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Encyclopedia > Census
Image:1870 census Lindauer Weber 01.gif
1870 US Census for New York City

A census is the process of obtaining information about every member of a population (not necessarily a human population). The term is mostly used in connection with national 'population and housing censuses' (to be taken every 10 years according to United Nations recommendations); agriculture censuses (all agriculture units) and business censuses (all enterprises). This article is about modern humans. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ...

The census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is only obtained from a subset of a population. As such it is a method used for accumulating statistical data, and also plays a part in democracy (voting). Census data is also commonly used for research, business marketing, planning purposes and not at least as a base for sampling surveys. Sampling is that part of statistical practice concerned with the selection of individual observations intended to yield some knowledge about a population of concern, especially for the purposes of statistical inference. ... This article is about the field of statistics. ... Voting is a method of decision making wherein a group such as a meeting or an electorate attempts to gauge its opinion—usually as a final step following discussions or debates. ... “Next big thing” redirects here. ...

It is widely recognized that population and housing censuses are vital for the planning of any society. Traditional censuses are however becoming more and more costly. A rule of thumb for census costs in developing countries have for a long time been 1 USD / enumerated person. More realistic figures today are around 3 USD. These approximates should be taken with great care since a various amount of activities can be included in different countries (e.g. enumerators can either be hired or requested from civil servants). The cost in developed countries is far higher. The cost for the 2000 census in the US is estimated to 4.5 billion USD. Alternative possibilities to retrieve data are investigated. Nordic countries Denmark, Finland and Norway have for several years used administrative registers. Partial censuses ‘Micro censuses’ or ‘Sample censuses' are practiced in France and Germany.


Census and privacy

While the census provides a useful way of obtaining statistical information about a population, such information can sometimes lead to abuses, political or otherwise, made possible by the linking of individuals' identities to anonymous census data.[1]

It is not unusual for census data to be processed in some way so as to obscure individual information. Some censuses do this by intentionally introducing small statistical errors to prevent the identification of individuals in marginal populations; others swap variables for similar respondents.

Whatever measures have been taken to reduce the privacy risk in census data, new technology in the form of better electronic analysis of data pose increasing challenges to the protection of sensitive individual information.

Ancient and medieval censuses

The first known census was taken by the Babylonians in 3800 BC, nearly 6000 years ago. Records suggest that it was taken every six or seven years and counted the number of people and livestock, as well as quantities of butter, honey, milk, wool and vegetables. Babylonia was an ancient state in Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ...

One of the earliest documented censuses was taken in 500-499 BC by the Persian Empire's military for issuing land grants, and taxation purposes.[2] The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ...

Censuses were conducted in the Mauryan Empire as described in Chanakya's (c. 350-283 BC) Arthashastra, which prescribed the collection of population statistics as a measure of state policy for the purpose of taxation. It contains a detailed description of methods of conducting population, economic and agricultural censuses.[3] The Mauryan empire (321 to 185 BCE), at its largest extent around 230 BCE. The Lion Capital of Asoka, erected around 250 BCE. It is the emblem of India. ... Chānakya (Sanskrit: चाणक्य) (c. ... The Arthashastra (more precisely Arthaśāstra) is a treatise on statecraft and economic policy which identifies its author by the names Kautilya[1] and Viṣṇugupta,[2] who are traditionally identified with the Mauryan minister Cāṇakya. ...

The Bible relates stories of several censuses. The Book of Numbers describes a divinely-mandated census that occurred when Moses led the Israelites from Egypt. A later census called by King David of Israel, referred to as the "numbering of the people," incited divine retribution (for being militarily motivated or perhaps displaying lack of faith in God). A Roman census is also mentioned in one of the best-known passages of the Bible in the Gospel of Luke, see Census of Quirinius. This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... The Book of Numbers is the fourth of the books of the Pentateuch, called in the Hebrew ba-midbar במדבר, i. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... “The Twelve Tribes” redirects here. ... This article is about the Biblical king of Israel. ... This entry incorporates text from Eastons Bible Dictionary, 1897, with some modernisation. ... The Roman census refers to the event from the Gospel of Luke, to explain how Jesus of Nazareth was born in Bethlehem, to fulfill the prophesy in Micah 5:2 that the messiah would be born in that city. ... The Gospel of Luke (literally, according to Luke; Greek, Κατά Λουκαν, Kata Loukan) is a synoptic Gospel, and the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament. ... The Census of Quirinius refers to the enrollment of the Roman Provinces of Syria and Iudaea for the purpose of taxation taken during the reign of the Roman Emperor Augustus when Publius Sulpicius Quirinius was appointed governor of Syria. ...

Rome conducted censuses to determine taxes (see Censor). The word 'census' origins in fact from ancient Rome, coming from the Latin word 'censere', meaning ‘estimate’. The Roman census was the most developed of any recorded in the ancient world and it played a crucial role in the administration of the Roman Empire. The Roman census was carried out every five years. It provided a register of citizens and their property from which their duties and privileges could be listed. Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... “Taxes” redirects here. ... Censor was the title of two magistrates of high rank in the Roman Republic. ...

The world's oldest extant census data comes from China during the Han Dynasty. Taken in the fall of 2 AD, it is considered by scholars to be quite accurate. At that time there were 59.6 million living in Han China, the world's largest population.[4] The second oldest preserved census is also from the Han, dating back to 140 AD, when only a bit more than 48 million people were recorded. Mass migrations into what is today southern China are believed to be behind this massive demographic decline. Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220...

In the Middle Ages, the most famous census in Europe is the Domesday Book, undertaken in 1086 by William I of England so that he could properly tax the land he had recently conquered. In 1183, a census was taken of the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, to ascertain the number of men and amount of money that could possibly be raised against an invasion by Saladin, sultan of Egypt and Syria. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... A line drawing entitled Domesday Book from Andrew Williamss Historic Byways and Highways of Old England. ... William I of England (c. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Official language Latin, French, Italian, and other western languages; Greek and Arabic also widely spoken Capital Jerusalem, later Acre Constitution Various laws, so-called Assizes of Jerusalem The Kingdom of Jerusalem was a Christian kingdom established in the Levant in 1099 by the First Crusade. ... Saladin, properly known as Salah al-DÄ«n Yusuf ibn Ayyub (Arabic: , Kurdish: , Turkish: ) (c. ...

