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Encyclopedia > Cemetery Hill
Jubal Early's attack on East Cemetery Hill, July 2, 1863, engraving from The Century Magazine.

Cemetery Hill is a key terrain feature in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, the northernmost extent of Cemetery Ridge. It played prominent roles in all three days of the Battle of Gettysburg, July 1 to July 3, 1863. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1450x1011, 496 KB) engraving from The Century Magazine, 1884 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1450x1011, 496 KB) engraving from The Century Magazine, 1884 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Century Magazine was first published in the United States in 1881 by The Century Company of New York City as a successor to Scribners Monthly Magazine. ... Gettysburg is a borough 38 miles (68 km) south by southwest of Harrisburg in Adams County, Pennsylvania, USA, of which it is the county seatGR6. ... A strip of land in Gettysburg thats located between Cemetery Hill and Little Round Top. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America Commanders George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 93,921 71,699 Casualties 23,055 (3,155 killed, 14,531 wounded, 5,369 captured/missing) 23,231 (4,708 killed, 12,693 wounded, 5,830 captured/missing) The Battle of... July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 183 days remaining. ... July 3 is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 181 days remaining. ... 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar). ...

Contents


During the battle, Cemetery Hill was a critical part of the Union army defensive line, the curved portion of what is described as the "fish-hook" line. There were three important characteristics to the hill. First, its gentle slope made it excellent defensive ground against the infantry tactics of the era. Second, it was an outstanding artillery platform with good fields of fire (unlike the neighboring Culp's Hill, which was heavily wooded), dominating wide swaths of the town and other parts of the battlefield. Third, and most importantly, it was a concentration point for three major roads that led south: Emmitsburg Road, Taneytown Road, and the Baltimore Pike. These roads were critical for keeping the Union army supplied and for blocking any Confederate advance on Baltimore or Washington, D.C.[1] The 21st Michigan Infantry, a company of Shermans veterans. ... Battle of Gettysburg Conflict American Civil War Date July 1–3, 1863 Place Adams County Result Union victory The Battle of Gettysburg (July 1–3, 1863), fought in and around the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, as part of the Gettysburg Campaign, was the largest battle ever conducted in... Some Confederate soldiers The Confederate States Army (CSA) was formed in February 1861 to defend the Confederate States of America, which had itself been formed that same year when seven Southern states seceded from the United States (four more states soon followed). ... Nickname: Monument City, Charm City, Mob Town, B-more, Balmerr,Bodymore, Murderland Motto: The Greatest City in America (formerly The City That Reads; Get In On It is not the citys motto, but rather the advertising slogan of the Baltimore Area Convention and Visitors Association; BELIEVE is not the... Nickname: DC, The District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia Coordinates: Federal District District of Columbia Mayor Adrian M. Fenty (D) City Council Chairperson: Vincent C. Gray (D) Ward 1: Jim Graham (D) Ward 2: Jack Evans...


Before the battle, Cemetery Hill (originally named Raffensperger's Hill, after farmer Peter Raffensperger, who owned over 6 acres on the eastern slope[2]) was the site of Evergreen Cemetery, a civilian burial ground established in 1854.[3] It was joined afterwards by the adjacent Gettysburg National Cemetery, which was dedicated by Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address. The hill is also the current location of the U.S. National Park Service Visitors' Center for the Gettysburg National Military Park. Evergreen Cemetery is a privately owned community cemetery in historic Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. ... Soldiers National Monument at the center of Gettysburg National Cemetery, Randolph Rogers, sculptor Gettysburg National Cemetery is located on Cemetery Hill in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. ... Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865), sometimes called Abe Lincoln and nicknamed Honest Abe, the Rail Splitter, and the Great Emancipator, was an American politician who served as the 16th President of the United States (1861 to 1865), and the first president from the Republican Party. ... Selection from the Nicolay Copy of the Gettysburg Address, handwritten by Lincoln himself. ... The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States government agency that deals with U.S. National Parks and U.S. National Monuments. ... Gettysburg Map The Gettysburg Battlefield was the site of the Battle of Gettysburg, fought in 1863 in and around the borough of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, the county seat of Adams County, which had approximately 2,400 residents at the time. ...


