world

Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east, and from southern Russia in the north to northern Pakistan in the south. Though various definitions of its exact composition exist, no one definition is universally accepted. Despite this uncertainty in defining borders, it does have some important overall characteristics. For one, Central Asia has historically been closely tied to its nomadic peoples and the Silk Road. As a result, it has acted as a crossroads for the movement of people, goods, and ideas between Europe, Western Asia, South Asia, and East Asia. It is also sometimes known as Middle Asia or Inner Asia, and is within the scope of the wider Eurasian continent. Image:Central Asia world region2. ... Image:Central Asia world region2. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... For the 2006 historical epic set in Kazakhstan, see Nomad (2006 film). ... For other uses, see Silk Road (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A map showing Southwest Asia - The term Middle East is more often used to refer to both Southwest Asia and some North African countries Southwest Asia, or West Asia, is the southwestern part of Asia. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... This article is about the geographical region. ... For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ...


Central Asia is largely coextensive with Turkestan. In modern context, Central Asia consists of the five former Soviet republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The nations of Afghanistan and Mongolia may also be included in Central Asia, in addition to the western Chinese provinces of Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang, Qinghai and Tibet. A small portion of Kazakhstan is also located west of the Urals in Eastern Europe.[1] For the town in southern Kazakhstan, see Hazrat-e Turkestan. ... Soviet redirects here. ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N i Měnggǔ Z qū) is an Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... Qinghai (Chinese: 青海; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching-hai; Postal System Pinyin: Tsinghai; Tibetan: མཚོ་སྔོན་ mtsho-sngon; Mongolian: Köke Naγur; Manchu: Huhu Noor) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, named after the enormous Qinghai Lake. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ...

Contents

Definitions

In ancient Chinese history records, the term Western Regions was used to describe the lands to the west of China. China is the worlds oldest continuous major civilization, with written records dating back about 3,500 years and with 5,000 years being commonly used by Chinese as the age of their civilization. ... The Western Regions (西域) is a historical region of Central Asia which corresponds roughly with the modern Chinese province of Xinjiang. ...


The idea of Central Asia as a distinct region of the world was introduced in 1843 by the geographer Alexander von Humboldt. The borders of Central Asia are subject to multiple definitions. Many text books still refer to this area as Turkestan, which was the name used prior to Stalin's rule. An 1859 portrait of Alexander von Humboldt by the artist Julius Schrader, showing Mount Chimborazo in the background. ... For the town in southern Kazakhstan, see Hazrat-e Turkestan. ...


The most limited definition was the official one of the Soviet Union that defined the "Middle Asia" as consisting solely of Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, and Kyrgyzstan, but did not include Kazakhstan and Mongolia. This definition was also often used outside the USSR in this period. However, the Russian language has two distinct terms: Средняя Азия (Srednyaya Azia or "Middle Asia", the narrower definition which includes only those traditionally non-Slavic, "Central Asian" lands that were incorporated within those borders of historical Russia) and Центральная Азия (Tsentral'naya Azia or "Central Asia", the wider definition which includes "Central Asian" lands that have never been part of historical Russia). However, there lacks a meaningful distinction between the two in the English language; and so "Central Asia" is used for both Russian usages, thus creating some confusion. The new post-USSR Russian Federation has now included Kazakhstan in its new definition of "Middle Asia". Russian ( , transliteration: , Russian pronunciation: ) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages, and the largest native language in Europe. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Soon after independence, the leaders of the five former Soviet Central Asian Republics met in Tashkent and declared that the definition of Central Asia should include Kazakhstan as well as the original four included by the Soviets. Since then, this has become the most common definition of Central Asia. CCCP redirects here. ... The Central Asian Republics are five countries located in Central Asia that were former Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Tajikistan Turkmenistan Uzbekistan The Central Asian Republics are sometimes referred to as Central Asia, although others prefer this term to be reserved for a larger geographic region within Asia rather than a designation given... Tashkent (Uzbek: , Russian: ) is the capital of Uzbekistan and also of the Tashkent Province. ...


The UNESCO general history of Central Asia, written just before the collapse of the USSR, defines the region based on climate and uses far larger borders. According to it, Central Asia includes Mongolia, Western China (including Tibet), northern India (Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, and Punjab states), northeast Iran (Golestan, North Khorasan, and Razavi provinces), Afghanistan, northern Pakistan (Punjab, Northern Areas, and N.W.F.P. provinces), central-east Russia south of the Taiga, and the former Central Asian Soviet Republics (the five "Stans" of the former Soviet Union). An alternative method is to define the region based on ethnicity, and in particular, areas populated by Eastern Turkic, Eastern Iranian, or Mongolian peoples. These areas include Xinjiang, the Turkic/Muslim regions of southern Siberia, the five republics, and Afghan Turkestan, northern Pakistan and Afghans. The Tibetans are also included. Insofar, the mentioned peoples are considered the "indigenous" peoples of the vast region. UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... , Himachal Pradesh (Hindi: हिमाचल प्रदेश, IPA:  ) is a state in the north-west of India. ... Jammu and Kashmir is a historic state in Asia which is currently disputed between India, Pakistan, and to a lesser extent, China. ... , This article is about the Indian state of Punjab. ... Golestān (Persian: گلستان) is one of the 28 provinces of Iran. ... North Khorasan (in Persian: خراسان شمالی) is a province located in northeastern Iran. ... Khorasan (in Persian: خراسان) is a province located in northeastern Iran. ... This article is about the Pakistani province. ... Shown in green is the Kashmiri region under Pakistani control. ... For other uses, see Taiga (disambiguation). ... Soviet redirects here. ... This is the disambiguation page for the terms Turk, Turkey, Turkic, and Turkish. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... Afghan Turkestan is the northern part of Afghanistan, on the border with the former Soviet republics of Turkmenistan and Tajikistan. ... A Tibetan pilgrim The Tibetans speak the Tibetan language natively and form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), although in anthropological terms they include more than one ethnic group. ...


