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Encyclopedia > Censorship
Part of the series on
Censorship
Censored
By country

Algeria
Australia
Belarus
Bhutan
Burma
Canada
China
Cuba
Denmark
East Germany
France
Germany
India
Iran
Iraq
Ireland
Israel
Japan
For omission and secrecy, see censorship. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... As with many Soviet-allied countries prior to the fall of the Berlin Wall, the government of the former German Democratic Republic (German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik) applied wide censorship during its existence from 1949 to 1990. ... Censorship in Iraq is very bad. ...

Malaysia
New Zealand
Pakistan
Russia
Samoa
Saudi Arabia
Singapore
South Asia
North Korea
Soviet Union
Sweden
Taiwan
Thailand
Tunisia
Turkey
United Kingdom
United States
Censorship in South Asia can apply to books, movies the Internet and other media. ...

See also:
Freedom of speech by country
By media

Advertisements
Anime
Books
Films
This article is about freedom of speech in specific jurisdictions. ... Bold text Advertising regulation refers to the laws and rules defining the ways in which products can be advertised in a particular region. ... Editing of anime in American distribution describes the process of altering anime to prepare it to be distributed in the United States and forms part of the process of localization. ... Many societies have banned certain books. ...

Re-edited films
Internet
Music
Video games
A re-edited film is a film that has been edited from the original theatrical release. ... Censorship of Music, the practice of censoring music from the public, may take the form of partial or total censorship with the latter banning the music entirely. ... Video games have been the subject of debate and censorship, due to the depiction of graphic violence, sexual themes,[1] consumption of illegal drugs, consumption of alcohol or tobacco, or profanity in some games. ...

By channel

BBC
The BBC is a public service broadcasting corporation and, as such, it has always felt some obligation to standards of taste and decency, to varying levels, at different times in its history. ...

MTV Censorship on MTV has been the subject of debate for years. ...

By method

Book burning
Bleep censor
Broadcast delay
Content-control software
Expurgation
Pixelization
Postal censorship
Prior restraint
Self-censorship
Whitewashing
Gag order
Book burning is the practice of ceremoniously destroying by fire one or more copies of a book or other written material. ... A bleep censor (or bleeping) is the replacement of verbal profanity with a beep sound (usually a  ), in television or radio. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Tape delay (broadcasting). ... DansGuardian blocking whitehouse. ... This article is about the graphical editing/censorship technique. ... During times of war post from the front is often opened and offending parts blanked or cut out. ... Prior restraint is a legal term referring to a governments actions that prevent materials from being published. ... Self-censorship is the act of censoring and/or classifying ones own book(s), film(s), or other kind of art to avoid offending others without an authority pressuring them to do so. ... This article is for the meaning of censorship. ... A gag order is an order, sometimes a legal order by a court or government, other times a private order by an employer or other institution, restricting information or comment from being made public. ...

By context

Corporate censorship
Under fascist regimes
Political censorship
In religion
Corporate censorship is a term used to denote either censorship through legal challenges, through refusal to sell a product, or refusal to advertise or allow air time. ... Censorship in Italy under Fascism Censorship in Italy was not created with Fascism, nor it ended with it, but it had a relevantly heavy importance in the life of Italians under the Regime. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Censorship by religion is a form of censorship where freedom of expression is controlled or limited using religious authority or on the basis of the teachings of the religion. ...

See also

Banned video games
// Video games in Australia cannot be rated R18+ as the rating only exists for film. ...

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Censorship is the suppression of speech or deletion of communicative material which may be considered objectionable, harmful or sensitive, as determined by a censor. The rationale for censorship is different for various types of data censored. Censorship is the act or practice of removing material from things we encounter every day on the grounds that it is obscene, vulgar, and/or highly objectionable. Whether it is on TV, in music, books, or on the Internet, censorship is an inescapable part of human society. Censorship can be broken into different categories: This article is about the general concept. ...

