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Encyclopedia > Censorship in the Republic of Ireland
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Image File history File links Circle-contradict. ... Censorship is defined as the removal and withholding of information from the public by a controlling group or body. ... Censorship in the Peoples Republic of China refers to the government of the Peoples Republic of Chinas policy of controlling the publishing, dissemination, and viewing of certain information. ... As with many Soviet-allied countries prior to the fall of the Berlin Wall, the government of the former German Democratic Republic (German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik) applied wide censorship during its existence from 1949 to 1990. ... Censorship in South Asia can apply to books, movies the Internet and other media. ... There is basically no censorship in Taiwan since 1977 when all the censorship had been eliminated. ...

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Bold text Advertising regulation refers to the laws and rules defining the ways in which products can be advertised in a particular region. ... Editing of anime in American distribution describes the process of altering Anime to prepare it to be distributed in the United States and forms part of the process of Localization. ... Many societies have banned certain books. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... A re-edited film is a film that has been edited from the original theatrical release. ... Censorship of music, the practice of censoring music from the public, may take the form of partial or total censorship with the latter banning the music entirely. ... Computer and video games have been the subject of frequent controversy and censorship, due to the depiction of graphic violence, sexual themes, racism, consumption of illegal drugs, consumption of alcohol or tobacco, propaganda, extremism or profanity in some games. ...

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Book burning
Bleep censor
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Book burning is the practice of ceremoniously destroying by fire one or more copies of a book or other written material. ... A bleep censor is used to filter out inappropriate audio content during a live United States the Federal Communications Commission has the constitutional right to regulate indecent broadcasts. ... DansGuardian blocking whitehouse. ... Corporate censorship is a term used to denote either censorship through legal challenges, through refusal to sell a product, or refusal to advertise or allow air time. ... Censorship in Italy under Fascism Censorship in Italy was not created with Fascism, nor it ended with it, but it had a relevantly heavy importance in the life of Italians under the Regime. ... Pixelization is a video- and image-editing technique where an image, or part of it, is blurred by displaying part or all of it at a lower resolution. ... During times of war post from the front is often opened and offending parts blanked or cut out. ... Prior restraint is a legal term referring to a governments actions that prevent materials from being published. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Self-censorship is the act of censoring and/or classifying ones own book(s), film(s), or other kind of art to avoid offending others without an authority pressuring them to do so. ... There is also a WFMU radio program called Seven Second Delay. ... This article is for the meaning of censorship. ...

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Although the Republic of Ireland does not currently exercise much (almost none) censorship in practice, the state has wide-ranging laws which allow censorship, and has specific laws covering films, advertisements, newspapers and magazines, as well as terrorism and pornography. In the past, books and anything to do with abortion, sexuality and homosexuality could also be banned. Film may refer to: photographic film a motion picture in academics, the study of motion pictures as an art form a thin skin or membrane, or any covering or coating, whether transparent or opaque a thin layer of liquid, either on a solid or liquid surface or free-standing Film... Generally speaking, advertising is the paid promotion of goods, services, companies and ideas by an identified sponsor. ... This article is about the magazine as a published medium. ... Terrorist redirects here. ... Pornographic movies Pornography (Porn) (from Greek πόρνη (porne) prostitute and γραφή (grafe) writing), more informally referred to as porn or porno, is the explicit representation of the human body or sexual activity with the goal of sexual arousal. ... [1]#redirect Book ... This article is about human sexual perceptions. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ...

Contents

Current censorship

Film censorship

In the past, Ireland's Film Censors Office heavily cut films, and also videos for rental release; or placed extremely high age ratings on them. However, since the release of Michael Collins in 1996, which was rated PG for historical reasons, despite its depictions of extreme violence, the censors office has reduced age ratings in general and rarely cuts movies. For example, the controversial 2004 film 9 Songs was released uncut with an 18s certificate. Ratings usually match those of the UK, or are one level higher (Although there are rare exceptions where they attract a lower age rating such as The Passion of the Christ) Also, in 2000 The Cider House Rules received an 18s certificate in Ireland due to its themes of abortion and incest, despite the fact that in UK the film received a mere 12s certificate. 1965 envelope sent to local office of 20th Century Fox with certifying cachet of IFCO The Irish Film Censors Office (IFCO) is the name given to the censor of films in Ireland. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 9 Songs is a 2004 British film, directed by Michael Winterbottom. ... This article is about the film. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article relates to the film, The Cider House Rules (film) directed by Lasse Hallström. ...