A very interesting way to record census information was made in the Inca Empire in the Andean region from the 15th century until the Spaniards conquered their land. The Incas did not have any written language but recorded information collected during censuses and other numeric information as well as non-numeric data on quipus, strings from llama or alpaca hair or cotton cords with numeric and other values encoded by knots in a base 10 positional system. Capital Cusco 1197-1533 Vilcabamba 1533-1572 Language(s) Quechua, Aymara, Jaqi family, Mochic and scores of smaller languages. ... The word Andean refers to the geographic area in and around the Andes Mountains of South America, and to the indigenous peoples that inhabit the area, such as the Inca. ... Representation of a quipu Quipu or khipu were recording devices used in the Inca Empire and its predecessor societies in the Andean region. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The llama (Lama glama) is a South American camelid, widely used as a pack animal by the Incas[1] and other natives of the Andes mountains. ... This article is about a breed of domesticated ungulates. ...

Modern censuses


A partial and incomplete population census was taken in Afghanistan in 1979. A census is planned for 2007.


Population and housing censuses have been carried out in Algeria in 1967, 1977, 1987 and 1997.

Antigua & Barbuda

A Population & Housing Census was carried out in 2001


National population census are carried out in Argentina roughly every ten years, the last one being in 2001.

More about census, see: National Institute of Statistics and Census of Argentina National Statistics and Censuses Institute (Spanish: Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos, INDEC) is the Argentine government agency responsible for the collection and processing of statistical data. ...


The Austrian census is run by the Statistik Austria. It is carried out every ten years, the last on being in 2001. Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ...


Main article: Census in Australia

The Australian census is operated by the Australian Bureau of Statistics. It is currently conducted every five years, the last occurrence being on August 8, 2006. Past Australian censuses were conducted in 1911, 1921, 1933, 1947, 1954, 1961, 1966, 1971, 1976, 1981, 1986, 1991, 1996, 2001 and 2006. In 2006, for the first time, Australians were able to complete their census online. The Australian census is run by the Australian Bureau of Statistics. ... Australian Bureau of Statistics logo The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) is the Australian government agency that collects and publishes statistical information about Australia. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Population censuses have been carried out in 1974, 1981, 1991 and 2001. It is done by the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS)


Population censuses have been taken in Benin in 1978, 1992 and 2002


Population and housing censuses have been carried out in Bolivia in 1992 and 2001.


A census was taken by apostolic vicar the bishop Pavao Dragicevic in 1743.


The Brazilian census is carried out by IBGE, the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, every 10 years. The last one was in 2000. Earlier censuses were taken in 1872 (the first), 1900, 1920, 1941, 1950, 1960, 1970, 1980 and 1991. IBGE, the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica), is the agency responsible for statistical, geographic, cartographic, geodetic and environmental information in Brazil. ... An anniversary is a day that commemorates an event that occurred on the same day of the year some time in the past. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ...


The first census was organised after Bulgarian parliament passed a law for national censuses in 1880. A special Act on Statistics was enacted in 1897. It was following on the edge European standards at the time. The area of the next census was widening for the purposes of International Statistical Institute which was planning a world wide census of the then ‘civilized world’ at the time. The Directorate of Statistics was the only institution authorized and responsible with and for organization and of national censuses. The procedure remained the same until WW-II. German soldiers at the Battle of Stalingrad World War II was the most extensive and costly armed conflict in the history of the world, involving the great majority of the worlds nations, being fought simultaneously in several major theatres, and costing tens of millions of lives. ...

During the period in review Bulgaria has organized 16 population censuses (1880, 1884, 1887, 1892, 1900, 1905, 1910, 1920, 1926, 1934, 1946, 1956, 1965, 1975, 1985, 1992 all of them ending in December and 2001 providing data by March same year). Reliability of the statistics, indeed, improved with the time.

The information in the first censuses covers a wide range of data: • Population statistic – sex, age, nationality, mother tongue, education, religion, different groups of disabled people • Occupation…. • Animal statistics- providing detailed information on the number of beasts on the village and town level; • Dwelling statistics – the data is broken down by villages/towns and by type of use – for living and for rent providing purposes • Vital statistics – marriage, number of family members, age at marriage, mortality and nativity


The Canadian census is run by Statistics Canada. The first census conducted in Canada was conducted in 1666, by French intendant Jean Talon, when he took a census to ascertain the number of people living in New France. The individual provinces conducted censuses, in the 19th century and before, sometimes in conjunction with each other. In 1871, Canada's first formal census was conducted, which counted the population of Nova Scotia, Ontario, New Brunswick, and Quebec. In 1918, the Dominion Bureau of Statistics was formed, and replaced by Statistics Canada in 1971. Statistics Canada (French: Statistique Canada) is the Canadian federal government department commissioned with producing statistics to help better understand Canada, its population, resources, economy, society, and culture. ... The 1666 census of New France was the first census conducted in Canada (and indeed in North America). ... New France was governed by three rulers: the governor, the bishop and the intendant, all appointed by the King, and sent from France. ... Jean Talon. ... Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit(Latin) One defends and the other conquers Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis - Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 11 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government - Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... Motto: Spem reduxit (Hope restored) Capital Fredericton Largest city Saint John Official languages English, French (the only constitutionally bilingual province in the country) Government - Lieutenant-Governor Herménégilde Chiasson - Premier Shawn Graham (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 10 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st... , Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Official languages French Government - Lieutenant-Governor Pierre Duchesne - Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 75 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area  Ranked 2nd - Total 1,542,056 km² (595... The Dominion Bureau of Statistics was a Canadian government organization responsible for censuses. ...

Censuses in Canada are conducted in five-year intervals. The last two censuses were conducted in 2001 and 2006. Censuses taken in mid-decade (1976, 1986, 1996, etc.) are referred to as quinquennial censuses. Others are referred to as decennial censuses. The first quinquennial census was conducted in 1956. An anniversary is a day that commemorates an event that occurred on the same day of the year some time in the past. ... An anniversary is a day that commemorates an event that occurred on the same day of the year some time in the past. ...

For the 2006 Census of Canada, respondents were able, for the first time, to choose to complete their census questionnaire online. Other options for answering the questionnaire include postal mail (using a pre-paid envelope) and telephone (using a 800 number). For other uses, see Telephone (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

See also: Canada 2001 Census, Canada 2006 Census. The Canada 2001 Census was a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population. ... The Canada 2006 Census was a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population. ...


