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Encyclopedia > Cenozoic
Mammals are the dominant creatures of Cenozoic.

The Cenozoic (also Caenozoic or Cainozoic) Era (pronounced /ˌsiːnəˈzoʊɪk/, /ˌsɛn-/) (, meaning "new life" (Greek καινός (kainos), "new", and ζωή (zoe), "life"), is the most recent of the three classic geological eras. It covers the 65.5 million years since the Cretaceous–Tertiary extinction event at the end of the Cretaceous that marked the demise of the last non-avian dinosaurs and the end of the Mesozoic Era. The Cenozoic era is ongoing. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The geologic time scale is used by geologists and other scientists to describe the timing and relationships between events that have occurred during the history of the Earth. ... Artists reconstruction of a major impact event. ... // The Cretaceous Period (pronounced ) is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ... Orders & Suborders Saurischia Sauropodomorpha Theropoda Ornithischia Thyreophora Ornithopoda Marginocephalia Dinosaurs were vertebrate animals that dominated the terrestrial ecosystem for over 160 million years, first appearing approximately 230 million years ago. ... Mesozoic Era is one of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. ...

Contents

Subdivision

Events of the Cenozoic
view • discuss • edit
-65 —
-60 —
-55 —
-50 —
-45 —
-40 —
-35 —
-30 —
-25 —
-20 —
-15 —
-10 —
-5 —
0 —
Rise of grasses[1]
First Antarctic glaciers[2]
K-T mass
extinction
Holocene begins 11.5 ka ago
Cenozoic
Mesozoic
An approximate timescale of key Cenozoic events.
Axis scale: Ma before present.

The Cenozoic is divided into two periods, the Paleogene and Neogene, and they are in turn divided into epochs. The Paleogene consists of the Paleocene, Eocene, and Oligocene epochs, and the Neogene consists of the Miocene, Pliocene, Pleistocene, and Holocene epochs, the last of which is ongoing. Historically, the Cenozoic has been divided into periods (or sub-eras) named the Tertiary (Paleocene through Pliocene) and Quaternary (Pleistocene and Holocene). Neogene Period is a unit of geologic time consisting of the Miocene, Pliocene, Pleistocene, and Holocene epochs. ... The Miocene Epoch is a period of time that extends from about 23. ... // The Cretaceous Period (pronounced ) is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ... The Paleocene, early dawn of the recent, is a geologic epoch that lasted from 65. ... hfajhfiudshfas == == == --24. ... The Oligocene epoch is a geologic period of time that extends from about 34 million to 23 million years before the present. ... The Pliocene epoch (spelled Pleiocene in some older texts) is the period in the geologic timescale that extends from 5. ... The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) on the geologic timescale is the period from 1,808,000 to 11,550 years BP. The Pleistocene epoch had been intended to cover the worlds recent period of repeated glaciations. ... Climate change during the last 65 million years. ... For other uses, see Grass (disambiguation). ... A glaciation (a created composite term meaning Glacial Period, referring to the Period or Era of, as well as the process of High Glacial Activity), often called an ice age, is a geological phenomenon in which massive ice sheets form in the Arctic and Antarctic and advance toward the equator. ... Artists reconstruction of a major impact event. ... // The Messinian Salinity Crisis, also referred to as the Messinian Event, is a period when the Mediterranean Sea evaporated partly or completely dry during the Messinian period of the Miocene epoch, approximately 6 million years ago. ... The Holocene epoch is a geological period, which began approximately 11,550 calendar years BP (about 9600 BC) and continues to the present. ... Paleogene (alternatively Palaeogene) period is a unit of geologic time that began 65 and ended 23 million years ago. ... Neogene Period is a unit of geologic time consisting of the Miocene, Pliocene, Pleistocene, and Holocene epochs. ... Mesozoic Era is one of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. ... Annum is a Latin noun meaning year. ... Before Present (BP) years are the units of time (counted backwards to the past) used to report raw radiocarbon ages and dates referenced to the BP scale origin in the year AD 1950 (identical to 1950 CE). ... Paleogene (alternatively Palaeogene) period is a unit of geologic time that began 65 and ended 23 million years ago. ... Neogene Period is a unit of geologic time consisting of the Miocene, Pliocene, Pleistocene, and Holocene epochs. ... Look up epoch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Paleocene, early dawn of the recent, is a geologic epoch that lasted from 65. ... hfajhfiudshfas == == == --24. ... The Oligocene epoch is a geologic period of time that extends from about 34 million to 23 million years before the present. ... The Miocene Epoch is a period of time that extends from about 23. ... The Pliocene epoch (spelled Pleiocene in some older texts) is the period in the geologic timescale that extends from 5. ... The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) on the geologic timescale is the period from 1,808,000 to 11,550 years BP. The Pleistocene epoch had been intended to cover the worlds recent period of repeated glaciations. ... The Holocene epoch is a geological period, which began approximately 11,550 calendar years BP (about 9600 BC) and continues to the present. ... Tertiary geological time interval covers roughly the time span between the demise of the non-avian dinosaurs and beginning of the most recent Ice Age, approximately 65 million to 1. ... The Quaternary Period is the geologic time period from the end of the Pliocene Epoch roughly 1. ...


Tectonics

Geologically, the Cenozoic is the era when the continents moved into their current positions.[clarify] Australia-New Guinea split from Gondwana and drifted north and, eventually, adjacent to South-east Asia; Antarctica moved into its current position over the South Pole; the Atlantic Ocean widened and, later in the era, South America became attached to North America. This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Animated, colour-coded map showing the various continents. ... The Australian continental shelf (light blue) is contiguous with New Guinea, but not with other Pacific islands like New Zealand. ... For other uses of Gondwana and Gondwanaland, see Gondwana (disambiguation). ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... For other uses, see South Pole (disambiguation). ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... North American redirects here. ...