The Republic of Tuva (now part of the Russian Federation) is claimed to be located at the geographical center of Asia that has a location 200 miles (320 km) North of Urumqi [2] Tyva Republic IPA: (Russian: IPA: ; Tuvan: ), or Tuva (), is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... Ürümqi (Uyghur: ئۈرۈمچى; Uyghur Latin script: Ürümqi; Chinese: 烏魯木齊; Pinyin: Wūlǔmùqí; population about 1. ...


Geography

Climate map of Central Asia. This map clearly illustrates the boundaries of Central Asia. From the northwest, the mountain climate (purple) extends from the Caucasus, through Iranian Azerbaijan, along the Iranian border, through Afghanistan, and into Tibet in the southeast. The steppe climate (peach) extends from the North Caucasus in the northwest, over the Caspian Sea, through Kazakhstan, and around Mongolia in the northeast. The arid climates of the Ferghana Valley, Takla Makan and Gobi deserts are also prominently visible. The labels refer to the Trewartha climate classification scheme.      Mountainous (H)      Semi-arid steppe (BSh, BSk)      Desert (BWk)      Continental (DWc)      Humid sub-tropical (CWa)      Humid sub-tropical (CWa)
Climate map of Central Asia. This map clearly illustrates the boundaries of Central Asia. From the northwest, the mountain climate (purple) extends from the Caucasus, through Iranian Azerbaijan, along the Iranian border, through Afghanistan, and into Tibet in the southeast. The steppe climate (peach) extends from the North Caucasus in the northwest, over the Caspian Sea, through Kazakhstan, and around Mongolia in the northeast. The arid climates of the Ferghana Valley, Takla Makan and Gobi deserts are also prominently visible. The labels refer to the Trewartha climate classification scheme.
     Mountainous (H)      Semi-arid steppe (BSh, BSk)      Desert (BWk)
     Continental (DWc)      Humid sub-tropical (CWa)      Humid sub-tropical (CWa)

Central Asia is an extremely large region of varied geography, including high passes and mountains (Tian Shan), vast deserts (Kara Kum, Kyzyl Kum, Taklamakan), and especially treeless, grassy steppes. The vast steppe areas of Central Asia are considered together with the steppes of Eastern Europe as a homogenous geographical zone known as the Euro-Asian Steppe. Climate map of Central Asia. ... Climate map of Central Asia. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the worlds largest lake or a full-fledged sea. ... Fergana Fergana or Farghana (Uzbek: Fargona [Фарғона], Russian: Фергана, Tajik: Фарғона) is a city (1999 population: 182,800), the capital of Fergana Province in eastern Uzbekistan, at the southern edge of the Fergana Valley in southern Central Asia, cutting across the borders of Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. ... The Taklamakan is a desert of Central Asia, in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Gobi is a large desert region in northern China and southern Mongolia. ... For other uses, see Mountain (disambiguation). ... A Semi-arid climate or steppe climate generally describes climatic regions that receive low annual rainfall (250-500 mm or 10-20 in). ... This article is about the ecological zone type. ... This article is about arid terrain. ... The humid continental climate is a climate found over large areas of land masses in the temperate regions of the mid-latitudes where there is a zone of conflict between polar and tropical air masses. ... The humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa) is a climate zone characterized by hot, humid summers and chilly to mild winters. ... The humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa) is a climate zone characterized by hot, humid summers and chilly to mild winters. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Tian Shan (Chinese: 天山; Pinyin: Tiān Shān; celestial mountains) mountain range is located in Central Asia, in the border region of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of western China. ... This article is about arid terrain. ... For the desert in Kazakhstan, see Aral Karakum. ... The Kyzyl Kum (Uzbek: red sand; also called Qyzylqum) is a desert in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. ... Dust storm in Taklamakan from space, June 25, 2005 The Taklamakan (also Taklimakan) is a desert of Central Asia, in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... This article is about the ecological zone type. ... Eastern Europe is a concept that lacks one precise definition. ... The Euro-Asian Steppe, also known as the Euroasian Steppe or the Eurasian Steppe (sometimes referred to collectively as The Steppes or The Steppe) is the terms often used to describe the vast steppe ecoregion of Eurasia stretching from the western borders of the steppes of Hungary to the eastern...


Much of the land of Central Asia is too dry or too rugged for farming. The Gobi desert extends from the foot of the Pamirs, 77° east, to the Great Khingan (Da Hinggan) Mountains, 116°–118° east. This page contains special characters. ... A photograph of Ismail Samani Peak (then known as Peak Communism) taken in 1989. ... Greater Khingan is a mountain range in Inner Mongolia, China. ...