  • Moral censorship is the means by which any material that contains what the censor deems to be of questionable morality is removed. The censoring body disapproves of what it deems to be the values behind the material and limits access to it. Pornography, for example, is often censored under this rationale. In another example, graphic violence resulted in the censorship of the "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant" movie entitled Scarface originally completed in 1932.
  • Military censorship is the process of keeping military intelligence and tactics confidential and away from the enemy. This is used to counter espionage, which is the process of gleaning military information. Additionally, military censorship may involve a restriction on information or media coverage that can be released to the public.
  • Political censorship occurs when governments hold back secret information from their citizens. The logic is to prevent the free expression needed to rebel. Any dissent against the government is thought to be a "weakness" for the enemy to exploit.[citation needed] Campaign tactics are also often kept secret: see the Watergate scandal.
  • Religious censorship is the means by which any material objectionable to a certain faith is removed. This often involves a dominant religion forcing limitations on less prevalent ones. Alternatively, one religion may shun the works of another when they believe the content is not appropriate for their faith.
  • Corporate censorship is the process by which editors in corporate media outlets intervene to halt the publishing of information that portrays their business or business partners in a negative light. Privately owned corporations in the business of reporting the news also sometimes refuse to distribute information due to the potential loss of advertiser revenue or shareholder value which adverse publicity may bring. See media bias.

Contents

Porn redirects here. ... The National Film Registry is the registry of films selected by the United States National Film Preservation Board for preservation in the Library of Congress. ... Scarface (also known as Scarface, the Shame of the Nation and The Shame of a Nation) is a 1932 gangster film of the Pre-Code era which tells the story of gang warfare and police intervention when rival gangs fight over control of a city. ... Military intelligence (abbreviated MI, int. ... Military tactics (Greek: Taktikē, the art of organizing an army) are the collective name for methods for engaging and defeating an enemy in battle. ... Spy and Secret agent redirect here. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... For other uses, see Rebel (disambiguation) and Rebellion (disambiguation). ... Watergate redirects here. ... Censorship by religion is a form of censorship where freedom of expression is controlled or limited using religious authority or on the basis of the teachings of the religion. ... Corporate censorship is a term used to denote either censorship through legal challenges, through refusal to sell a product, or refusal to advertise or allow air time. ... Media bias is a term used to describe a real or perceived bias of journalists and news producers within the mass media, in the selection of which events will be reported and how they are covered. ...

Censorship of state secrets and prevention of attention

A National Geographic Magazine censored by Iranian authorities. The offending cover was about the subject of love, and the picture hidden beneath the white sticker is of an embracing couple. February 2006.
A National Geographic Magazine censored by Iranian authorities. The offending cover was about the subject of love, and the picture hidden beneath the white sticker is of an embracing couple.[1] February 2006.
The Rhodesia Herald of September 21, 1966.

In wartime, explicit censorship is carried out with the intent of preventing the release of information that might be useful to an enemy. Typically it involves keeping times or locations secret, or delaying the release of information (e.g., an operational objective) until it is of no possible use to enemy forces. The moral issues here are often seen as somewhat different, as release of tactical information usually presents a greater risk of casualties among one's own forces and could possibly lead to loss of the overall conflict. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (512x741, 151 KB) Picture of a censored version of National Geographic from Iran. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (512x741, 151 KB) Picture of a censored version of National Geographic from Iran. ... The National Geographic Magazine, later shortened to National Geographic, is the official journal of the National Geographic Society. ... For other uses, see Love (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (651x835, 311 KB) Summary The front page of the Rhodesia Herald of September 21, 1966 showing the effect of the Rhodesian censor. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (651x835, 311 KB) Summary The front page of the Rhodesia Herald of September 21, 1966 showing the effect of the Rhodesian censor. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... U.S. OPFOR Soldiers at Fort Polk, LA. from Operation Cajun Fury An Opposing Force or OPFOR is a military unit tasked with representing an enemy, usually for training purposes in war game scenarios. ...

Wieczór Wrocławia" - Daily newspaper of Wrocław, People's Republic of Poland, March 20-21-21, 1981, with censor intervention on first and last pages --- under the headlines "Co zdarzyło się w Bydgoszczy?" (What happened in Bydgoszcz?) and "Pogotowie strajkowe w całym kraju" (Country-wide strike alert). The censor had removed a section regarding the strike alert; hence the workers in the printing house blanked out an official propaganda section. The right-hand page also includes a hand-written confirmation of that decision by the local "Solidarność" Trade Union.