Physical description

Cemetery Hill overlooks the main downtown area of Gettysburg from the south, at 503 feet above sea level, 80 feet above the town center, about 100 feet above Winebrenner's Run at its base. Its crest extends in a southwest-northeast direction for about 700 yards. A shallow saddle on the crest about 150 yards from its northeast slope is the point where the Baltimore Pike crosses the hill and separates East Cemetery Hill from the remainder. The slopes to the north and west rise gradually; on East Cemetery Hill, the rise is steeper.[4] For considerations of sea level change, in particular rise associated with possible global warming, see sea level rise. ...


July 1, 1863

In the week before the Battle of Gettysburg, Cemetery Hill had been occupied by Confederate cavalry under Lt. Col. Elijah V. White on June 26 and June 27, who captured a number of horses hidden by local citizens. Upon their departure to York County, Pennsylvania, the hill remained essentially free of military forces until the arrival of the Army of the Potomac. July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 183 days remaining. ... 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar). ... The First Day of the Battle of Gettysburg, July 1, 1863, began as an American Civil War meeting engagement between isolated units of the Army of Northern Virginia (under Confederate General Robert E. Lee) and the Army of the Potomac (Union Major General George G. Meade), but soon escalated into... June 26 is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 188 days remaining. ... June 27 is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 187 days remaining. ... York County is a county located in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. ... Generals Burnside, Hancock, Couch, Ferro, Patrick, Wilcox, Cochrane, Buford and others. ...


On July 1, Cemetery Hill was the rallying point for retreating Union troops of the I Corps and XI Corps who were overwhelmed by Confederate assaults from the west and north. One of the great controversies of the battle was the failure of Lt. Gen. Richard S. Ewell to attack and capture Cemetery Hill.[5] July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 183 days remaining. ... I Corps (First Corps) was the designation of four different corps_sized units in the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... The XI Corps (Eleventh Corps) was a corps of the Union Army during the American Civil War, best remembered for its humiliating defeats at the battles of Chancellorsville and Gettysburg in 1863. ... Richard S. Ewell Richard Stoddert Ewell (February 8, 1817 – January 25, 1872) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general during the American Civil War. ...


July 2, 1863

Early's attack on East Cemetery Hill

On July 2, Confederate General Robert E. Lee ordered attacks on both ends of the Union line. Lt. Gen. James Longstreet attacked with his First Corps on the Union left (Little Round Top, Devil's Den, Wheatfield, etc.). Lt. Gen. Richard S. Ewell and the Second Corps were assigned the mission of launching a simultaneous demonstration against the Union right, a minor attack that was intended to distract and pin down the Union defenders against Longstreet. Ewell was to exploit any success his demonstration might achieve by following up with a full-scale attack at his discretion.[6] July 2 is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 182 days remaining. ... 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1371x1109, 379 KB)Map of Cemetery Hill action in the Battle of Gettysburg. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1371x1109, 379 KB)Map of Cemetery Hill action in the Battle of Gettysburg. ... // The Second Day of the Battle of Gettysburg (July 2, 1863) saw Confederate General Robert E. Lee attempt to capitalize on his first days victory. ... July 2 is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 182 days remaining. ... For the author of Inherit the Wind and other works, see Robert Edwin Lee. ... US Lieutenant General insignia In three branches of the United States Army, United States Marine Corps and United States Air Force, a Lieutenant General is also called a three-star general, named for the three stars worn on the uniform. ... James Longstreet (January 8, 1821 – January 2, 1904) was one of the foremost Confederate generals of the American Civil War, the principal subordinate to General Robert E. Lee, who called him his Old War Horse. ... Little Round Top, western slope, photographed by Timothy H. OSullivan, 1863. ... Devils Den is the nickname for a terrain feature south of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, that was the site of fierce fighting at the Battle of Gettysburg during the American Civil War. ... Wheatfield may refer to: Wheatfield, New York Wheatfield, Indiana This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Richard S. Ewell Richard Stoddert Ewell (February 8, 1817 – January 25, 1872) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general during the American Civil War. ...