Central Asia has the following geographic extremes:

A majority of the people earn a living by herding livestock. Industrial activity centers in the region's cities. This article is about arid terrain. ... This article is about sand formations. ... Northern hemisphere highlighted in yellow. ... While these two men dig in Alaska to study soil, the hard permafrost requires the use of a jackhammer In geology, permafrost or permafrost soil is soil at or below the freezing point of water (0 °C or 32 °F) for two or more years. ... This article is about arid terrain. ... While these two men dig in Alaska to study soil, the hard permafrost requires the use of a jackhammer In geology, permafrost or permafrost soil is soil at or below the freezing point of water (0 °C or 32 °F) for two or more years. ...


Major rivers of the region include the Amu Darya, the Syr Darya and the Hari River. Major bodies of water include the Aral Sea and Lake Balkhash, both of which are part of the huge west/central Asian endorheic basin that also includes the Caspian Sea. Both of these bodies of water have shrunk significantly in recent decades due to diversion of water from rivers that feed them for irrigation and industrial purposes. Water is an extremely valuable resource in arid Central Asia, and can lead to rather significant international disputes. The Amu Darya (Darya means river) rises in the Pamirs and flows mainly north-west through the Hindu Kush, Uzbekistan to join the Aral Sea in a large delta. ... Syr Darya (also known as Syrdarya or Sirdaryo) is a river in Central Asia. ... The Rudkhaneh-ye Hari Rud (sometimes Harirud) is a river flowing 1100 kilometers from the mountains of central Afghanistan to Turkmenistan, where it disappears in the Kara-Kum desert. ... The Gay Sea (Kazakh: Арал Теңізі, Aral Tengizi, Uzbek: , Russian: Аральскοе мοре, Tajik/Persian: Daryocha-i Khorazm, Lake Khwarazm) is a landlocked endorheic basin in Central Asia; it lies between Kazakhstan (Aktobe and Kyzylorda provinces) in the north and Karakalpakstan, an autonomous region of Uzbekistan, in the south. ... Lake Balkhash from space, April 1991 Lake Balkhash: NASA image, taken 18 April 2000 by SeaWiFS Lake Balkhash, or Lake Balqash, is a large lake in southeastern Kazakhstan, the second largest in Central Asia after the Aral Sea. ... The shores of Lake Hart, an endorheic desert lake in South Australia In geography, an endorheic basin—also called a terminal or closed basin—is a watershed from which there is no outflow of water, either on the surface as rivers, or underground by flow or diffusion through rock or... The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the worlds largest lake or a full-fledged sea. ...


Climate

Since Central Asia is not buffered by a large body of water, temperature fluctuations are more severe.


According to the Köppen climate classification system, Central Asia is part of the Palearctic ecozone. The largest biome in Central Asia is the Temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome. Central Asia also contains the Montane grasslands and shrublands, Deserts and xeric shrublands and Temperate coniferous forests biomes. Updated Köppen-Geiger climate map[1] The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. ... The Palearctic or Palaearctic is one of the eight ecozones dividing the Earth surface (see map). ... An ecozone or biogeographic realm is the largest scale biogeographic division of the earths surface based on the historic and evolutionary distribution patterns of plants and animals. ... A biome is a climatically and geographically defined area of ecologically similar communities of plants, animals, and soil organisms, often referred to as ecosystems. ... A restored Illinois grassland ecosystem at Morton Arboretum. ... Montane grasslands and shrublands is a biome defined by the World Wildlife Fund. ... In isolation, Hawaiis Silverswords have adapted to xeric microclimates within volcanic craters, trapping and channeling dew and protecting leaves with reflective hairs. ... Pine forests are an example of a temperate coniferous forests Temperate coniferous forests are a terrestrial biome found in temperate regions of the world with warm summers and cool winters and adequate rainfall to sustain a forest. ...


History

Map of Soviet Central Asia in 1922 with the Turkistan ASSR and the Kyrgyz ASSR (present-day Kazakhstan).

The history of Central Asia is defined by the area's climate and geography. The aridness of the region made agriculture difficult and its distance from the sea cut it off from much trade. Thus few major cities developed in the region, instead the area was for millennia dominated by the nomadic horse peoples of the steppe. Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region The history of Central Asia is defined primarily by the areas climate and geography. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1200x910, 33 KB) Summary Soviet Central Asia in 1922 Source: Central Asia: A Century of Russian Rule by Edward Allworth. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1200x910, 33 KB) Summary Soviet Central Asia in 1922 Source: Central Asia: A Century of Russian Rule by Edward Allworth. ... Kyrgyz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Kyrgyz ASSR) was the name of two different national entities within Russian SFSR, in the territories of modern Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. ... This article is about the ecological zone type. ...


Relations between the steppe nomads and the settled people in and around Central Asia were long marked by conflict. The nomadic lifestyle was well suited to warfare and the steppe horse riders became some of the most militarily potent peoples in the world, only limited by their lack of internal unity. Any internal unity that was achieved, was most probably due to the influence of the Silk Road, which traveled along Central Asia. Periodically great leaders or changing conditions would organize several tribes into to one force, and create an almost unstoppable power. These included the Hun invasion of Europe, the Wu Hu attacks on China and most notably the Mongol conquest of much of Eurasia. For other uses, see Hun (disambiguation). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ...


The dominance of the nomads ended in the sixteenth century, as firearms allowed settled peoples to gain control of the region. Russia, China, and other powers expanded into the region and had captured the bulk of Central Asia by the end of the nineteenth century. After the Russian Revolution the Central Asian regions were incorporated into the Soviet Union. Mongolia remained independent but became a Soviet satellite state. The Soviet areas of Central Asia saw much industrialization and construction of infrastructure, but also the suppression of local cultures, hundreds of thousands of deaths from failed collectivization programs, and a lasting legacy of ethnic tensions and environmental problems. Firearms redirects here. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... Satellite state or client state is a political term that refers to a country which is formally independent but which is primarily subject to the domination of another, larger power. ...