Six movie rating categories exist, although a movie may have been re-rated by the time of its video/DVD release.

  • G, into which anyone is allowed
  • PG, into which anyone is allowed but parental consent is advised, and is down to the discretion of the cinema or video library
  • 12A, a cinema-only cert, which those over the age of 12 or those with parental consent may watch. Was formerly called 12PG, does not exist for video releases
  • 15A, a cinema-only cert, into which those over the age of 15 or those with parental consent may enter. Was formerly called 15PG.
  • 16, a cinema-only rating for content which imposes less restriction on violent content, sexual content, and drug usage. Very few films receive this rating, and those that do generally are either cut or uprated to 18 on video release.
  • 18, into which only those over the age of 18 may enter

Three separate categories exist for video releases:

  • 12RA, which cannot be supplied to anyone under the age of 12, and which has a suggestion for a "Responsible Adult" to be present if a younger person watches the film
  • 12, which cannot be supplied to anyone under the age of 12
  • 15, which cannot be supplied to anyone under the age of 15

The G, PG and 18 certifications have the same principles on video, but some 18's movies may be denied a video release certificate.


However, many movies have been banned in Ireland in the past, including Life Of Brian, Disney's Fantasia and A Clockwork Orange. A review in 2000 has meant that many of these have since been un-banned and rated anywhere from PG to 18. During that review process it was decided that no more films would be banned for either theatre or video release, but some bans are still in place. Monty Pythons Life of Brian is a 1979 comedy written and performed by the Monty Python comedy team. ... Fantasia is a 1940 motion picture produced by Walt Disney. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Film Censors Office's official figures state that 2,500 films received theatrical performance bans, and over 11,000 films were cut, mainly pre-1965. [1] 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ...


The most notable recent ban was that of Boy Eats Girl in 2005, a movie starring Irish actress Samantha Mumba, due its graphic depiction of a suicide attempt. Following an appeal, it was allowed pass uncut to a 15A rating, far from the highest possible. Boy Eats Girl is a 2005 horror film directed by Stephen Bradley and starring Samantha Mumba. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Samantha Tamania Anne Cecilia Mumba (born January 18, 1983) is a Grammy Award-nominated Irish singer, actress and occasional model. ... Rather than surrender to US soldiers, the Mayor (Bürgermeister) of Leipzig Germany, committed suicide along with his wife and daughter on April 20, 1945. ...


Films which are banned and do not have an appeal lodged, or which fail on appeal, have an enforcement noticed published in Iris Oifigiúil, the state's journal. The most recent enforcement notice, as of 2005, appeared in the September 20, 2005 journal, and was the first of the year. Revocation notices are also published in the journal, for when a movie has been allowed. Iris Oifigiúil (Pronounced: IR-ISH IFIC-GOUL Meaning: Official Gazette) replaced the Dublin Gazette on January 31, 1922 as the official newspaper of record of the Irish Free State, the state which has since become known as the Republic of Ireland. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Prior to the Video Recordings Act 1989 many films which were banned in the cinema were freely available on video tape to anyone in Ireland regardless of age.


The restrictions on "film clubs" are far lighter than those applied to commercial cinemas. At one time this gave rise to an interesting legal anomaly where the 35 mm prints of a particular film would to be required to have any "cuts" mandated by the film censors office whereas the 16 mm prints weren't on the erroneous belief that all 16mm prints were destined for private film clubs. In practice some commercial cinemas in smaller towns as well as "travelling cinemas" (often showing films in village halls owned by the Catholic church) were only equipped to show the 16mm prints. The closure of virtually all of these smaller cinemas (owing to the rising popularity of television and video) has meant that nowadays the only places showing these 16mm prints are bone fide film clubs. Simulated 35 mm film with soundtracks _ The outermost strips (on either side) contain the SDDS soundtrack as an image of a digital signal. ... (Redirected from 16mm film) 16mm film was initially created in the 1920s as an inexpensive amateur alternative to the conventional 35 mm film format. ...