In the Province of Alberta, Section 57 of its Municipal Government Act (MGA) enables municipalities to perform their own censuses on any given year. An official municipal census must be conducted no earlier than April 1 and no later than June 30 of the same year, according to the MGA's Determination of Population Regulation. If municipalities choose to make their census count official, the new population must be submitted to the Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing prior to September 1 of the year the census was performed. The latest census counts for Alberta's municipalities are released in the Ministry's annual Official Population List publication. Motto: Fortis et liber (Latin: Strong and free) Official languages English (see below) Flower Wild rose                         Tree Lodgepole Pine Bird Great Horned Owl Capital Edmonton Largest city Calgary Lieutenant-Governor Norman Kwong Premier Ralph Klein (PC) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 28 6 Area Total  - Land  - Water  (% of total...

AltaPop (Alberta Population) is a very useful website that builds upon the data provided by the Province and Statistics Canada. Visit AltaPop to compare municipal and federal census results by municipality, to analyse historic population trends by municipality, and to view detailed annual population summaries either by size of municipality or sorted alphabetically.


Population censuses have been taken in the People's Republic of China in 1953, 1964, 1982, 1990 and 2000. Theses are the world's biggest censuses as they attempt to count every man, woman and child in its colossal population. Some 6 million enumerators were enganged in the 2000 census. An first economic census was taken in 2004.

Costa Rica

Costa Rica carried out its 9th population census in 2000. INEC, National Institute of Statistics and Census is in charge of conduct these census. Past Costa Rican censuses were conducted in 1864, 1883, 1892, 1927, 1950, 1963, 1973 and 1984. Costa Rica 2000 Census was realized by the National Institute of Statistics and Census (Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos, INEC, in Spanish). ... The National Institute of Statistics and Census of Costa Rica is the governmental institution entrusted with the running of censuses and oficial surveys in the country. ...

Czech Republic

Census in the Czech Republic is carried out every 10 years by the Czech Statistical Office. The last census was taken in 2001.


The first Danish census was in 1700-1701, and contained statistical information about adult men. Only about half of it still exists. A census of school children was taken during the 1730s.

Following these early undertakings, the first census to attempt completely covering all citizens (including women and children who had previously been listed only as numbers) of Denmark-Norway was taken in 1769 [1]. At that point there were 797 584 citizens in the kingdom. Georg Christian Oeder took a statistical census in 1771 which covered Copenhagen, Sjælland, Møn, and Bornholm. The Kingdom of Denmark-Norway, consisting of Denmark and Norway, including Norways possessions Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands, is a term used for the two united kingdoms after their amalgamation as one state in 1536. ... For other uses, see Copenhagen (disambiguation). ... Zealand (Danish: Sjælland) is the largest island of Denmark. ... Møn is a municipality, and also an island, in south Denmark, in the county of Storstrøm. ... Bornholm is a Danish island in the Baltic Sea. ...

After that, censuses followed somewhat regularly in 1787, 1801, and 1834, and between 1840 and 1860, the censuses were taken every five years, and then every ten years until 1890. Special censuses for Copenhagen were taken in 1885 and 1895.

In the 20th century, censuses were taken every five years from 1901 to 1921, and then every ten years from 1930. The last traditional census was taken in 1970.

A limited population census based on registers was taken in 1976. From 1981 and each year onwards information that corresponds to a population and housing census is retrieved from registers. Denmark was the first country in the world to conduct these censuses from administrative registers. The most important registers are the population register (Det Centrale Personregister), a Building and Dwelling Register and an Enterprise Register. The central statistical office, Statistics Denmark is responsible for compiling these data. This information is available online in the Statbank Denmark. Det Centrale Personregister (English: Centralised Person-Register), short CPR is a Danish nationwide centralised register of personal information. ... Statistics Denmark (Danish: Danmarks Statistik) is a Danish governmental organization under the Ministry of Economic and Business Affairs. ...

It is possible to search a portion of the Danish censuses online at Dansk Demografisk Database, and also view scanned versions at Arkivalier Online.


Main article: Census in Egypt
  • The Statistical Department of the Ministry of Finance conducted the first census in 1882, which considered as a preparatory step; the first true population census was conducted in 1897. Thereafter, censuses were conducted at ten-year intervals in 1907, 1917, 1927 and so on.
  • In 2006 the Central Agency For Public Mobilization and Statistics CAPMAS conducted the thirteenth census in the Egyptian census series where the Egypt's population hit 76.5 million inside and outside the country.[2]

A census is an enumeration of all the people of a nation or a registration region, a systematic and complete count of all who are living in specified places, usually on a specific date. ...


Three censuses have been taken in Ethiopia: 1984, 1994 and in 2007. The reponsible institution is the Central Statistical Agency.

Most of the census in 2007 was taken in August, while the Somali Region and the Afar Region were not covered. The northern Afar region is a remote, hot and arid area. The eastern Somali region (Ogaden) hosts a large nomadic Somali population and is a conflict area where Ethiopian regular forces are fighting against Ogaden National Liberation Front (ONLF). Map of Ethiopia highlighting the Somali region. ... Map of Ethiopia highlighting the Afar region. ... Regional flag Ogaden (pronounced and often spelled Ogadēn, Somali: ) is a part of the Somali Region in Ethiopia. ... Flag of the ONLF The Ogaden National Liberation Front (ONLF) (Amharic: )(Somali: Jahbadda Wadaniga Xoreenta Ogadenia, JWXO), is a separatist rebel group fighting to make the region of Ogaden in eastern Ethiopia an independent state. ... Flag of the ONLF The Ogaden National Liberation Front (ONLF) (Somali: Jahbadda Wadaniga Xoreenta Ogadenia, JWXO), is a separatist rebel group fighting to make the region of Ogaden in eastern Ethiopia an independent state. ...


The first population census was taken in 1749 when Finland was a part of Sweden.


Napoleon Bonaparte began the census in France as a means of determining the number of potential soldiers under his rule. Today, the census in France is carried out by INSEE. Since 2004, a partial census is carried out every year, and the results published as averages over 5 years. Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... INSEE is the French abbreviation for the French National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies (French: Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques). ...


The first systematic population on the European continent was taken in 1719 in Prussia (roughly corresponding to today's northern Germany and western Poland). For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ...

The first large-scale census in the German Empire took place in 1895. Attempts at introducing a census in West Germany sparked strong popular resentment in the 1980s since many quite personal questions were asked. Some campaigned for a boycott. In the end the Constitutional Court stopped the census in 1980 and 1983. The last census was in 1987. Germany has since used population samples in combination with statistical methods, in place of a full census. The German census of 1895 was one of the first full-scale censae organized on all territories of the German Empire. ...


Census takes place every 10 years and is carried out by the National Statistical Service of Greece [3]. Last census was in 2001. An anniversary is a day that commemorates an event that occurred on the same day of the year some time in the past. ...