With the collapse of the Soviet Union five countries gained independence. In all the new states former Communist Party officials retained power as local strongmen. None of the new republics could be considered functional democracies, although it appears Kyrgyzstan may achieve this. Other parts of Central Asia remain part of China or Russia.


Culture

The Ethnolinguistic patchwork of Central Asia

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2392x1504, 677 KB) Summary The ethnolinguitic patchwork of Central Asia - CIA map. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2392x1504, 677 KB) Summary The ethnolinguitic patchwork of Central Asia - CIA map. ...

Religions

Islam is the religion most common in the Central Asian Republics, Afghanistan, Xinjiang (Uyghurstan/East Turkistan) and the peripheral western regions. Most Central Asian Muslims are Sunni, although there are sizeable Shia and Hindu minorities in Afghanistan and Pakistan. Hinduism is the religion most prevalent in northwest India although there is a considerable presence of Islam. Tibetan Buddhism is most common in Tibet, Mongolia, and the southern Russian regions of Siberia, where Shamanism is also popular. Increasing Han Chinese migration westward since the establishment of the PRC has brought Confucianism and other beliefs into the region. Nestorianism was the form of Christianity most practiced in the region in previous centuries, but now the largest denomination is the Russian Orthodox Church, with many members in Kazakhstan. The Bukharian Jews were once a sizable community in Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, but nearly all have emigrated since the Collapse of the Soviet Union and the revival of Islam in the region. For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The Central Asian Republics are five countries located in Central Asia that were former Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Tajikistan Turkmenistan Uzbekistan The Central Asian Republics are sometimes referred to as Central Asia, although others prefer this term to be reserved for a larger geographic region within Asia rather than a designation given... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Tibetan Buddhism[1] is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet and the Himalayan regions, which include northern Nepal, Bhutan, India (Arunachal Pradesh, Ladakh and Sikkim), Mongolia, Russia (Kalmykia, Buryatia and Tuva) and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ... This article is about the practice of shamanism; for other uses, see Shaman (disambiguation). ... Language(s) Chinese languages Religion(s) Predominantly Mahayana Buddhism and Taoism. ... A Confucian temple in Wuwei, Peoples Republic of China. ... Nestorianism is the doctrine that Jesus exists as two persons, the man Jesus and the divine Son of God, or Logos, rather than as a unified person. ... The Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (Russian: ), also known as the Orthodox Christian Church of Russia, is a body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... Languages Traditionally Bukhari, Russian and Hebrew spoken in addtion. ... The rise of Gorbachev Although reform stalled between 1964–1982, the generational shift gave new momentum for reform. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


Arts

At the crossroads of Asia, shamanist practices live alongside Buddhism. Thus Yama, Lord of Death, was revered in Tibet as a spiritual guardian and judge. Mongolian Buddhism in particular influenced Tibetan Buddhism. The Qianlong Emperor of China in the 18th century was Tibetan Buddhist, and would sometimes travel from Beijing to other cities for personal religious worship. Tibetan Dharmapala at the Field Museum in Chicago, Illinois Yama is the name of the Buddhist god and judge of the dead, who presides over the Buddhist Narakas (Pāli: Nirayas), Hells or Purgatories. Although ultimately based on the god Yama of the Hindu Vedas, the Buddhist Yama has developed... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago The Field Museum of Natural History, in Chicago, Illinois, USA, sits on Lake Shore Drive next to Lake Michigan, part of a scenic complex called known as the Museum Campus which includes Soldier Field, the football stadium that is the home of the Chicago... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings, sometimes described as a religion[1] or way of life that attempts to identify the causes of human suffering and offer various ways that are claimed to end, or ease suffering. ... Tibetan Dharmapala at the Field Museum in Chicago, Illinois Yama is the name of the Buddhist god and judge of the dead, who presides over the Buddhist Narakas (Pāli: Nirayas), Hells or Purgatories. Although ultimately based on the god Yama of the Hindu Vedas, the Buddhist Yama has developed... The Qianlong Emperor (September 25, 1711–February 7, 1799) was the fifth emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China. ... Peking redirects here. ...


Note the human skulls and severed heads that festoon Yama's crown and necklace, which give some concept of the size that Yama was expected to be when one faced him at one's death. This particular Dharmapala is painted wood, four feet high in total. In Vajrayana Buddhism, a dharmapāla (Tibetan drag-gshed) is a type of wrathful deity. ...