Advertisements

Advertisements are regulated by the Advertising Standards Authority for Ireland, and must be truthful and factually accurate. In addition, adverts for illegal services are not allowed. The ASAI is a voluntary industry body which has no statuatory powers and has no power to remove a publication from circulation. This power is vested in the Censorship of Publications Board. Given the status of the ASAI some advertisers choose to continually ignore its rulings by running controversial advertisements purely to draw attention to their products and services.


Newspapers and magazines

Whilst still theoretically censorable, newspapers and magazines are free to publish anything which does not break Ireland's tough libel laws. The Censorship of Publications Board reviews newspapers and magazines referred to it by the Customs and Excise and by members of the public. At one time a large number of (mainly foreign) newspaper and magazines were banned in Ireland Including Playboy and the News of the world.[citation needed] In English and American law, and systems based on them, libel and slander are two forms of defamation (or defamation of character), which is the tort or delict of making a false statement of fact that injures someones reputation. ... The Irish Censorship of Publications Board is an independent board established by the Censorship of Publications Act, 1929 to examine books and periodicals that are for sale in the Republic of Ireland. ... Playboy is an American Mens magazine, founded in 1953 by Hugh Hefner and his associates, which has grown into Playboy Enterprises, Inc. ... The News of the World is a British tabloid newspaper published every Sunday. ...


Pornography

Hardcore pornography, while legal in Ireland, is not allowed to depict any acts which are illegal in the state. This also covers any participants being beneath the Irish age of consent. If any of these are in a video, DVD, film, photograph or website, use and possession of them is illegal. Jenna Jameson with Savanna Samson in a classic hardcore porn movie, The New Devil In Miss Jones (2005) Hardcore pornography is a form of pornography that features explicit sexual acts. ... Age of consent laws Worldwide While the phrase age of consent typically does not appear in legal statutes,[1] when used with reference to criminal law the age of consent is the minimum age at which a person is considered to be capable of legally giving informed consent to any...


In the 1960s, the Roman Catholic Church via Archbishop John Charles McQuaid lobbied the Irish government to have pornography banned outright[1] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church... John Charles McQuaid (July 28, 1895-April 7, 1973) was a Roman Catholic Archbishop of Dublin and Primate of Ireland between December 1940 and 1971. ...


Censorship of books

Until the 1970s, it was commonplace for books to be banned for containing violence, sex, cursing, references to birth control, and so on. This has since ceased, and virtually all books banned have been unbanned. In the past, many books of undoubted literary merit, as well as serious books on reproductive issues and sexual health, were banned. Contrary to popular belief, James Joyce's 'Ulysses' was never banned in Ireland. In 1942 Senator Sir John Keane told the Seanad that 1,600 books had been banned since independence in 1922.[2] He quoted examples of supposed indecency from several books to ridicule the law, but his words were not fully reported in the records. The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979. ... James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (Irish Séamus Seoighe; 2 February 1882 – 13 January 1941) was an Irish expatriate writer, widely considered to be one of the most influential writers of the 20th century. ... Ulysses is a novel by James Joyce, first serialized in parts in the American journal The Little Review from March 1918 to December 1920, and then published in its entirety by Sylvia Beach on February 2, 1922, in Paris. ... Sir John Keane (1873-1956) was the fifth Baronet of Cappoquin, County Waterford of Ireland. ... Seanad Éireann (English: Senate of Ireland), the Irish Senate, is the upper house of the Oireachtas: the parliament of the Republic of Ireland1. ...


Madonna's controversial book Sex was banned several weeks after its release in 1992 but unbanned in 2004. Madonna Louise Ciccone Ritchie (born August 16, 1958), better known as simply Madonna, is a six-time Grammy[1] and one-time Golden Globe award winning American pop singer, songwriter, record and film producer, dancer, actress, author and fashion icon. ... Sex is the title of a highly-designed coffee table book written by Madonna with photographs by Steven Meisel Studio and film frames shot by Fabien Baron, released October 21, 1992 by Warner Books. ...


Books containing references to terrorism or which could be considered slander under Irish law can still be banned - you will not be punished for owning or importing them, but their sale is prohibited. This covers books such as The Committee: Political Assassination in Northern Ireland, which has even been pulled from Amazon.com due to its content. However, importing this book and its sale second-hand are legal. Terrorist redirects here. ... Amazon. ...