During World War I letters written by British soldiers would have to go through censorship. This consisted of officers going through letters with a black marker and crossing out anything which might compromise operational secrecy before the letter was sent. The World War II catchphrase "Loose lips sink ships" was used as a common justification to exercise official wartime censorship and encourage individual restraint when sharing potentially sensitive information. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2450x1700, 824 KB) Summary Wieczór WrocÅ‚awia - Breslauer Abendzeitung, Ausgabe vom 20. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2450x1700, 824 KB) Summary Wieczór WrocÅ‚awia - Breslauer Abendzeitung, Ausgabe vom 20. ... Motto: Miasto spotkaÅ„ (the meeting place) Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Lower Silesian Powiat city county Gmina WrocÅ‚aw Established 10th century City Rights 1262 Government  - Mayor RafaÅ‚ Dutkiewicz Area  - City 292. ... Anthem Mazurek DÄ…browskiego Capital Warsaw Language(s) Polish Government Socialist republic Head of State  - 1944-1952 (first) BolesÅ‚aw Bierut  - 1981-1989 (last) Wojciech Jaruzelski Prime Minister  - 1944-1947 (first) Edward Osóbka-Morawski  - 1989 (last) Tadeusz Mazowiecki History  - Established July 21, 1944  - Constitution July 22, 1952  - Abolished July... March 20-21, 1981, issue of Wieczór WrocÅ‚awia (The WrocÅ‚aw Evening). ... Solidarity (Polish: ; full name: Independent Self-governing Trade Union Solidarity — Niezależny SamorzÄ…dny ZwiÄ…zek Zawodowy Solidarność) is a Polish trade union federation founded in September 1980 at the then Lenin Shipyards, and originally led by Lech WaÅ‚Ä™sa. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


An example of sanitization policies comes from the USSR under Joseph Stalin, where publicly used photographs were often altered to remove people whom Stalin had condemned to execution. Though past photographs may have been remembered or kept, this deliberate and systematic alteration to all of history in the public mind is seen as one of the central themes of Stalinism and totalitarianism. A page of a classified document that has been sanitized for public release. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... For architecture, see Stalinist architecture. ... Totalitarianism is a term employed by some political scientists, especially those in the field of comparative politics, to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. ...


Censorship of educational sources

The content of school textbooks is often the issue of debate, since their target audience is young people, and the term "whitewashing" is the one commonly used to refer to selective removal of critical or damaging evidence or comment. The [[Historical revisionism (negationism)|reporting of military atrocities in history]] is extremely controversial, as in the case of the Nanking Massacre, The Holocaust (or Holocaust denial), and the Winter Soldier Investigation of the Vietnam War. The representation of every society's flaws or misconduct is typically downplayed in favor of a more nationalist, favorable or patriotic view.[citation needed] Negationism is the denial of historic crimes. ... Rape of Nanking redirects here. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... Richard Harwoods Did Six Million Really Die? Holocaust denial is the claim that the mainstream historical version of the Holocaust is either highly exaggerated or completely falsified. ... The Winter Soldier Investigation was a media event intended to publicize war crimes and atrocities by the United States Armed Forces and their allies in the Vietnam War, while showing their direct relationship to military leadership and the foreign and anti-Communist policies of the Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon Presidential... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000...


Religious groups have at times attempted to block the teaching of evolution in publicly-funded schools as it contradicts their religious beliefs, or have argued that they are being censored if not allowed to teach creationism as science in those schools, though their arguments have been rejected by United States courts in cases such as Edwards v. Aguilard and Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District. The teaching of sexual education in school and the inclusion of information about sexual health and contraceptive practices in school textbooks is another area where suppression of information occurs. Political correctness sometimes prohibits the open discussion of divergent views. This article is about evolution in biology. ... Various Religious symbols, including (first row) Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Bahai, (second row) Islamic, tribal, Taoist, Shinto (third row) Buddhist, Sikh, Hindu, Jain, (fourth row) Ayyavazhi, Triple Goddess, Maltese cross, pre-Christian Slavonic Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that generally involve a faith in a spiritual... Creationism is a religious belief that humanity, life, the Earth, and the universe were created in their original form by a deity or deities (often the Abrahamic God of Judaism, Christianity and Islam), whose existence is presupposed. ... Edwards v. ... Tammy Kitzmiller, et al. ... An early 20th century post card documents the problem of unwanted pregnancy. ... Safe sex (also called safer sex or protected sex) is a set of practices that are designed to reduce the risk of infection during sexual intercourse to avoid developing sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). ... For other uses, see Birth control (disambiguation). ... Political correctness is the alteration of language to redress real or alleged injustices and discrimination or to avoid offense. ...