Central Asia also has an indigenous form of improvisational oral poetry which is over 1000 years old. It is principally practiced in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan by akyns, lyrical improvisationists. They will engage in lyrical battles, the aitysh or the alym sabak. The tradition arose out of early bardic oral historians. They are usually accompanied by a stringed instrument—in Kyrgyzstan, a three-stringed komuz and in Kazakhstan a similar two-stringed instrument. Some also learn to sing the Manas, Kyrgyzstan's epic poem (those who learn the Manas exclusively but do not improvise are called manaschis). During Soviet rule, akyn performance was co-opted by the authorities and subsequently declined in popularity. With the fall of the Soviet Union it has enjoyed a resurgence, although akyns still do use their art to campaign for political candidates. A 2005 Washington Post article proposed a similarity between the improvisational art of akyns and modern freestyle rap performed in the West.[3] Oral poetry is a form of poetry that is transmitted orally and memorized rather than written down. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the historical discipline; see Oral tradition for the oral transmission of historical information. ... A string instrument (or stringed instrument) is a musical instrument that produces sound by means of vibrating strings. ... The komuz is a string instrument used in Kyrgyz music, closely related to the other Turkic string instruments. ... Manas is a traditional epic poem of the Kyrgyz people and the name of the epics eponymous hero. ... ... Freestyle rap is an improvisational form of rapping, performed with few or no previously composed lyrics, which is said to reflect a direct mapping of the mental state and performing situation of the artist. ...


Demographics

By the most inclusive definition, more than 80 million people live in Central Asia, about 2% of Asia's total population. Of the regions of Asia, only North Asia has fewer people. It has a population density of 9 people per km², vastly less than the 80.5 people per km² of the continent as a whole. Regions of Asia:  Northern Asia  Central Asia  Western Asia  Southern Asia  Eastern Asia  Southeastern Asia North Asia or Northern Asia is a subregion of Asia. ...

Major languages
of Central Asia
Turkic languages
Iranian languages
Other major languages
Linguae francae

The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... Kazakh (also Qazaq and variants[2], natively , , ‎; pronounced ) is a Turkic language closely related to Nogai and Karakalpak. ... Kyrgyz or Kirghiz (Kyrgyz tili, Кыргыз тили, قىرعىز ٴتىلى) is a Turkic language, and, together with Russian, an official language of Kyrgyzstan. ... The Tatar language (Tatar tele, Tatarça, Татар теле, Татарча) is a Turkic language spoken by the Tatars. ... Uyghur (‎/Uyghurche//, or ‎/Uyghur tili//)[1] is a Turkic language spoken by the Uyghur people in Xinjiang (also called East Turkestan or Uyghurstan), formerly also “Sinkiang” and “Chinese Turkestan,” a Central Asian region administered by China. ... The Iranian languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Dari is the local name for the variety of Persian spoken in Afghanistan. ... Tajik or Tadjik (тоҷикӣ, تاجیکی, tojikí) is a descendant of the Persian language spoken in Central Asia. ... Bukhori, also known as Bukharic or Bukharan, is an Indo-Iranian language. ... Pashto (پښتو; also known as Afghan, Pathan, Pushto, Pashtoe, Pashtu, Pushtu, and Pukhto) is the language spoken by the ethnic Afghan otherwise known as the Pashtun people who inhabit Afghanistan and the western provinces of Pakistan. ... Balochi, a north-western Iranian language, is the principal language of Balochistan. ... The Kurdish language (Kurdish: Kurdî or کوردی) is a term used for a range of different dialects of a language spoken by Kurds. ... The Pamir languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages, spoken in the Pamir Mountains, primarily along the Panj River and its tributaries in the southern Gorno-Badakhshan region of Tajikistan around the administrative center Khorog (), and the neighboring Badakhshan province and is in Pamir Area Afghanistan. ... The Tibetan language is spoken primarily by the Tibetan people who live across a wide area of eastern Central Asia bordering South Asia, as well as by large number of Tibetan refugees all over the world. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ... Farsi redirects here. ...

Languages

The languages of the majority of the inhabitants of the former Soviet Central Asian Republics come from the Turkic language group. Turkmen, closely related to Turkish (they are both members of the Oghuz group of Turkic), is mainly spoken in Turkmenistan and into Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iran and Turkey. Kazakh, Kyrgyz and Tatar are related languages of the Kypchak group of Turkic languages, and are spoken throughout Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, and into Afghanistan, Xinjiang and Qinghai. Uzbek and Uyghur are spoken in Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Xinjiang. Soviet redirects here. ... The Central Asian Republics are five countries located in Central Asia that were former Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Tajikistan Turkmenistan Uzbekistan The Central Asian Republics are sometimes referred to as Central Asia, although others prefer this term to be reserved for a larger geographic region within Asia rather than a designation given... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... A Seljuk Prince. ... Kazakh (also Qazaq and variants[2], natively , , ‎; pronounced ) is a Turkic language closely related to Nogai and Karakalpak. ... Kyrgyz or Kirghiz (Kyrgyz tili, Кыргыз тили, قىرعىز ٴتىلى) is a Turkic language, and, together with Russian, an official language of Kyrgyzstan. ... The Tatar language (Tatar tele, Tatarça, Татар теле, Татарча) is a Turkic language spoken by the Tatars. ... Kipchaks in Eurasia circa 1200 C.E. Kipchaks (also spelled as Kypchaks, Qipchaqs, Qypchaqs) (Ukrainian: (polovtsy), Crimean Tatar: , Karachay-Balkar: Къыпчакъ, Uzbek: , Kazakh: Қыпшақ, Kumyk: Къыпчакъ, Kyrgyz: Кыпчак, Nogai: Кыпчак, Turkish: Kıpçak) were an ancient Turkic people, first mentioned in the historical chronicles of Central Asia in the 1st millennium BC. The western... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... Qinghai (Chinese: 青海; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching-hai; Postal System Pinyin: Tsinghai; Tibetan: མཚོ་སྔོན་ mtsho-sngon; Mongolian: Köke Naγur; Manchu: Huhu Noor) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, named after the enormous Qinghai Lake. ... Uyghur (‎/Uyghurche//, or ‎/Uyghur tili//)[1] is a Turkic language spoken by the Uyghur people in Xinjiang (also called East Turkestan or Uyghurstan), formerly also “Sinkiang” and “Chinese Turkestan,” a Central Asian region administered by China. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ...