There are instances of books which were at one time banned in Ireland subsequently not only having the ban overturned but the books in question becoming required reading on the Leaving Certificate syllabus. The Leaving Certificate (Irish: Ardteistiméireacht), commonly referred to as the Leaving Cert (Irish: Ardteist) is the final course in the Irish secondary school system and culminates with the Leaving Certificate Examination. ...


Formerly censored topics

Abortion and birth control

Until the early 1990s, promotion of abortion in any way, including providing impartial information, was disallowed, and any publications providing information on it would be confiscated. Copies of Marie Claire and Cosmopolitan women's magazines sold in the Republic were specially printed with blank pages instead of advertisements for abortion clinics. In the 1980s, the Irish Family Planning Association and the Trinity College Dublin and University College Dublin students' unions were successfully sued by the Society for the Protection of Unborn Children for publishing telephone numbers for abortion clinics in the United Kingdom. On one occasion British Newspaper The Guardian was withdrawn by its Irish distributors for a day to preempt a threatened ban due to the inclusion of an advertisement for a UK abortion clinic in that day's issue (despite the advert having appeared on a number of prior occasions without incident). Marie Claire is a monthly woman’s magazine conceived in France but also distributed in other countries with editions specific to them and in their languages. ... June 1936 issue Cosmopolitan is a magazine for women, sometimes referred to as Cosmo, which has been published for more than a century. ... The College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Queen Elizabeth near Dublin or more commonly Trinity College, Dublin (TCD) was founded in 1592 by Queen Elizabeth I, is the only constituent college of the University of Dublin, Irelands oldest university. ... University College Dublin - National University of Ireland, Dublin - more commonly University College Dublin (UCD) - is Irelands largest university, with over 20,000 students. ... A students union, student government, student leadership, student council, or students association is a student organization present in many elementary schools, middle schools, high schools, colleges and universities. ... Oscar Chamberlain This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ...


In May 1992, the Democratic Left T.D. Proinsias De Rossa subverted this ban by reading the offending telephone numbers into the Dáil record, using his absolute privilege as a member of the Oireachtas to avoid a lawsuit.[3] Democratic Left was a socialist political party active primsrily in the Republic of Ireland, but also in Northern Ireland between 1992 and 1999. ... A Teachta Dála (Irish for Dáil Deputy, pronounced chock-ta dawla) is a member of Dáil Éireann, the lower chamber of the Irish Oireachtas or National Parliament. ... Image:Derossa. ... Dáil Éireann[1] is the lower house of the Oireachtas (parliament) of the Republic of Ireland. ... Parliamentary privilege, also known as absolute privilege, is a legal mechanism employed within the legislative bodies of countries whose constitutions are based on the Westminster system. ... The Oireachtas is the National Parliament of the Republic of Ireland. ...


In the wake of the X Case, the fourteenth amendment of the Constitution of Ireland removed this prohibition in November 1992. Attorney General v. ... The Fourteenth Amendment of the Constitution of Ireland, the founding legal document of the Republic of Ireland was passed on December 23, 1992. ... The Constitution of Ireland is the founding legal document of the state known today as the Republic of Ireland. ...


Homosexuality

Prior to the legalisation of homosexuality in Ireland (in the wake of the European Court of Human Rights' decision in Norris v Ireland), the media was not allowed promote it in a positive light (although this prohibition was often ignored particularly by publications such as Hot Press and In Dublin). This has since been removed, and discriminating against homosexuality is now illegal. Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... European Court of Human Rights building in Strasbourg The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), often referred to informally as the Strasbourg Court, was created to systematise the hearing of human rights complaints against States Parties to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, adopted by... Hot Press is a fortnightly music and political magazine founded in 1977, based in Dublin, Ireland. ...


The Troubles

During the Troubles in Northern Ireland censorship was used to prevent Sinn Féin and IRA members from having access to the media. Under Section 31 of the Broadcasting Act, it was forbidden to broadcast the voice of Sinn Féin members. This rule was brought in by Fianna Fáil Minister for Posts & Telegraphs Gerry Collins in 1971 and strengthened by Labour's Conor Cruise O'Brien in 1977. The United Kingdom operated a similar rule between 1988 and 1994, although British broadcasters subverted this censorship by dubbing Sinn Féin speeches and interviews, with an actor's voice repeating the speech word-for-word. Irish broadcasters adhered much more strictly to the rule, and RTÉ refused to dub speeches and even refused to broadcast Sinn Féin members when they were talking about matters completely unrelated to the Northern Troubles. For example, Sinn Féin member Larry O'Toole was not permitted to appear on RTÉ to talk about a trade union dispute he was involved in. Instead, clips of the speaker talking were shown, along with a brief summary of what was being said. The High Court later found that this exclusion was not justified under Section 31.