In the context of secondary-school education, the way facts and history are presented greatly influences the interpretation of contemporary thought, opinion and socialization. One argument for censoring the type of information disseminated is based on the inappropriate quality of such material for the young. The use of the "inappropriate" distinction is in itself controversial, as it changed heavily. A Ballantine Books version of the book Fahrenheit 451 which is the version used by most school classes[2] contained approximately 75 separate edits, omissions, and changes from the original Bradbury manuscript. This article is about the novel. ...


Suppression/falsification of scientific research

For more information, see the article on scientific misconduct.

Scientific studies may be suppressed or falsified because they undermine sponsors' commercial, political or other interests or because they fail to support researchers' ideological goals. Examples include, failing to publish a study which shows that a new drug is harmful, or truthfully publishing the benefits of a treatment while failing to describe harmful side-effects. Scientific research may also be suppressed or altered to support a political agenda. In the United States some government scientists, including NASA climatologist Drew Shindell, have reported governmental pressure to alter their statements regarding climate change.[3] Scientific misconduct is the violation of the standard codes of scholarly conduct and ethical behavior in professional scientific research. ... Dr. Drew Shindell is an ozone specialist and climatologist at the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ...


Censorship in music and popular culture

See also: Censorship of music
In Victorian England, portrayal of public officials, among other things, was forbidden. The Lord Chamberlain, an official responsible for censoring plays, created a scandal in 1873 by banning The Happy Land for its portrayal of Prime Minister William Gladstone and two other ministers in his cabinet. In London News
In Victorian England, portrayal of public officials, among other things, was forbidden. The Lord Chamberlain, an official responsible for censoring plays, created a scandal in 1873 by banning The Happy Land for its portrayal of Prime Minister William Gladstone and two other ministers in his cabinet. In London News

American musicians such as Frank Zappa have repeatedly protested against censorship in music and pushed for more freedom of expression. In 1986, Zappa appeared on CNN's Crossfire to protest censorship of lyrics in rock music, denying that harm will be done or unrest caused if controversial information, lyrics, or other messages are promulgated. Censorship of Music, the practice of censoring music from the public, may take the form of partial or total censorship with the latter banning the music entirely. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 569 pixelsFull resolution (1931 × 1373 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 569 pixelsFull resolution (1931 × 1373 pixel, file size: 1. ... The Lord Chamberlain or Lord Chamberlain of the Household is one of the chief officers of the Royal Household in the United Kingdom, and is to be distinguished from the Lord Great Chamberlain, one of the Great Officers of State. ... Scene from The Happy Land, showing the impersonation of Gladstone, Lowe, and Ayrton (from The Illustrated London News of March 22, 1873; illustrated by D. H. Friston) The Happy Land is a play with music written in 1873 by W. S. Gilbert (under the pseudonym F. Latour Tomline) and Gilbert... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... Gladstone redirects here. ... Frank Vincent Zappa[1] (December 21, 1940 – December 4, 1993) was an American composer, musician, and film director. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... December 6, 2004 edition of Crossfire. ...


In countries like Sudan, Afghanistan and China, violations of musician's rights to freedom of expression are commonplace. In the USA and Algeria, lobbying groups have succeeded in keeping popular music off the concert stage, and out of the media and retail. In ex-Yugoslavia musicians are often pawns in political dramas, and the possibility of free expression has been adversely affected.