Ewell began his demonstration at 4 p.m. upon hearing the sound of Longstreet's guns to the south. For three hours, he chose to limit his demonstration to an artillery barrage from Benner's Hill, about a mile to the northeast. Although the Union defenders on Cemetery Hill received some damage from this fire, they returned counterbattery fire with a vengeance. Cemetery Hill is over 50 feet taller than Benner's Hill and the geometry of artillery science meant that the Union gunners had a decided advantage. Ewell's four batteries were annihilated and his best artillerist, 19-year-old Joseph W. Latimer, the "Boy Major", was killed.[7] Joseph White Latimer (August 27, 1834 - August 1, 1863), The Boy Major, was a promising young officer in the Confederate Army of Northern Virginias artillery branch during the Civil War. ...


Around 7 p.m., as the Confederate assaults on the Union left and center were petering out, Ewell chose to begin his main infantry assault. He sent three brigades from the division of Maj. Gen. Edward “Allegheny” Johnson across Rock Creek and up the eastern slope of Culp's Hill against a line of breastworks manned by the XII Corps brigade of Brig. Gen. George S. Greene. Greene's men held off the Confederate attack for hours, at bloody cost to both sides.[8] Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Edward Allegheny Johnson Edward Johnson (April 16, 1816 – March 2, 1873), also known as Allegheny Johnson (sometimes spelled Alleghany), was a U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... The XII Corps (Twelfth Corps) was a corps of the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... George Sears Greene George Sears Greene (May 6, 1801 – January 28, 1899) was a civil engineer and a Union general during the American Civil War. ...


Not long after the assault on Culp's Hill began, as dusk fell around 7:30 p.m., Ewell sent two brigades from the division of Jubal A. Early against East Cemetery Hill from the east and he alerted the division of Maj. Gen. Robert E. Rodes to prepare a follow-up assault against Cemetery Hill proper from the northwest. The two brigades from Early's division were commanded by Brig. Gen. Harry T. Hays: his own Louisiana Tigers Brigade and Hoke's Brigade, the latter commanded by Colonel Isaac E. Avery. They stepped off from a line parallel to Winebrenner's Run, a narrow tributary of Rock Creek to the southeast of town. Hays commanded five Louisiana regiments, which together numbered only about 1,200 officers and men. Avery had three North Carolina regiments totaling 900. The brigade of Brig. Gen. John B. Gordon was in support behind Hays and Avery, but would not participate in the fighting.[9] Jubal Anderson Early (November 3, 1816 – March 2, 1894) was a lawyer and Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... Robert E. Rodes Robert Emmett Rodes ( March 29, 1829 – September 19, 1864) was a railroad civil engineer and a promising young Confederate general in the American Civil War, killed in battle in the Shenandoah Valley. ... A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... Harry Thompson Hays (April 14, 1820 – August 21, 1876) was an American Civil War brigadier general who served in the Army of Northern Virginia. ... Colonel (IPA: or ) is a military rank of a commissioned officer, with the corresponding ranks existing in nearly every country in the world. ... Isaac Erwin Avery (December 20, 1828 – July 3, 1863) was a colonel in the Confederate States Army who perished at the Battle of Gettysburg during the American Civil War. ... John Brown Gordon John Brown Gordon ( February 6, 1832 – January 9, 1904) served as one of Robert E. Lees most trusted generals during the Civil War. ...