The Section 31 broadcasting ban was lifted in 1993 by Minister for Arts, Culture & the Gaeltacht Michael D. Higgins as part of the peace process.


Unusual oversights

Music

Music videos are exempt from film classification, whereas in the UK, they must be classified. Broadcasters usually use their discretion and obey the UK classifications and showing time restrictions. Ireland receives all of the UK music channels, which are subject to UK music video laws; with the only Irish regulated broadcaster regularly showing music videos being Channel 6 or City Channel. However for several years TV3 Ireland ran a late-night music programme, which quite often showed uncensored music videos containing large amounts of nudity. A music video (also video clip, promo) is a short film or video meant to present a visual representation of a popular music song. ... Channel 6, also marketed as Six, are an Irish cable and satellite television operating, intending to launch on the Dublin, Waterford and Cork cable systems formerly owned by NTL, and Sky Digital in September 2005. ... City Channel is a proposed cable television channel, intending to operate in Dublin, Republic of Ireland. ... TV3 Ireland is the sole commercial terrestrial television channel in the Republic of Ireland. ...


References to records or songs being "banned" in Ireland refer one or more radio stations refusing to play the songs rather than any legislative ban although prior to 1989 it may have been a moot point given the only legal broadcasting stations in Ireland were those operated by state broadcaster RTÉ. In the 1930s there was even a short-lived airplay ban on an entire genre of music known as the "ban on Jazz" (with a ludicrously wide definition of what constituted "jazz"). Such bans only served to further increase listenership to foreign radio stations (such as Radio Luxembourg and the BBC) in Ireland, and lead to the growth of Irish pirate radio. In law, a matter is moot if further legal proceedings with regard to it can have no effect, or events have placed it beyond the reach of the law. ... Radio Telefís Éireann[1] (RTÉ; IPA: ,  ) is the Public Service Broadcaster of the Republic of Ireland. ... Radio Luxembourg (1933-1992, 2005-)was an important forerunner of pirate radio and modern commercial radio in Europe. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, which is usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion. ... Pirate radio in Ireland has had a long history, with hundreds of stations having operated from within the country. ...


Computer games

Unlike most other countries, the Film Censors Office have little involvement in video game censorship. This led to an unusual situation where in the 1990s the UK owned Game sold the sanitised versions of Carmageddon which was a victim of censorship in the UK, whilst Irish owned stores sold the uncut versions imported from the United States. Games may only be banned if the Film Censor judges that it is unfit for viewing.[4], which has happened once to date, with the banning of Manhunt 2 on the 18th of June 2007, over two weeks before its launch date of July 6th.[2] For the band, see 1990s (band). ... Carmageddon is the first of a series of graphically violent driving-oriented video games produced by Stainless Games, published by Interplay and SCi. ... Manhunt 2 is a video game developed by Rockstar Games and the sequel to 2003s Manhunt. ...


Ireland is a member of PEGI, but places no legal powers on its age recommendations. Retailers may attempt to enforce them at their discretion, but in the case of a protest they must sell the product to the customer.