Music censorship has been implemented by states, religions, educational systems, families, retailers and lobbying groups – and in most cases they violate international conventions of human rights.[4]


A related example is dance censorship, which can be found across the globe, both today and historically. Dancing's associations with youth, sexuality, and expression have often made it a target for religious reformers and government control.[citation needed]


Copy, picture, and writer approval

Copy approval is the right to read and amend an article, usually an interview, before publication. Many publications refuse to give copy approval but it is increasingly becoming common practice when dealing with publicity anxious celebrities.[5] Picture approval is the right given to an individual to choose which photos will be published and which will not. Robert Redford is well known for insisting upon picture approval.[6] Writer approval is when writers are chosen based on whether they will write flattering articles or not. Hollywood publicist Pat Kingsley is known for banning certain writers who wrote undesirably about one of her clients from interviewing any of her other clients. Robert Redford (born August 18, 1936)[1] is an Academy Award-winning American motion picture director, actor, producer, businessman, model, environmentalist and philanthropist. ...


Censorship of maps

Main article: Censorship of maps

Google Earth censors places that may be of special security concern. The following is a selection of such concerns: Google Earth is a virtual globe program that was originally called Earth Viewer and was created by Keyhole, Inc. ...

  • The former Indian president APJ Abdul Kalam had expressed concern over the availability of high-resolution pictures of sensitive locations in India.
  • Indian Space Research Organization says that Google Earth poses a security threat to India and seeks dialogue with Google officials.
  • The South Korean government has expressed concern that the software offers images of the presidential palace and various military installations that could possibly be used by North Korea.
  • Operators of the Lucas Heights nuclear reactor in Sydney, Australia asked Google to censor high resolution pictures of the facility. However, they later withdrew the request.
  • The government of Israel also expressed concern over the availability of high-resolution pictures of sensitive locations in its territory, and applied pressure to have Israeli territory (and the Occupied Territories held by Israeli forces) appear in less clear detail.
  • The Vice President of the United State's residence (Naval Observatory) in Washington, DC has been pixelated, as has the Federal Gold Depository at Fort Knox.
  • In Morocco, the partially government owned Maroc telecom internet access provider banned all its subscribers for over two years for using Google Earth, but early in 2008 the censorship was removed.[citation needed]

This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is Indias national space agency. ... This article is about the corporation. ... For other places with the same name, see Korea (disambiguation). ... This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about United States Army post. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ...

Meta censorship

In this form of censorship, any information about existence of censorship and the legal basis of the censorship is censored. Rules of censoring were classified. Removed texts or phrases were not marked.


Creative censorship

In this form of censorship, censors rewrite texts, giving these texts secret co-authors.


Censorship implementation

Censorship is regarded among a majority of academics in the Western world as a typical feature of dictatorships and other authoritarian political systems. Democratic nations are represented, especially among Western government, academic and media commentators, as having somewhat less institutionalized censorship, and as instead promoting the importance of freedom of speech. The former Soviet Union maintained a particularly extensive program of state-imposed censorship. The main organ for official censorship in the Soviet Union was the Chief Agency for Protection of Military and State Secrets generally known as the Glavlit, its Russian acronym. The Glavlit handled censorship matters arising from domestic writings of just about any kind — even beer and vodka labels. Glavlit censorship personnel were present in every large Soviet publishing house or newspaper; the agency employed some 70,000 censors to review information before it was disseminated by publishing houses, editorial offices, and broadcasting studios. No mass medium escaped Glavlit's control. All press agencies and radio and television stations had Glavlit representatives on their editorial staffs. Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A dictatorship is an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by a dictator. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article applies to political and organizational ideologies. ... This article is about the general concept. ... Main Administration for Safeguarding State Secrets in the Press of the USSR Council of Ministers (Russian: ) was the official censorship and state secret protection organ in the Soviet Union. ...

Censored pre-press proof of two articles from "Noticias da Amadora", a Portuguese newspaper, 1970
Censored pre-press proof of two articles from "Noticias da Amadora", a Portuguese newspaper, 1970

Some thinkers understand censorship to include other attempts to suppress points of view or the exploitation of negative propaganda, media manipulation, spin, disinformation or "free speech zones." These methods tend to work by disseminating preferred information, by relegating open discourse to marginal forums, and by preventing other ideas from obtaining a receptive audience. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Propaganda (disambiguation). ... Media manipulation is an aspect of public relations in which partisans create an image or argument that favours their particular interests. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... For other uses, see Disinformation (disambiguation). ... The free speech zone at the 2004 Democratic National Convention The free speech zone at the 2004 Democratic National Convention (different angle) Free speech zones (also known as First Amendment Zones, Free speech cages, and Protest zones) are areas set aside in public places for political activists to exercise their...