Defending East Cemetery Hill were the two brigades (Cols. Andrew L. Harris and Leopold von Gilsa) of Barlow's division (now commanded by Brig. Gen. Adelbert Ames) of the XI Corps. Both had seen heavy action on July 1 and they consisted of, respectively, 650 and 500 officers and men. Harris's men were stationed at a low stone wall on the northern end of the hill and wrapped around onto Brickyard Lane at the base of the hill. (Brickyard Lane was also known at the time as Winebrenner's Lane and today is named Wainwright Avenue.) Von Gilsa's brigade was scattered along the lane as well as on the hill. Two regiments, the 41st New York and the 33rd Massachusetts, were stationed in Culp's Meadow beyond Brickyard Lane. More westerly on the hill were the divisions of Maj. Gens. Adolph von Steinwehr and Carl Schurz. Colonel Charles S. Wainwright, nominally of the I Corps, commanded the artillery batteries on the hill and on Steven's Knoll. Unfortunately for the defenders, the relatively steep slope of East Cemetery Hill made artillery fire difficult to direct against infantry because the gun barrels could not be depressed sufficiently, but they did their best with canister and double canister fire.[10] Andrew Lintner Harris (also known as The Farmer-Statesman) (November 17, 1835 – September 13, 1915) was one of the heroes of the Battle of Gettysburg and the last Civil War general to serve as a governor in the U.S., serving as the 44th governor of Ohio. ... Francis C. Barlow Francis Channing Barlow (October 19, 1834 – January 11, 1896) was a lawyer, politician, and Union general during the American Civil War. ... Adelbert Ames (October 31, 1835 – April 12, 1933) was a Union general in the American Civil War, a Mississippi politician, and a general in the Spanish-American War. ... Adolph von Steinwehr Baron Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich von Steinwehr (September 25, 1822 – February 25, 1877) was a Prussian army officer who emigrated to the United States, became a geographer, cartographer, and author, and served as a Union general in the American Civil War. ... Carl Schurz Carl Schurz (March 2, 1829 – May 14, 1906) was a German revolutionist, American statesman and reformer, and Union Army general in the American Civil War. ... Canister shot was a kind of anti-personnel ammunition used in cannons. ...


The Confederate attack began with a Rebel yell against the Ohio regiments at the stone wall. Just beforehand, Ames sent the 17th Connecticut from its place on the left of the line to a position in the center. This left a gap, which Hays's Louisianans exploited and they bounded over the stone wall. Other troops exploited other weak spots in the line and soon some of the Confederates had reached the batteries at the top of the hill, while others fought in the darkness with the four remaining Union regiments on the line behind the stone wall. On the crest of the hill, the gunners of Captain Michael Wiedrich's New York battery and Captain Bruce Ricketts's Pennsylvania battery engaged in hand-to-hand combat against the invaders. Major Samuel Tate of the 6th North Carolina wrote afterward:[11] Confederate Soldiers Charge at the Battle of Shiloh The rebel yell (sometimes called the Pibroch of the Confederacy) was a battle cry used by Confederate soldiers during the American Civil War. ...

75 North Carolinians of the Sixth Regiment and 12 Louisianians of Hays' brigade scaled the walls and planted the colors of the Sixth North Carolina and Ninth Louisiana on the guns. It was now fully dark. The enemy stood with tenacity never before displayed by them, but with bayonet, clubbed musket, sword, pistol, and rocks from the wall, we cleared the heights and silenced the guns.

—Major Samuel Tate, Official report

Maj. Gen. Winfield S. Hancock of the II Corps ordered his brigade under Col. Samuel S. Carroll to rush from Cemetery Ridge and assist the defenders. They arrived, charging through the dark from the cemetery, just as the Confederate attack was starting to ebb. XI Corps troops from elsewhere on the hill also joined in the fight and Early's attackers were repulsed by 10:30 p.m.[12] Portrait of Winfield S. Hancock during the Civil War Winfield Scott Hancock (February 14, 1824 - February 9, 1886) was born in Montgomery Square, Pennsylvania and named after the famous general Winfield Scott. ... There were five corps in the Union Army designated as II Corps (Second Corps) during the American Civil War. ...


Defending East Cemetery Hill would have been much more difficult had the overall attack been better coordinated. To the northwest, Rodes's division was not ready to attack until Early's fight was almost over. It had filed west from the town and into the fields along Long Lane, where it stopped after advancing a short distance in the darkness. Brig. Gen. Dodson Ramseur, the leading brigade commander, saw the futility of a night assault against two lines of Union troops behind stone walls, backed up by significant artillery.[13] Stephen Dodson Ramseur Stephen Dodson Ramseur May 31, 1837 – September 19, 1864) was the youngest Confederate general in the American Civil War. ...