Russian, as well as being spoken by around six million ethnic Russians and Ukrainians of Central Asia, is a lingua franca throughout the former Soviet Central Asian Republics. Mandarin Chinese has an equally dominant presence in Inner Mongolia, Qinghai and Xinjiang. Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ... Soviet redirects here. ... The Central Asian Republics are five countries located in Central Asia that were former Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Tajikistan Turkmenistan Uzbekistan The Central Asian Republics are sometimes referred to as Central Asia, although others prefer this term to be reserved for a larger geographic region within Asia rather than a designation given... Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngw n) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: H nyǔ, Hu yǔ, or Zhōngw n) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N i Měnggǔ Z qū) is an Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Qinghai (Chinese: 青海; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching-hai; Postal System Pinyin: Tsinghai; Tibetan: མཚོ་སྔོན་ mtsho-sngon; Mongolian: Köke Naγur; Manchu: Huhu Noor) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, named after the enormous Qinghai Lake. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ...


The Turkic languages belong to the much larger Altaic language family, which includes Mongolian. Mongolian is spoken throughout the region of Mongolia and into Inner Mongolia, Qinghai and Xinjiang. The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... Altaic is a proposed language family that includes 66 languages [1] spoken by about 348 million people, mostly in and around Central Asia and northeast Asia. ... Qinghai (Chinese: 青海; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching-hai; Postal System Pinyin: Tsinghai; Tibetan: མཚོ་སྔོན་ mtsho-sngon; Mongolian: Köke Naγur; Manchu: Huhu Noor) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, named after the enormous Qinghai Lake. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ...


Iranian languages were once spoken throughout Central Asia, but the once prominent Sogdian,Chorasmian, Bactrian and Scythian languages are now extinct. However, the Persian language is still spoken in the region, locally known as Dari or Tajik. Pashto is spoken in Afghanistan and Pakistan.Bukhori is a Persian dialect spoken by the Bukharian Jews. The Iranian languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family. ... The Sogdian language is a Middle Iranian language spoken in Sogdiana (Zarafshan River Valley) in the modern day republics of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan (chief cities: Samarkand, Panjikent, Ferghana). ... Chorasmian, also known as Khwarezmian or Khwarazmian, is the name of an extinct northeastern Iranian language closely related to Sogdian. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Bactrian language is an extinct language which was spoken in the Central Asian region of Bactria, also called Tocharistan, in northern Afghanistan. ... Scythian and Sarmatian are the names of the East Iranian dialects spoken by the Scythian/Sarmatian tribes of cattlebreeders in Southern Russia between 8th century BC and 5th century AD. The two branches are divided mainly chronologically, rather than geographically: Scythian - archaic version; mainly during classic antiquity Sarmatian Sometimes, the... Farsi redirects here. ... Dari is the local name for the variety of Persian spoken in Afghanistan. ... Tajik or Tadjik (тоҷикӣ, تاجیکی, tojikí) is a descendant of the Persian language spoken in Central Asia. ... Pashto (پښتو; also known as Afghan, Pathan, Pushto, Pashtoe, Pashtu, Pushtu, and Pukhto) is the language spoken by the ethnic Afghan otherwise known as the Pashtun people who inhabit Afghanistan and the western provinces of Pakistan. ... Bukhori, also known as Bukharic or Bukharan, is an Indo-Iranian language. ... Farsi redirects here. ...


The Tibetan language is spoken by around six million people across the Tibetan Plateau and into Qinghai and Sichuan. The Tibetan language is spoken primarily by the Tibetan people who live across a wide area of eastern Central Asia bordering South Asia, as well as by large number of Tibetan refugees all over the world. ... Tibet Autonomous Region, Qinghai Province and Sichuan Province of China lie on the Tibetan Plateau. ... Qinghai (Chinese: 青海; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching-hai; Postal System Pinyin: Tsinghai; Tibetan: མཚོ་སྔོན་ mtsho-sngon; Mongolian: Köke Naγur; Manchu: Huhu Noor) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, named after the enormous Qinghai Lake. ... This article is about the Chinese province. ...


Geostrategy

Central Asia has long been a strategic location merely because of its proximity to several great powers on the Eurasian landmass. The region itself never held a dominant stationary population, nor was able to make use of natural resources. Thus it has rarely throughout history become the seat of power for an empire or influential state. Much like Poland throughout European history, Central Asia has been divided, redivided, conquered out of existence, and fragmented time and time again. Central Asia has served more as the battleground for outside powers, than as a power in its own right. Central Asia has long been a geostrategic location merely because of its proximity to several great powers on the Eurasian landmass. ...


Central Asia had both the advantage and disadvantage of a central location between four historical seats of power. From its central location, it has access to trade routes to and from all the regional powers. On the other hand, it has been continuously vulnerable to attack from all sides throughout its history, resulting in political fragmentation or outright power vacuum, as it is successively dominated.