Sometimes, a specific and unique information whose very existence is barely known to the public, is kept in a subtle, near-censorship situation, being regarded as "subversive" or "inconvenient". Michel Foucault's 1978 text "Sexual Morality and the Law" (later republished as "The Danger of Child Sexuality"), for instance - originally published as La loi de la pudeur [literally, "the law of decency"], defends the decriminalization of statutory rape and the abolition of age of consent laws, and as of July 2006, is almost totally invisible throughout the Internet, both in English and French, and does not appear even on Foucault-specialized websites. In predicate logic and technical fields that depend on it, uniqueness quantification, or unique existential quantification, is an attempt to formalise the notion of something being true for exactly one thing, or exactly one thing of a certain type. ... For the version control system, see Subversion (software). ... Michel Foucault (pronounced ) (15 October 1926–25 June 1984) was a French philosopher, historian, critic and sociologist. ... Sexual Morality and the Law is the transcription of a 1978 radio conversation in Paris between philosopher Michel Foucault, playwright/actor/lawyer Jean Danet and novelist/gay activist Guy Hocquenghem, discussing the abolition of age of consent laws in France. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Age of consent reform refers to efforts meant to change age of consent laws. ...


Commercial censorship

Suppression of access to the means of dissemination of ideas can function as a form of censorship. Such suppression has been alleged to arise from the policies of governmental bodies, such as the FDA and FCC in the United States of America, the CRTC in Canada, newspapers that refuse to run commentary the publisher disagrees with, lecture halls that refuse to rent themselves out to a particular speaker, and individuals who refuse to finance such a lecture. The omission of selected voices in the content of stories also serves to limit the spread of ideas, and is often called censorship. Such omission can result, for example, from persistent failure or refusal by media organizations to contact criminal defendants (relying solely on official sources for explanations of crime). Censorship has been alleged to occur in such media policies as blurring the boundaries between hard news and news commentary, and in the appointment of allegedly biased commentators, such as a former government attorney, to serve as anchors of programs labeled as hard news but comprising primarily commentary. FDA redirects here. ... FCC redirects here. ... The Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC, in French Conseil de la radiodiffusion et des télécommunications canadiennes) was established in 1968 by the Canadian Parliament to replace the Board of Broadcast Governors. ... Nancy Ann Grace (born October 23, 1959) is an American talk show host and former prosecutor. ...


The focusing of news stories to exclude questions that might be of interest to some audience segments, such as the avoidance of reporting cumulative casualty rates among citizens of a nation that is the target or site of a foreign war, or in the prevention, treatment, and curing of disease, is often described as a form of censorship. Favorable representation in news or information services of preferred products or services, such as reporting on leisure travel and comparative values of various machines instead of on leisure activities such as arts, crafts or gardening has been described by some as a means of censoring ideas about the latter in favor of the former.


Self-censorship: Imposed on the media in a free market by market/cultural forces rather than a censoring authority. This occurs when it is more profitable for the media to give a biased view.


Censorship by country

Main article: Censorship by country

See also

Look up Censorship in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Self-censorship is the act of censoring and/or classifying ones own book(s), film(s), or other kind of art to avoid offending others without an authority pressuring them to do so. ... Book burning is the practice of ceremoniously destroying by fire one or more copies of a book or other written material. ... It has been suggested that Legal terrorism be merged into this article or section. ... Freedom of the Press (or Press Freedom) is the guarantee by a government of free public press for its citizens and their associations, extended to members of news gathering organizations, and their published reporting. ... This article is about the general concept. ... Newspeak is a fictional language in George Orwells novel Nineteen Eighty-Four. ...