Modern population censuses have been taken in Guatemala in 1930, 1950, 1964, 1973, 1981, 1994 and in 2002. Controversial cenuses were in particular the ones in 1950 and 1964 (misclassification of the Maya population) and the 1994 census (generally questioned).

Relaciones Geográficas of Mexico and Guatemala, 1577-1585.

On May 25, 1577, King Philip II of Spain ordered by royal cédula the preparation of a general description of Spain's holdings in the Indies. Instructions and a questionnaire, issued in 1577 by the Office of the Cronista Mayor-Cosmógrafo, were distributed to local officials in the Viceroyalties of New Spain and Peru to direct the gathering of information. The questionnaire, comprised of fifty items, was designed to elicit basic information about the nature of the land and the life of its peoples. The replies, known as "relaciones geográficas," were written between 1579 and 1585 and were returned to the Cronista Mayor-Cosmógrafo in Spain by the Council of the Indies.

Hong Kong

Main article: Census in Hong Kong

Census takes place every 10 years and by-census between two censuses by the Census and Statistics Department of Hong Kong. The last census was conducted in 2001 and the next by-census will take place in 2006. Population census in Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港人口普查), a collection of demographic data in Hong Kong, is conducted by Census and Statistics Department of Hong Kong Government. ... An anniversary is a day that commemorates an event that occurred on the same day of the year some time in the past. ...


Official decennial censuses have been taken in Hungary since 1870; the latest one – in line with the recommendations of the United Nations and the Statistical Office of the European Union – was carried out in 2001. Starting from 1880 the Hungarian census system was based on native language (the language spoken at home in the early life of the person and at the time of the survey), vulgar language (the most frequently used language in the family), and other spoken languages.


The first Icelandic census took place in 1703, following upon the first Danish census of 1700-1701. Further censuses were carried out in 1801, 1845 and 1865. The 1703 exercise was the first ever census to cover all inhabitants of an entire country, mentioning the name, age and social position of each individual. All of the information still exists, although some of the original documents have been lost.

The setting up, in 1952, of the National Register (þjóðskrá) eliminated the need for censuses. All those born in Iceland, and all new residents, are automatically registered. Individuals are identified in the register by means of a national identification number (the so-called kennitala), a number composed of the date of birth in the format ddmmyy and four additional digits, the last of which indicates the century in which the person was born (9 for the 1900s and 0 for the 2000s). A national identification number is used by the governments of many countries as a means of tracking their citizens, permanent residents, and temporary residents for the purposes of work, taxation, government benefits, health care, and other governmentally-related functions. ...

In Iceland, the National Register also doubles as electoral register. Likewise, all bank accounts are linked to the national identification of the owner (companies and institutions all have their own identification numbers). The Electoral Register (or Electoral Roll) is a listing of all those registered to vote in a particular area. ...


Main article: Demographics of India

The decennial census of India is the primary source of information about the demographic characteristics of the population of India which is the second biggest country of the world in terms of population. Population growth, from 443 million in 1960 to 1,004 million in 2000 Map showing the population density of each district in India Map showing the population growth over the past ten years of each district in India Map showing the literacy rate of each district in India Chart showing... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Demographics of India. ...

The first census in India in modern times is dated 1872. It started as far back as in 1860 and was finished in 1871. Starting from there, a population census has been carried out every 10 years, latest being the fourteenth in February-March 2001. An anniversary is a day that commemorates an event that occurred on the same day of the year some time in the past. ...

Census is carried out by the office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India, Delhi under the Census of India Act, 1948. The act gives Central Government many powers like to notify a date for Census, power to ask for the services of any citizen for census work. The law makes it compulsory for every citizen to answer the census questions truthfully. The Act provides penalties for giving false answers or not giving answers at all to the census questionnaire. One of the most important provisions of law is the guarantee for the maintenance of secrecy of the information collected at the census of each individual. The census records are not open to inspection and also not admissible in evidence. For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ...

Census happens in two phases, first House Listing and House Numbering Operations and second actual population enumeration phase. Census is carried out by the canvassing method. In this method, each and every household is visited and the information is collected by a specially trained enumerator.

9 February 2001, the first day of the 2001 census was celebrated as the census day. is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ...



The first census in Israel was held in November 1948, six months after the creation of the state. Subsequent censuses took place in 1961, 1972, 1983 and 1995. The aforementioned were conducted by the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. Israel Central Bureau of Statistics (הלשכה המרכזית לסטטיסטיקה) is a state organization for the creation and maintenance of numeric data related to populations vis-à-vis the ethnic makeup of Israel and its cities. ...


The census in Ireland is carried out by the Central Statistics Office (Ireland). The previous two censuses were carried out in 2002 and most recently on April 23, 2006. The census is carried out every five years, except in 2001, whose census was postponed to 2002 due to the outbreak of foot and mouth disease. According to the 2006 form, "any person who fails or refuses to provide information or who knowingly provides false information may be subject to a fine of up to €25,000," under the Central Statistics Act 1993. The Central Statistics Office (CSO) is the statistical agency responsible for the gathering of information relating to economic, social and general activities and conditions in the Republic of Ireland, in particular the National Census which is held every five years. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), sometimes called hoof-and-mouth disease, is a highly contagious but non-fatal viral disease of cattle and pigs. ...

The census in Ireland is very similar to that of the United Kingdom. That is, the "100 year" law applies here as well, as does the recent addition of a question regarding religion to the 2006 census. However the 1911 Census for the whole of Ireland was made publicly available some time ago.

Since the very first census, the question of "Can you speak Irish?" has been asked. This has often led to misleading figures, as many people know how to speak some Irish through schooling, but do not actually speak it frequently. The 2006 census included how often you spoke the language if you had chosen the "Yes" answer if you spoke Irish.

Also, on the CSO website, instructions for non-English speaking residents of the Republic of Ireland were available. They were mock copies of the census forms, with all headings/questions etc. being translated into a particular language. These were not to be filled out, but were only a guide on how to fill out the English or Irish form. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...

This census also asked two unique questions relating to ownership of PCs and what Internet connection your home had. The next census will take place in the year 2011.


The census in Italy is carried out by ISTAT every 10 years. The last four were in 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001. Istituto Nazionale di Statistica (ISTAT) is the Italian national statistical institute, roughly corresponding to the United States Census Bureau. ... An anniversary is a day that commemorates an event that occurred on the same day of the year some time in the past. ...