Losses on both sides were severe and among the casualties was Col. Avery, who was struck in the neck by a musket ball, felling him from his horse, where he was discovered after the charge by several of his soldiers and Major Tate of the 6th North Carolina. Unable to speak from his mortal wound, Avery scribbled a simple note for Tate: "Major, tell my father I died with my face to the enemy. I. E. Avery." He died the following day.[14]


July 3, 1863

On July 3, there was no explicit attack on Cemetery Hill; the primary Confederate attacks were on Culp's Hill and on the lower portion of Cemetery Ridge. Union artillery maintained defensive fire against Pickett's Charge from the hill, and trading primarily on antipersonnel fire.[15] However, some historians maintain that Robert E. Lee's ultimate objective for the assaults by Longstreet on July 2 and July 3 (Pickett's Charge) was to take Cemetery Hill by rolling the Union left flank up Cemetery Ridge.[16] July 3 is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 181 days remaining. ... 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar). ... July 3 is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 181 days remaining. ... Map of Picketts Charge, July 3, 1863. ... For the author of Inherit the Wind and other works, see Robert Edwin Lee. ... July 2 is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 182 days remaining. ... July 3 is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 181 days remaining. ...


Aftermath

Following the Confederate withdrawal to Virginia, Cemetery Hill was occupied for several weeks by state militiamen, who established a tented camp site on the eastern crest. Their role was to maintain a military presence, secure the battlefield as best as possible from looters and curiosity seekers, collect remaining military accoutrements such as weapons left lying on the field, and provide manpower and services for the overworked hospitals.


Elizabeth Thorn, the wife of the keeper of Evergreen Cemetery, had the responsibility to bury over 100 soldiers collected in the Cemetery Hill region (her husband being off in the military service). Despite being six months pregnant, she and her aged parents, assisted at times by a couple hired hands, dug 105 graves in the July heat.[17]


In the months immediately following the battle, Gettysburg attorney (and part-time Union intelligence agent) David McConaughy led efforts to purchase portions of Cemetery Hill for a Federal cemetery, where most of the dead Union soldiers (excepting those buried by Mrs. Thorn in the civilian graveyard) could be reinterred. In November 1863, President Abraham Lincoln spoke at the dedication ceremony for the new National Cemetery, delivering "a few brief remarks" that became known as the Gettysburg Address.[18] David McConaughy (July 23, 1823 – 1902) was a noted attorney, cemetery president, and civic leader in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, as well as a part-time intelligence officer for the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865), sometimes called Abe Lincoln and nicknamed Honest Abe, the Rail Splitter, and the Great Emancipator, was an American politician who served as the 16th President of the United States (1861 to 1865), and the first president from the Republican Party. ... Selection from the Nicolay Copy of the Gettysburg Address, handwritten by Lincoln himself. ...


Today, Cemetery Hill still has two distinct cemeteries, with the borough of Gettysburg maintaining Evergreen Cemetery, which remains the town's main burial ground. The adjacent National Cemetery has greatly expanded to include soldiers from other wars, although the original semi-circular Civil War burial ground remains the centerpiece. The National Park Service's Visitors Center and Cyclorama buildings are currently on Cemetery Hill and Ridge along the Taneytown Road, although there are plans to relocate them to a new site in 2008, restoring those areas to their 1863 conditions. The once open areas on the northern and western slopes of the hill are now largely occupied by tourist-related businesses (hotels, restaurants, gift shops, battlefield tour agencies, private museums, etc.). The military importance of the heights is not as evident today as the once commanding view has been blocked by this sprawl.


Imposing equestrian statues of Major Generals Oliver O. Howard and Winfield S. Hancock dominate the crest of East Cemetery Hill. Oliver Otis Howard (November 8, 1830 – October 26, 1909) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Union general in the American Civil War. ...