Citations and notes

  1. ^ Lundqvist, J.. More pictures of Iranian Censorship. Retrieved on August 2007-01-21.
  2. ^ Bradbury, Ray. Fahrenheit 451. Del Rey Books. April 1991.
  3. ^ Dean, Cornelia. "Scientists Criticize White House Stance on Climate Change Findings", The New York Times, 2007-01-31. Retrieved on 2007-09-19. 
  4. ^ www.freemuse.org/sw2338.asp.
  5. ^ Ian Mayes. "The readers' editor on requests that are always refused", The Guardian, 2005-04-23. Retrieved on August 2007-01-21. 
  6. ^ "Caution: big name ahead", The Observer, 2002-01-27. Retrieved on August 2007-01-21. 

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

General information

  • Abbott, Randy. "A Critical Analysis of the Library-Related Literature Concerning Censorship in Public Libraries and Public School Libraries in the United States During the 1980s." Project for degree of Education Specialist, University of South Florida, December 1987. ED 308 864
  • Burress, Lee. Battle of the Books. Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press, 1989. ED 308 508
  • Butler, Judith, "Excitable Speech: A Politics of the Performative" (1997)
  • Foucault, Michel, edited by Lawrence D. Kritzman. Philosophy, Culture: interviews and other writings 1977-1984 (New York/London: 1988, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-90082-4) (The text Sexual Morality and the Law is Chapter 16 of the book).
  • O'Reilly, Robert C. and Larry Parker. "Censorship or Curriculum Modification?" Paper presented at a School Boards Association, 1982, 14 p. ED 226 432
  • Hansen, Terry. The Missing Times: News media complicity in the UFO cover-up, 2000. ISBN 0-7388-3612-5
  • Hendrikson, Leslie. "Library Censorship: ERIC Digest No. 23." ERIC Clearinghouse for Social Studies/Social Science Education, Boulder, Colorado, November 1985. ED 264 165
  • Hoffman, Frank. "Intellectual Freedom and Censorship." Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press, 1989. ED 307 652
  • Marek, Kate. "Schoolbook Censorship USA." June 1987. ED 300 018
  • National Coalition against Censorship (NCAC). "Books on Trial: A Survey of Recent Cases." January 1985. ED 258 597
  • Ringmar, Erik A Blogger's Manifesto: Free Speech and Censorship in the Age of the Internet (London: Anthem Press, 2007)
  • Small, Robert C., Jr. "Preparing the New English Teacher to Deal with Censorship, or Will I Have to Face it Alone?" Annual Meeting of the National Council of Teachers of English, 1987, 16 p.
(Arguing that an English teacher should get advice from school librarians in preparing to encounter three levels of censorship:
  1. Rejection of adolescent fiction and popular teen magazines as having low value,
  2. Experienced colleagues discouraging "difficult" lesson plans,
  3. Outside interest groups limiting students' exposure. ED 289 172)
  • Terry, John David II. "Censorship: Post Pico." In "School Law Update, 1986," edited by Thomas N. Jones and Darel P. Semler. ED 272 994
  • [1] Supreme Court rejects advocates' plea to preserve useful formats
  • World Book Encyclopedia, volume 3 (C-Ch), pages 345, 346
Image:J Butler. ... Michel Foucault (pronounced ) (15 October 1926–25 June 1984) was a French philosopher, historian, critic and sociologist. ... World Book Encyclopedia is, according to its publisher in the United States, the number-one selling print encyclopedia in the world. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Culture Shock: Who Decides? How and Why?: Definitions of Censorship (808 words)
The term "censorship" comes from The Latin, censere "to give as one's opinion, to assess." The Roman censors were magistrates who took the census count and served as assessors and inspectors of morals and conduct.
For the ALA, technically censorship means the "The Removal of material from open access by government authority." The ALA also distinguishes various levels of incidents in respect to materials in a library which may or may not lead to censorship: Inquiry, Expression of Concern, Complaint, Attack, and Censorship.
Censorship - the prevention of publication, transmission, or exhibition of material considered undesirable for the general public to possess or be exposed to.
Censorship (1917 words)
Conceptions of censorship derive from Roman practice in which two officials were appointed by the government to conduct the census, award public contracts and supervise the manners and morals of the people.
Whereas censorship in the 1950s and 1960s was based on the presumed standards and tastes of the white middle-class nuclear family, censorship in the 1970s became a process of balancing the often conflicting values of marginal social groups.
To counter conservative criticism and government censorship, producers and the networks have agreed to begin a ratings system which could be electronically monitored and blocked in the home.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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