Censorship landmarks

Development of Irish statutes

  • The Censorship of Films Act, 1923 was an act "to provide for the official censoring of cinematographic pictures and for other matters connected therewith". It established the office of the Official Censor of Films and a Censorship of Films Appeal Board. It was amended by the Censorship of Films (Amendment) Act, 1925, in connection with advertisements for films. It was amended by the Censorship of Films (Amendment) Act, 1930 to extend the legislation to "vocal or other sounds" accompanying pictures.
  • The Committee on Evil Literature was appointed in 1926 to report on the effectiveness of the censorship laws. It concluded that the then-current censorship laws were inadequate, and that the government had a duty to ban "morally corrupting" literature.
  • The Censorship of Publications Act, 1929 was an act "to make provision for the prohibition of the sale and distribution of unwholesome literature and for that purpose to provide for the establishment of a censorship of books and periodical publications, and to restrict the publication of reports of certain classes of judicial proceedings and for other purposes incidental to the matters aforesaid". It established the Censorship of Publications Board. A book caught by the act was one that "in its general tendency indecent or obscene ... or ... advocates the unnatural prevention of conception or the procurement of abortion or miscarriage or the use of any method, treatment or appliance for the purpose of such prevention or such miscarriage".
  • The Emergency Powers Act, 1939 dealt with the preservation of the State in time of war and contained provisions relating to the censorship of communications and of newspapers and periodicals.
  • On 18 November 1942 Senator Sir John Keane moved in the Irish Senate (Seanad Éireann): "That, in the opinion of Seanad Éireann, the Censorship of Publications Board appointed by the Minister for Justice under the Censorship of Publications Act, 1929, has ceased to retain public confidence, and that steps should be taken by the Minister to reconstitute the board.". After four days of debate, the motion was roundly defeated: Tá (for) 2 votes - Sir John Keane and Joseph Johnston - Nil (against) 34 votes.
  • The Censorship of Publications Act, 1946 repealed a large part of the 1929 act and was "to make further and better provision for the censorship of books and periodical publications". Periodicals caught by the act included issues that "have devoted an unduly large proportion of space to the publication of matter relating to crime".
  • The Censorship of Publications Act, 1967 provided for prohibition orders made on the grounds of indecency or obscenity to expire after a period of twelve years. A further prohibition order could then be made by the Censorship of Publications Board in respect of the same book.
  • The Health (Family Planning) Act, 1979 deleted references to "the unnatural prevention of conception" in the Censorship of Publications Act, 1929 and the Censorship of Publications Act, 1946.
  • The Regulation of Information (Services Outside the State for Termination of Pregnancies) Act, 1995 modified the effect of the Censorship of Publications Acts, 1929 to 1967 in respect of certain information likely to be required by a woman to avail herself of "services provided outside the State for the termination of pregnancies". However, the information in question must not advocate or promote the termination of pregnancy.

Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... After independence in 1922 the authorities of the Irish Free State come under increasing pressure to ban materials considered obscene or liable to corrupt public morals. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... Sir John Keane (1873-1956) was the fifth Baronet of Cappoquin, County Waterford of Ireland. ... The Seanad Chamber The Seanad meets in the former picture gallery in Leinster House. ... Sir John Keane (1873-1956) was the fifth Baronet of Cappoquin, County Waterford of Ireland. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ...

In Dublin magazine

In the 1980s and 1990s, an indigenous Irish equivalent of the internationally available TimeOut magazine called In Dublin existed. The magazine was renowned for its advertisements for Massage Parlours and Bathhouses. When it was finally proven in 1999 that the advertisements were for prostitution services, the magazine was forcibly withdrawn from circulation for six months and ceased to exist. Although a short lived replacement called "Dublin" appeared which was a remarkably similar in every respect (i.e. cover design was almost identical, it was published by the same company and employed the same editorial and journalistic staff). This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... Time-out can mean: sport time-out, a break in play that may be called by a side to formulate strategy or respond to an players injury. ... Year 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar). ...


The trademark has since changed hands and the current InDublin magazine does not advertise the type of institution that could possibly be a brothel.


Notes

  1. ^ Church insisted on pornography ban in 1960s
  2. ^ Debate on Censorship 1942
  3. ^ The reading of the telephone numbers took place during an adjournment debate on 21 May 1992 on the "Non-Distribution of Newspaper". For the Official Report of the debate, see Dáil Éireann - Volume 420 - 21 May, 1992. At column 159 of the report, Deputy De Rossa read the text of an advertisement in the The Guardian.
  4. ^ The Department Of Justice, Equality and Law

May 21 is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
EZGeography - Censorship in the Republic of Ireland (1281 words)
Although the Republic of Ireland does not currently exercise much censorship in practice, the state has wide-ranging laws which allow censorship, and has specific laws covering films, advertisements, newspapers and magazines, as well as terrorism and pornography.
Again, censorship of terrorism related material in the media is no longer enforced, but during the Troubles in Northern Ireland it was used to prevent Sinn Féin from having access to the media.
In the wake of the X Case, the fourteenth amendment of the Constitution of Ireland removed this prohibition in November 1992.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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