Japan collects census information every five years. The figures show the English translation of the 2005 census form. The form solicits information on name, sex, relationship to head of household, year and month of birth, marital status, nationality, number of members of household, type and nature of dwelling, floor area of dwelling, number of hours worked during the week prior to October 1, employment status, name of employer and type of business, and kind of work. is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The first population census after the independence in 1946 was taken in 1952. It did only count the number of people in the households and could therefore be considered only to be a housing census. The first real complete census was taken in 1961. The following censuses have been taken in 1979, 1994 and 2004. A political sensitive issue have since the Six-Day war in 1967 been the distribution of the population in Palestinians and Jordanians. Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Saudi Arabia Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ... The Palestinian flag, adopted in 1948, is a widely recognized modern symbol of the Palestinian people. ...


Census in Kenya was first held in 1958, when Kenya was still a Colony administrated by the British. Since 1969 census has been taken every ten years. The last census to date was in 1999. [5]


Kosovo is formally a part of Serbia but is administrated by the UN since 1999. A population census is planned under international supervision for 2007. For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 812   -  Kingdom established 1217   -  Empire established 1346   -  Independence lost to... This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ...


The most recent census in Latvia was in 2000. Before that, it was about 6 censuses, most part of these previous censuses was in the USSR time. The census in Latvia is carried out by Centrālā Statistikas Pārvalde (Central Statistical Bureau).


Any census has not been taken in Lebanon since 1932.


The foundation of the Republic of Macedonia followed the break up of the former Yugoslav Republic in 1991. The first population and housing census was taken in the summer 1994. The second census was taken in the autumn 2002. Both censuses were observed by international experts due to the sensitive issue regarding the ethnic distribution (Macedonian vs Albanian population).


The first census was taken in 1980. The second in 1997. The third was taken 1-14 August 2007.


The first census in the Netherlands was conducted in 1795, and the last in 1971. A law was produced on April 22, 1879, saying that a census be conducted every ten years. is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...

The census that was supposed to be conducted in 1981 was postponed and later cancelled. A call for privacy was responsible for the cancellation of any further census since 1991.

New Zealand

The census in New Zealand is carried out by Statistics New Zealand (Tatauranga Aotearoa), every five years. The last was on 7 March 2006. For the 2006 Census of New Zealand, respondents could choose to complete their census questionnaire online. See New Zealand Census of Population and Dwellings. Statistics New Zealand (Te Tari Tatau) is a New Zealand government department, and the source of the countrys official statistics. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The New Zealand government Department Statistics New Zealand conducts a census of population and dwellings every five years. ...


Population censuses have been taken in Nigeria during colonial time in 1866, 1871, 1896, 1901, 1911, 1921 and 1952. The censuses covered only the southern part of the country except for the 1952 census which was country wide. It shall be noted that the censuses before 1921 were merely based on administrative estimates than on an actual enumeration. In general, the word colonial means of or relating to a colony. In United States history, the term Colonial is used to refer to the period before US independence. ...

Censuses during the independence were taken 1963, 1973, 1991 and 2006. The results from 1973 were highly disputed. The preliminary results for 2006 indicates a population of 140,000,000. 700,000 enumerators were engaged in this operation.


The two first male census was conducted during the 1660s and 1701. Later statistical censuses were held in 1769, 1815, 1835, 1845, and 1855. Norway’s first nominative, complete census was taken in 1801, when Norway still was ruled by the Oldenburg dynasty of Denmark-Norway. The scope of the census followed the de jure principle, so military persons should be included as well as foreigners if they were residents. The 1865, 1875 and 1900 censuses are digitized, and are made searchable on the internet. The census records are made public available when 100 years have passed. Since 1900, the census has been conducted every ten years. (However, the 1940 census was postponed to 1946.) Since 2001 the population census has been combined with the housing statistics. The Kingdom of Denmark-Norway, consisting of Denmark and Norway, including Norways possessions Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands, is a term used for the two united kingdoms after their amalgamation as one state in 1536. ...


Censuses have been taken in the Sultanate of Oman in 1993 and 2003.


Main article: Peru Census

The first census in Peru was carried out in 1836. The tenth and last one was the 2005 Census and was carried out by Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática. The next census will be the 2007 Census. A Peru Census is an enumeration of the Peruvian population made by the peru government. ... The Peru 2005 Census was a detailed enumeration of the Peruvian population. ... The Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática (INEI) (National Institute of Statistics and Informatics) is a semi-autonomous Peruvian government agency which coordinates, compiles, and evaluates statistical information for the country. ... The Peru 2007 Census will be a detailed enumeration of the Peruvian population. ...


The census in Poland is carried out by GUS every circa 10 years - see censuses in Poland. The last one occurred in 2002. Central Statistical Office of Poland (Główny Urząd Statystyczny, GUS) is the main government executive agency of Poland charged with the collection and publication of statistics related to the economy, population and society of the Poland, at both national and local levels. ... An anniversary is a day that commemorates an event that occurred on the same day of the year some time in the past. ... Censuses in Poland: Polish census of 1921 Polish census of 1931 Polish census of 1950 Polish census of 1960 Polish census of 1970 Polish census of 1978 Polish census of 1988 Polish census of 2002 In addition to proper census, there were also: the summary survey of 1946 microcensus (representative... Polish census of 2002 (Polish: ) was a census in Poland taken from 21 May to 8 June 2002. ...


The first census in Portugal was carried out in 1864. The census in Portugal is carried out by INE every 10 years. The last one occurred in 2001. The Instituto Nacional de Estatística is the National Statistical Institute of Portugal. ... An anniversary is a day that commemorates an event that occurred on the same day of the year some time in the past. ...


The first census in Romania was carried out in 1859. Nowadays it is carried every ten years by the Institutul Naţional de Statistică (INSSE). The last one occurred in 2002. The National Institute of Statistics (Romanian: ) is a Romanian government agency which is responsible for collecting national statistics, in fields such as geography, the economy, demographics and society. ...


In Russia, the first (and the only) Russian Empire Census was carried out in 1897. All-Union Population Censuses were carried out in the USSR (which included RSFSR and the other republics) in 1920 (urban only), 1926, 1937, 1939, 1959, 1970, 1979, and 1989. The first post-Soviet Russian Census was carried out in 2002. The next census is tentatively planned for 2010. Currently, the census is the responsibility of the Federal State Statistics Service. Russian Empire Census of 1897 was the first and the only census carried out in the Imperial Russia. ... State motto: Russian: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Moscow Official language Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until November 7, 1917 November 7, 1917 December 12, 1991 (dissolution) Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 1st in the USSR 17,075,200 km² 13% Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 1st in the... Promotional poster to the 1926 Census The First All Union Census of the Soviet Union took place in 1926. ... The 1989 Soviet Census was the final and most comprehensive census taken within The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics The census officially recorded the popullation of the USSR at 286,717,000, making it the third most populous country in the world. ... Russian Census of 2002 (Russian: ) was the first census of Russian Federation carried out on October 9, 2002. ...