India collided with Asia between 55 and 45 million years ago; Arabia collided with Eurasia, closing the Tethys ocean, around 35 million years ago.[4] Tethys Ocean (here labeled Tethys Sea) divides Pangea into two supercontinents, Laurasia and Gondwana The Tethys Ocean was a Mesozoic era ocean that existed between the continents of Gondwana and Laurasia before the opening of the Indian Ocean. ...


Climate

The Cenozoic has been a period of long-term cooling. In the early Cenozoic, particulate ejecta from the K-T boundary impact blocked incoming solar radiation[citation needed]. After the tectonic creation of Drake Passage, when Australia fully detached from Antarctica during the Oligocene, the climate cooled significantly due to the advent of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current which brought cool deep Antarctic water to the surface. Warm conditions returned in the Miocene due to uncovered gas hydrates releasing carbon dioxide.[citation needed] When South America became attached to North America creating the Isthmus of Panama, the Arctic region cooled due to the strengthening of the Humboldt and Gulf Stream currents[citation needed], eventually leading to the Last Glacial Maximum. The Cretaceous-Tertiary (KT) extinction event, also known as the KT boundary (from German: Kreide-Tertiär-Grenzschicht), was a period of massive extinction of species, about 65. ... Drake Passage between South America and Antarctica. ... The Oligocene epoch is a geologic period of time that extends from about 34 million to 23 million years before the present. ... The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) is an ocean current that flows from west to east around Antarctica. ... The Miocene Epoch is a period of time that extends from about 23. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... The Isthmus of Panama. ... ... For the album by Ocean Colour Scene, see North Atlantic Drift (album) The Gulf Stream is orange and yellow in this representation of water temperatures of the Atlantic. ... Temperature proxies for the last 40,000 years The Last Glacial Maximum refers to the time of maximum extent of the ice sheets during the last glaciation, approximately 21 thousand years ago. ...


Life

The Cenozoic is the age of new life. During the Cenozoic, mammals diverged from a few small, simple, generalized forms into a diverse collection of terrestrial, marine, and flying animals. The Cenozoic is just as much the age of savannas, or the age of co-dependent flowering plants and insects. Birds also evolved substantially in the Cenozoic. This article is about grassland. ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ...


Monte Bolca is an important lagerstätte near Verona, Italy, containing excellently preserved fish and other fossils of Eocene age. Lagerstätten (German; singular Lagerstätte; literally place of storage, resting place) are sedimentary deposits that exhibit extraordinary fossil richness or completeness. ... hfajhfiudshfas == == == --24. ...

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Cainozoic.

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ...

See also

Phanerozoic eon
Paleozoic era Mesozoic era Cenozoic era
Cenozoic era
Paleogene Neogene Quaternary

Diagram of geological time scale. ... The Cretaceous-Tertiary (KT) extinction event, also known as the KT boundary (from German: Kreide-Tertiär-Grenzschicht), was a period of massive extinction of species, about 65. ... During the Phanerozoic the biodiversity shows a steady but not monotonic increase from near zero to several thousands of genera. ... The Paleozoic Era (from the Greek palaio, old and zoion, animals, meaning ancient life) is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. ... Mesozoic Era is one of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. ... Paleogene (alternatively Palaeogene) period is a unit of geologic time that began 65 and ended 23 million years ago. ... Neogene Period is a unit of geologic time consisting of the Miocene, Pliocene, Pleistocene, and Holocene epochs. ... The Quaternary Period is the geologic time period from the end of the Pliocene Epoch roughly 1. ...

References

  1. ^ Retallack, G.J. (1997). "Neogene Expansion of the North American Prairie". PALAIOS 12 (4): 380-390. Retrieved on 2008-02-11. 
  2. ^ Zachos, J.C.; Kump, L.R. (2005). "Carbon cycle feedbacks and the initiation of Antarctic glaciation in the earliest Oligocene". Global and Planetary Change 47 (1): 51-66. 
  3. ^ Krijgsman, W.; Garcés, M.; Langereis, C.G.; Daams, R.; Van Dam, J.; Van Der Meulen, A.J.; Agustí, J.; Cabrera, L. (1996). "A new chronology for the middle to late Miocene continental record in Spain". Earth and Planetary Science Letters 142 (3-4): 367-380. Retrieved on 2008-03-01. 
  4. ^ "Arabia-Eurasia collision and the forcing of mid Cenozoic global cooling" . doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2008.04.021.  edit

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

Bibliography

  • British Caenozoic Fossils, 1975, The Natural History Museum, London.
  • Geologic Time, by Henry Roberts.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Earth Floor: Geologic Time (490 words)
The Cenozoic period began about 65 million years ago with the extinction of the dinosaurs and continues through the present.
Mammals, which were small, mouse-like animals at the beginning of the Cenozoic, quickly spread out, diversified in kind, and grew in size.
There have been mass extinctions during the Cenozoic as there were during the Mesozoic and Paleozoic, but not as many animals and plants have disappeared.
Cenozoic era. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (422 words)
In the late Cenozoic, the Cascade Range of volcanoes extended from southern British Columbia to N California, and represented a new volcanic arc superimposed on older structures.
The animal life of the Cenozoic was dominated by mammals, which were most numerous in the Tertiary period and declined, with the exception of a few specialized types, in the Quaternary period.
Cenozoic land mammals were never as large as the Mesozoic dinosaurs, but many were larger than today’s mammals, and included beavers that grew to lengths of more than 7 ft (2 m), sloths as large as elephants, and birds up to 7 ft (2 m) in height.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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