Political cartoon from the period of the Great Game showing the Afghan Amir Sher Ali with his "friends" Imperial Russia and the United Kingdom (1878)
Political cartoon from the period of the Great Game showing the Afghan Amir Sher Ali with his "friends" Imperial Russia and the United Kingdom (1878)
  • To the North, the steppe allowed for rapid mobility, first for nomadic horseback warriors like the Huns and Mongols, and later for Russian traders, eventually supported by railroads. As the Russian empire expanded to the East, it would also push down into Central Asia towards the sea, in a search for warm water ports. The Soviet bloc would reinforce dominance from the North, and attempt to project power as far south as Afghanistan.
  • To the East, the demographic and cultural weight of Chinese empires continually pushed outward into Central Asia. Manchu Qing dynasty would conquer Uyghurstan/East Turkistan and Tibet. As part of the Sino-Soviet bloc, China would swallow Tibet. However, with the Sino-Soviet split, China would project power into Central Asia, most notably in the case of Afghanistan, to counter Russian dominance of the region.
  • To the Southeast, the demographic and cultural influence of India was felt in Central Asia, notably in Tibet, the Hindu Kush, and slightly beyond. Several historical Indian dynasties, especially those seated along the Indus river would expand into Central Asia. India's ability to project power into Central Asia has been limited due to the mountain ranges in Pakistan, and the cultural differences between Hindu India, and what would become a mostly Muslim Central Asia.
  • To the Southwest, Western Asian powers have expanded into the Southern areas of Central Asia (usually, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, and Pakistan). Several Persian empires would conquer and reconquer parts of Central Asia; Alexander the Great's Hellenic empire would extend into Central Asia; two Islamic empires would exert substantial influence throughout the region; and the modern state of Iran has projected influence throughout the region as well.

In the post-Cold War era, Central Asia is an ethnic cauldron, prone to instability and conflicts, without a sense of national identity, but rather a mess of historical cultural influences, tribal and clan loyalties, and religious fervor. Projecting influence into the area is no longer just Russia, but also Turkey, Iran, China, Pakistan, India and the United States: Image File history File links Great_Game_cartoon_from_1878. ... Image File history File links Great_Game_cartoon_from_1878. ... Central Asia, circa 1848. ... East Turkestan (also East Turkistan, Sherqiy Türkistan in Uyghur, or Uyghurstan). ... Flag of East Turkistan East Turkistan (Sherqiy Türkistan in Uyghur, Doğu Türkistan in Turkish) was the name of two shortlived states in Central Asia; the first one existed from 1932 to 1934, while the second one existed from 1944 to 1949. ...

  • Russia continues to dominate political decision-making throughout the former SSRs, although as these countries shed their post-Soviet authoritarian systems, Russia's influence is slowly waning.
  • China, already controlling Xinjiang and Tibet, projects significant power in the region, especially in energy/oil politics (for example, through the Shanghai Cooperation Organization).
  • India, as a nuclear-armed rising power, exercises some influence in the region, especially in Tibet with which it has cultural affinities. India is also perceived as a potential counterweight to China's regional power. The Indian Air Force operates the Farkhor Air Base in Tajikistan.
  • Turkey exerts considerable influence in the region on account of its ethnic and linguistic ties with the Turkic peoples of Central Asia and its involvement in the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan oil pipeline. Political and economic relations are growing rapidly (e.g. Turkey recently eliminated visa requirements for citizens of the Central Asian Turkic republics).
  • Iran, the seat of historical empires which controlled parts of Central Asia, has historical and cultural links to the region, and is vying to construct an oil pipeline from the Caspian Sea to the Persian Gulf.
  • Pakistan, a large and nuclear-armed state, helped to sustain Taliban rule in Afghanistan, and is capable of exercising some influence. For some Central Asian nations, the shortest route to the ocean lies through Pakistan. Pakistan seeks Natural Gas from Central Asia, and supports the development of pipelines from its countries.
  • And the United States with its military involvement in the region, and oil diplomacy, is also significantly involved in the region's politics.

Membership 6 member states 4 observer states Headquarters Secretariat RATS - Beijing - Tashkent Working languages Chinese, Russian Secretary General Zhang Deguang Formation 14 June 2001 Official website http://www. ... The Indian Air Force is the air-arm of the Armed Forces of India and has the prime responsibility of conducting aerial warfare and securing the Indian airspace. ... Farkhor Air Base is the only Indian overseas military base, situated at Farkhor/Ayni in Tajikistan. ... The Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline (sometimes abbreviated as BTC pipeline) transports crude petroleum 1,776 km from the Azeri-Chirag-Guneshli oil field in the Caspian Sea to the Mediterranean Sea. ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ...

Oil politics

Further information: Oil geostrategy, Pipeline transport, Caspian Sea, and Petroleum politics

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... An elevated section of the Alaska Pipeline. ... The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the worlds largest lake or a full-fledged sea. ... Political sidewalk graffiti Petroleum politics have been an increasingly important aspect of international diplomacy since the discovery of oil in the Middle East in the early 1900s. ...