Saudi Arabia

Population censuses have been taken in Saudi Arabia in 1962/63 (incomplete), 1974 (complete but not reliable), 1992 and 2004. An agriculture census was taken in 1999.


The census takes place every 10 years. The last census was in 2002.


The first census of modern Slovenia was carried in 1991, after independence had been declared. The Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia (Statistični urad Republike Slovenije) conducted the second census in 2002. Further censuses are planned for every 10 years. Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ...

South Africa

The first census of South Africa was taken in 1911. Several enumerations have occurred since then[4], with the most recent two being carried out by Statistics South Africa in 1996 and 2001. Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Statistics South Africa is the national statistics board of South Africa. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... South African National Census of 2001 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


The census in Spain is carried out by INE every 10 years. The first modern census was carried out in 1768 by Conde de Aranda, under the reign of Carlos III. The last four were in 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001. Instituto Nacional de Estadística (INE) Statistics National Institute, is the official organisation in Spain that collects statistics about demography, economy, and spanish society. ... An anniversary is a day that commemorates an event that occurred on the same day of the year some time in the past. ... Charles III (January 20, 1716 – December 14, 1788) was king of Spain from 1759 to 1788. ...


Population censuses have been carried out in Sudan in 1955/56, 1973 (national), 1983 (national) and 1993 (only north). A census is planned for February 2008.


The first population census in Sweden was carried out in 1749. The last population and housing census was carried out in 1990. It is planned to conduct population and housing censuses based on registers in the future.


The first population census in Syria was taken by the French Mandatory Regime in 1921-22. This is however not considered reliable. Censuses during independence have been taken 1947, 1960 (the first comprehensive demographic investigation), 1970, 1976 (a sample census), 1981, 1994 and 2004.


The Turkish census is run by Devlet İstatistik Enstitüsü. The first census in Turkey was conducted in 1927. After 1935, it took place in every 5 years until 1990. Now, the census takes place every 10 years. The last census was in 2000. It can be noted that the census enumeration takes place one one single day in Turkey (in other countries it takes 1-2 weeks). This required some 900,000 enumerators in 2000. The 15th census based on improved geographical information systems is planned for 2010.

A census was taken in the Ottoman Empire 1831-38 by Sultan Mahmud II (1808-1839) as a part of the reform movement Tazimat. Even Christian and Jewish men were counted but no women.. “Ottoman” redirects here. ... Mehmed II Mehmed II (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481; nicknamed el-Fatih, the Conqueror) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later from 1451 to 1481. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination...


The first censuses in Uganda were taken 1911, 1921 and 1931. It was done in a rather primitive way. Enumeration unit was 'huts' and not individuals. More scientific censuses were taken 1948 and 1959 where the enumeration unit was persons. The census was however divided into two separate enumerations, one for Africans, and one for the non-African population. The censuses during independence 1969, 1980, 1991 were taken jointly for all races. The censuses 1980 and 1991 included housing information and in addition a larger questionnaire for a sample of the population. It can be mentioned that the questionnaires for the 1980 were lost and only provisional figures are available from this census. The census in 2002 involved some 50,000 enumerators and supervisors. In mathematics and theoretical computer science, an enumeration of a set is a procedure for listing all members of the set in some definite sequence. ...


The first post-Soviet Ukrainian Census was carried out by State Statistics Committee of Ukraine in 2001, twelve years after the last All-Union census in 1989. The first Ukrainian Census after the dissolution of the Soviet Union was carried out by State Statistics Committee of Ukraine on December 5, 2001, twelve years after the last All-Union census in 1989. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ...

United Kingdom

In the 7th century, Dál Riata (now western Scotland and northern County Antrim in Ireland) was the first territory in what is now the UK to conduct a census, with what was called the "Tradition of the Men of Alba" (Senchus fer n-Alban). England took its first Census when the Domesday Book was compiled in 1086 for tax purposes. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... The United Kingdom has taken a census of its population every ten years since 1801, with the exception of 1941 (during the Second World War). ... Dál Riata (also Dalriada or Dalriata) was a Goidelic kingdom on the western seaboard of Scotland and the northern coasts of Ireland, situated in the traditional Scottish and Northern Irish counties of Argyll, Bute and County Antrim. ... This article is about the country. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Antrim Area: 2,844 km² Population (est. ... Look up Alba in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Senchus Fer n-Alban was an ancient text created at some time during the 10th century and attributed to the 7th century. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... A line drawing entitled Domesday Book from Andrew Williamss Historic Byways and Highways of Old England. ...

Following the influence of Malthus and concerns stemming from his An Essay On The Principle Of Population the UK census as we know it today started in 1801. This was championed by John Rickman who managed the first four up to 1831, partly to ascertain the number of men able to fight in the Napoleonic wars. Rickman's 12 reasons - set out in 1798 and repeated in Parliamentary debates - for conducting a UK census included the following justifications: The Rev. ... John Rickman (1771-1840) was an English statistician and government official of the early 19th century. ... Combatants Austria[1] Portugal Prussia[1] Russia[2] Sicily  Spain[3]  Sweden United Kingdom[4] French Empire Holland Italy Naples [5] Duchy of Warsaw Bavaria[6] Saxony[7] Denmark-Norway [8] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack von Leiberich João Francisco de Saldanha Oliveira e Daun Gebhard von...

  • 'the intimate knowledge of any country must form the rational basis of legislation and diplomacy'
  • 'an industrious population is the basic power and resource of any nation, and therefore its size needs to be known'
  • 'the number of men who were required for conscription to the militia in different areas should reflect the area's population'
  • 'there were defence reasons for wanting to know the number of seamen'
  • 'the need to plan the production of corn and thus to know the number of people who had to be fed'
  • 'a census would indicate the Government's intention to promote the public good' and
  • 'the life insurance industry would be stimulated by the results.'

The census has been conducted every ten years since 1801 and most recently in 2001. The first four censuses (1801-1831) were mainly statistical (that is, they were mainly headcounts and contained virtually no personal information).

The 1841 Census, conducted by the General Register Office, was the first to record the names of everyone in a household or institution. However, their relationship to the head of the household wasn’t noted, although sometimes this can be inferred from the occupation shown (eg servant). Those under the age of 15 had their proper ages listed, but for those who were older the ages were supposed to be rounded down to the nearest five years, although this rule was not strictly adhered to. Precise birthplaces were not given - at best the birthplace can be narrowed down to the county in which the person was living.

From 1851 onwards the census shows the exact age and relationship to the head of household for each individual; the place of birth was also listed, but with varying degrees of precision. Sometimes those who were born abroad have the annotation B.S. or British Subject.

The censuses are reasonably accurate. However ages in particular are frequently shown incorrectly, though often the difference is only one year; in general the younger the individual the more accurate the age shown. Birthplaces often vary from one census to the next: a common error is to show the place where the census was taken as the birthplace, but most of the variations in birthplace can be accounted for by changes in geographical scale (for example, the nearest town being shown instead of the precise village, or a city being shown instead of the relevant suburb).

The censuses are also remarkably complete - though inevitably a small percentage of the population wasn’t recorded for one reason or another, and in some cases the records are missing or damaged (notably in 1861). Furthermore, all censuses of Ireland before 1901 have been lost or destroyed.

Because of World War II, there was no census in 1941. However, following the passage into law (on 5 September 1939) of the National Registration Act a population count was carried out on 29 September 1939, which was, in effect, a census. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

The census is undertaken for the government by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) for policy and planning purposes, and statistical information is also made available in published reports and on the ONS's website. Public access to the census returns is restricted under the terms of the 100-year rule and the most recent returns made available to researchers are those of the 1901 Census. Office for National Statistics logo The Office for National Statistics (ONS) is the United Kingdom government executive agency charged with the collection and publication of statistics related to the economy, population and society of the United Kingdom at national and local levels. ...

The 2001 census was the first year in which the government asked about religion. Perhaps encouraged by a hoax chain letter that started in New Zealand, 390,000 people entered their religion as Jedi Knight (more than either Sikhs, Buddhists or Jews), with some areas registering up to 2.6% of people as "Jedi". It was wrongly implied in emails that stating "Jedi" on the form would cause it to become an "official religion". No such thing exists in the United Kingdom. However, the director of reporting and analysis at the ONS stated that it may have helped with the collection process as it encouraged young people, who are often missed, to complete forms. (See Jedi census phenomenon.) UK Census 2001 logo A nationwide census, commonly known as Census 2001, was conducted in the United Kingdom on Sunday 29 April 2001. ... Jedi Knights and Jedi Knight redirect here. ... Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... The Jedi census phenomenon was a grassroots movement in 2001 for citizens in a few English-speaking countries to record their religion as Jedi or Jedi Knight (after the fictitious quasi-religious order of Force-attuned knights in the Star Wars films) on the national census. ...

All of the British censuses from 1841-1901 have been transcribed and indexed and are available online; there is a joint project between the National Archives of Ireland and Library and Archives Canada to digitize the 1901 and 1911 censuses for the whole of Ireland, and it is possible this will be completed by the end of 2007.

United States

Main article: United States Census

The United States Constitution mandates that the census be taken at least once every 10 years, and that the number of members of the United States House of Representatives from each state be determined accordingly. In addition, census statistics are used for apportioning Federal funding for many social and economic programs. 1880 US Census of Hoboken, New Jersey The United States Census is mandated by the United States Constitution[1]. The population is enumerated every 10 years and the results are used to allocate Congressional seats (congressional apportionment), electoral votes, and government program funding. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The United States Constitution The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ... The United States House of Representatives (or simply the House) is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate. ...

The first U.S. Census was conducted in 1790 by Federal marshals. Census-takers went door-to-door and recorded the number of people in each household, along with the name of the head of the household. Slaves were enumerated, but for apportionment purposes each counted as only three-fifths of a citizen. American Indians being neither taxed nor considered during apportionment were not counted in the census. The first census counted 3.9 million people, less than half the population of New York City in 2000; the 2000 census counted over 281 million people. In 1902, Congress established the Census Bureau as a permanent Federal agency. 1880 US Census of Hoboken, New Jersey The United States Census is mandated by the United States Constitution[1]. The population is enumerated every 10 years and the results are used to allocate Congressional seats (congressional apportionment), electoral votes, and government program funding. ... Year 1790 (MDCCXC) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... “U.S. Marshals” redirects here. ... The membership of the United States House of Representatives changes each decade following the decennial United States Census. ... The three-fifths compromise was a compromise between Southern and Northern states reached during the 1787 United States Constitutional Convention in which only three-fifths of the population of slaves would be counted for enumeration purposes regarding both the distribution of taxes and the apportionment of the members of the... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census as defined in Title ) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ... This is an incomplete list of federal agencies, which are either departmental agencies within the executive branch of the United States government or are Independent Agencies of the United States Government (including regulatory agencies and government corporations). ...

In recent times, there were two forms of questionnaire – long and short. The Long Form and its additional questions about items such as daily commute times, housing unit factors, etc. has been replaced by the American Community Survey (ACS). Computer algorithms (based on complex sampling rules) determined which form was mailed to a given household (in practice, of those households whose locations are on the Census Master Address List), one in six receiving the long form. This was supplemented by census workers going door-to-door to talk to people who failed to return the forms. In addition to a simple count of residents, the Census Bureau collects a variety of statistics, on topics ranging from ethnicity to the presence of indoor plumbing. While some critics claim that census questions are an invasion of privacy, the data collected by every question is either required to enforce some federal law (such as the Voting Rights Act) or is required to administer some federal program. The United States Congress gives approval to every question asked on the Census. The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... In mathematics, computing, linguistics, and related disciplines, an algorithm is a finite list of well-defined instructions for accomplishing some task that, given an initial state, will terminate in a defined end-state. ... This article or section should be merged with ethnic group Ethnicity is the cultural characteristics that connect a particular group or groups of people to each other. ... A plumber wrench for working on pipes and fittings Plumbing, from the Latin for lead (plumbum), is the skilled trade of working with pipes, tubing and plumbing fixtures for potable water systems and the drainage of waste. ... The National Voting Rights Act of 1965 (42 U.S.C. Â§ 1973-1973aa-6)[1] outlawed the requirement that would-be voters in the United States take literacy tests to qualify to register to vote, and it provided for federal registration of voters in areas that had less than 50... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political...