War on Terror

In the context of the United States' War on Terror, Central Asia has once again become the center of geostrategic calculations. Pakistan's status has been upgraded by the U.S.-government to Major non-NATO ally because of its central role in serving as a staging point for the invasion of Afghanistan, providing intelligence on Al-Qaeda operations in the region, and leading the hunt on Osama bin Laden, believed to still be in the region. Afghanistan, which had served as a haven and source of support for Al-Qaeda, under the protection of Mullah Omar and the Taliban, was the target of a U.S. invasion in 2001, and ongoing reconstruction and drug-eradication efforts. U.S. military bases have also been established in Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan, causing both Russia and the People's Republic of China to voice their concern over a permanent U.S. military presence in the region. This article is about U.S. actions, and those of other states, after September 11, 2001. ... Map of countries designated by the United States as major non-NATO allies Major non-NATO ally (MNNA) is a designation given by the United States government to exceptionally close allies who have close strategic working relationships with American forces but are not members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. ... The Taliban (Pashto: - , also anglicised as Taleban) are a Sunni Islamist and Pashtun nationalist movement[2] that ruled most of Afghanistan from 1996 until 2001, when their leaders were removed from power by a cooperative military effort between the Northern Alliance and NATO countries. ...


It is argued that the Russia, China and former SSRs have taken advantage of the War on Terror to increase oppression of separatist ethnic minorities. Washington, which considers Russia and China as strategic partners in the War on Terror, has largely turned a blind eye to these actions. The ethnically diverse former SSRs, especially Uzbekistan have reclassified ethnic separatist attacks as terrorist attacks and pursued more oppressive policies.


See also

Agriculture in Central Asia constitutes at least 20% of the GDP of every Central Asian country with the lone exception of Kazakhstan. ... Proposed Central Asian Union A Central Asian Union was proposed by Kazakhstan President Nursultan Nazarbaev on April 26, 2007, consisting of the five Central Asian republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. ... Eurasian nomads are a large group of peoples of the steppes of Central Asia, Mongolia and Eastern Europe (Pontic steppe). ... The Euro-Asian Steppe, also known as the Euroasian Steppe or the Eurasian Steppe (sometimes referred to collectively as The Steppes or The Steppe) is the terms often used to describe the vast steppe ecoregion of Eurasia stretching from the western borders of the steppes of Hungary to the eastern... The Great Game is a term, usually attributed to Arthur Connolly, used to describe the rivalry and strategic conflict between the British Empire and the Tsarist Russian Empire for supremacy in Central Asia. ... For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ... Росси́йская Импе́рия, (also Imperial Russia) covers the period of Russian history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great into the Russian Empire stretching from the Baltic to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposition of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start of the Russian Revolution... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Mosque in Khotan. ... The music of Central Asia is as vast and unique as the many cultures and peoples who inhabit the region (that is, not particularly vast or unique). ... // Map of Soviet Central Asia Soviet Central Asia is a reference to the five Central Asian republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan that were part of the Soviet Union from 1924-1991. ... The Survey of India is Indias central agency in charge of mapping and surveying. ... Türkistan (also spelled Turkistan or Turkestan) is a region in Central Asia, largely inhabited by Turkic people. ... Afghan Turkestan is the northern part of Afghanistan, on the border with the former Soviet republics of Turkmenistan and Tajikistan. ... This article is about the university in Khorog, Naryn, and Tekeli. ...

References

  • Dani, A.H. and V.M. Masson eds. UNESCO History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Paris: UNESCO, 1992.
  • Mandelbaum, Michael. ed. Central Asia and the World: Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Turkmenistan New York: Council on Foreign Relations Press, 1994.
  • Olcott, Martha Brill. Central Asia's New States: Independence, Foreign policy, and Regional security. Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace Press, 1996.
  • Soucek, Svatopluk. A History of Inner Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
  • Marcinkowski, M. Ismail. Persian Historiography and Geography: Bertold Spuler on Major Works Produced in Iran, the Caucasus, Central Asia, Pakistan and Early Ottoman Turkey, Singapore: Pustaka Nasional, 2003.
  • Rall, Ted. "Silk Road to Ruin: Is Central Asia the New Middle East?" New York: NBM Publishing, 2006.
  • Stone, L. A' 'The International Politics of Central Eurasia', (272 pp). Central Eurasian Studies On Line: Accessible via the Web Page of the International Eurasian Institute for Economic and Political Research: http://www.iicas.org/forumen.htm
  • Weston, David. Teaching about Inner Asia, Bloomington, Indiana: ERIC Clearinghouse for Social Studies, 1989.

is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... Michael Mandelbaum is the Christian A. Herter Professor and Director of the American Foreign Policy program at the Johns Hopkins University, School of Advanced International Studies. ... This article is about the state. ... The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) is an influential and independent, nonpartisan foreign policy membership organization founded in 1921 and based at 58 East 68th Street (corner Park Avenue) in New York City, with an additional office in Washington, D.C. Through its membership, meetings, and studies, it has been... Martha Brill Olcott is a senior associate with the Russian and Eurasian Program at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace and a leading U.S. expert on Central Asia. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Dr. Svat Soucek is a compiler and author of works in relation to Central Asia, and Central Asian studies and works in the oriental division of the New York Public Library. ... This article is about the city in England. ... The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ... A Ted Rall cartoon depicting John Kerry and George W. Bush. ... A publisher of graphic novels located in the State of New York in the United States. ...

External links

Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... The term World Ocean refers to the interconnected system of the planet Earths marine waters. ... The Arctic Ocean, located in the northern hemisphere and mostly in the Arctic north polar region, is the smallest of the worlds five major oceanic divisions and the shallowest. ... Atlantic and North Atlantic redirect here. ... Pacific redirects here. ... The Southern Ocean, also known as the Great Southern Ocean, the Antarctic Ocean and the South Polar Ocean, is the International Hydrographic Organizations oceanic division encircling Antarctica, comprising the southernmost waters of the World Ocean south of 60° S latitude. ...

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