Despite a massive effort, the Census Bureau has never been able to count every individual, leading to controversy about whether to use statistical methods to supplement the numbers for some purposes, as well as arguments over how to improve the actual head count. The Supreme Court has ruled that only an actual head count can be used to apportion Congressional seats; however, cities and minority representatives have complained that urban residents and minorities are undercounted. In several cases, the Census Bureau will recount an area with disputed figures, provided the local government pays for the time and effort. The State of Utah protested the figures of the 2000 decennial census because it stood to gain a seat in the House of Representatives, but North Carolina gained it instead. Had the Census Bureau been mandated to count the numbers of Utahns living overseas, including many Mormon missionaries, Utah might have gained the seat. Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries  Atlas  Politics Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (901 km)  - % water 9. ... This article is about the history and use of the word Mormon. For information about the religious beliefs and culture of Mormons, see Mormonism. ...

To minimize the burden on individuals and to provide improved data, the Bureau is preparing several alternative methods for gathering economic, demographic, and social information, including the American Community Survey and record linking of depersonalized administrative records with other administrative records and Census Bureau surveys. The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...

By law (92 Stat. 915, Public Law 95-416, enacted on October 5, 1978), census records are sealed for 72 years. This figure has remained unchanged since prior to the updates of the 1978 law, reflecting an era when life expectancy was under 60 years, and thus attempts to protect individual's privacy by prohibiting the release of such information during their expected lifetimes. Thus, the most recent Census released to the public was the 1930 Census, released in 2002. is the 278th day of the year (279th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ...

Indexes to some of the U.S. Censuses have been produced over the years, making the process of searching old census records much easier. Some indexes of census records have been produced by amateur volunteer genealogists. Due to the sheer volume of information, and the manual methodologies involved, the indexing used to be limited to the head-of-household. These indexes were published in bound volumes and are often available in regional libraries along with microfilm rolls that can be researched.

While valuable, indexes produced from these censuses can be problematic to use. The original census records from this era were completed by hand by census enumerators; this leads to problems in handwriting recognition and variations in spelling of surnames within the original documents.

The 1880 to 1920 censuses have indexes of last names, produced using the Soundex system; the indexing project was performed by the Works Progress Administration. The Soundex system is tolerant of variations in spelling; names with similar sounds but different spellings have the same encoding. The chief motivation in producing the Soundex name indexes was to assist citizens in finding census records to provide evidence of age, especially for those born before the advent of governmentally-approved birth certificates. (Verification of age was needed to establish eligibility for old-age benefits such as Social Security). Partial Soundex indexes of the 1930 census are available; resources from the Works Progress Administration were diverted towards support of World War II efforts before the project was completed. Soundex is a phonetic algorithm for indexing names by sound, as pronounced in English. ... WPA Graphic The Works Progress Administration (later Work Projects Administration, abbreviated WPA), was created on May 6, 1935 by Presidential order (Congress funded it annually but did not set it up). ... Social Security in the United States is a social insurance program funded through dedicated payroll taxes called FICA (Federal Insurance Contributions Act). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...

With the advent of computers, and more recently, the Internet, expanded indexes including all family members are beginning to appear on genealogy websites. These are accompanied with hypertext links that take the researcher directly to an image of the original census page, without having to travel to a regional library and scroll through endless rolls of microfilm. (see http://www.familysearch.org or http://www.ancestry.com or http://www.census-online.com/links/ for examples)

Genealogists view censuses as secondary sources of information; primary sources of information such as birth certificates and even obituaries are viewed as more reliable. Still, census information often provides useful information for genealogists and clues on where to proceed to find further primary source documents.

Researchers must use care when working with census records. Census taker handwriting varies from excellent to illegible. Information may also be inaccurate due to spelling variants by the recorder. Some information, especially ages, may be incorrect due to vanity or confusion on the part of the information giver. Birthplaces may not be accurate depending on which family member gave the information. With these and other cautions in mind, census records can be very informative and useful.


In additional to the decennial federal census, more localized versions are often used. An example of this is Massachusetts, which takes a statewide census every fifth year. Likewise, each community in Massachusetts takes a municipal census each year. Some states conducted limited censuses for various purposes which predate the 1790 federal census schedules. Various state archives can usually direct the researcher to these sources. This article is about the U.S. State. ...


  1. ^ The Census and Privacy
  2. ^ Kuhrt, A. (1995) The Ancient Near East c. 3000–330BC Vol 2 Routledge, London. pp 695
  3. ^ History of Indian Census
  4. ^ H. Yoon (1985). "An early Chinese idea of a dynamic environmental cycle", GeoJournal 10 (2), p. 211-212.
  5. ^ Central Bureaus of Statistics (Kenya): Census cartography: The Kenyan Experience

GeoJournal is a peer-reviewed international academic journal on all aspects of geography founded in 1980. ...


  • U.S. Census Press Release on 1930 Census
  • U.S. Census Press Release on Soundex and WPA
  • Bielenstein, Hans. "Wang Mang, the restoration of the Han dynasty, and Later Han." In The Cambridge History of China, vol. 1, eds. Denis Twitchett and John K. Fairbank, 223-90 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978).
  • Effects of UK 'Jedi' hoax on 2001 UK census from ONS

External links

  • Census Dates for Countries of the World: 1945 to 2014 US Census Bureau
  • Census at the U.S. National Archives
  • CensusScope Easy-to-navigate data, charts, maps, and graphs of U.S. Census Data.
  • ZIPskinny ZIP-code lookup of selected U.S. Census 2000 sample data.
  • Links to census records online for the U.S., UK and Canada
  • Online Historical Population Reports Project (OHPR)
  • Links to the official websites of various national censuses
  • U.S. Federal Census Mortality Schedules 1850-1880
  • United States Decennial Censuses Research Guide from the Mississippi State University Libraries
  • Speaking of Graphics, Incas and Quipu, Paul J Lewi 2006

  Results from FactBites:
GENUKI: England Topics - Census (1626 words)
The administration of the early census returns 1801-1831 was the responsibility of the Overseers of the Poor and the clergy.
The census returns for 1841 were the first to be kept and, as far as the general public is concerned, the information is released after a hundred years.
Census enumerators had instructions as to how to go about their task, here are those on the completion of the 1901 Census Enumeration Books.
Genealogists/Family Historians - Clues in Census Records, 1850-1930 (977 words)
The 1870 census (column 13) and 1880 census (column 7) indicate the month in which the person was born, if born "within the year," that is between June 1, 1869 and May 31, 1870 for the 1870 census, or June 1, 1879 and May 31, 1880, for the 1880 census.
The 1900 census (column 16), 1910 census (column 15), 1920 census (column 13), and 1930 census (column 22) each indicate the person's year of immigration to the United States.
The 1880 census (columns 25-26), 1900 census (columns 14-15), 1910 census (columns 13-14), 1920 census (columns 21 and 23), and 1930 census (columns 19-20) indicate the person's parents' birthplaces.
  More results at FactBites »



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