See also

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Campaign & Battles

Gettysburg Campaign: Campaign OverviewBrandy StationSecond WinchesterAldieMiddleburgUppervilleSporting HillHanoverCarlisleGettysburgHunterstownFairfieldWilliamsportBoonsboroManassas Gap
Actions at Gettysburg: First DaySecond DayThird Day cavalry battlesBig Round TopCemetery HillCulp's Hill • Devil's Den • Little Round Top • Peach Orchard • Pickett's Charge • Wheatfield Meade and Lee of Gettysburg Gettysburg Campaign (through July 3); cavalry movements shown with dashed lines. ... The Battle of Brandy Station was the largest cavalry engagement on the North American continent. ... Battle of Winchester II Conflict American Civil War Date June 13-15, 1863 Place Frederick County and Winchester, Virginia Result Confederate victory The Second Battle of Winchester took place from June 13– 15, 1863, in Frederick County and Winchester, Virginia, as part of the Gettysburg Campaign of the American... The Battle of Aldie took place on June 17, 1863, in Loudoun County, Virginia, as part of the Gettysburg Campaign of the American Civil War. ... Battle of Middleburg Conflict American Civil War Date June 17-19, 1863 Place Loudoun County, Virginia Result Inconclusive The Battle of Middleburg took place from June 17-19, 1863 in Loudoun County, Virginia as part of the Gettysburg Campaign of the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Alfred Pleasonton J.E.B. Stuart Strength Divisions Divisions Casualties 400 total (US and CS) 400 total (US and CS) The Battle of Upperville took place on June 21, 1863, in Loudoun County, Virginia, as part of the Gettysburg Campaign... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Darius N. Couch Albert G. Jenkins Strength Elements of Pennsylvania and New York state militia Elements of the 16th Virginia Cavalry Regiment Casualties 16 dead 20-30 wounded 11 wounded The Skirmish of Sporting Hill was a relatively small skirmish... The Battle of Hanover took place on June 30, 1863, in York County, Pennsylvania as part of the Gettysburg Campaign of the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders William F. Smith Jeb Stuart Strength Federal militia (app. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America Commanders George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 93,921 71,699 Casualties 23,055 (3,155 killed, 14,531 wounded, 5,369 captured/missing) 23,231 (4,708 killed, 12,693 wounded, 5,830 captured/missing) The Battle of... The Battle of Hunterstown was a minor cavalry engagement in Adams County, Pennsylvania, on July 2, 1863, during the Gettysburg Campaign of the American Civil War. ... The Battle of Fairfield was a cavalry engagement during the Gettysburg Campaign of the American Civil War. ... Battle of Williamsport Conflict American Civil War Date July 6-16, 1863 Place Washington County, Maryland Result Inconclusive The Battle of Williamsport, also known as the Battle of Hagerstown or Falling Waters, took place from July 6-16, 1863 in Washington County, Maryland as part of the Gettysburg Campaign of... Battle of Boonsboro Conflict American Civil War Date July 8, 1863 Place Washington County, Maryland Result Inconclusive The Battle of Boonsboro took place on July 8, 1863 in Washington County, Maryland as part of the Gettysburg Campaign of the American Civil War. ... Battle of Manassas Gap Conflict American Civil War Date July 23, 1863 Place Warren County, Virginia Result Inconclusive The Battle of Manassas Gap, also known as the Battle of Wapping Heights, took place on July 23, 1863 in Warren County, Virginia as part of the Gettysburg Campaign of the American... The First Day of the Battle of Gettysburg, July 1, 1863, began as an American Civil War meeting engagement between isolated units of the Army of Northern Virginia (under Confederate General Robert E. Lee) and the Army of the Potomac (Union Major General George G. Meade), but soon escalated into... // The Second Day of the Battle of Gettysburg (July 2, 1863) saw Confederate General Robert E. Lee attempt to capitalize on his first days victory. ... On the Third Day of the Battle of Gettysburg (July 3, 1863) in the American Civil War, the attention of history has focused on the disastrous infantry assault nicknamed Picketts Charge. ... Big Round Top from the entrenchments on Little Round Top photographed by Timothy H. OSullivan, 1863 Big Round Top (also called Round Top or Sugar Loaf) is the dominating terrain feature on the southern part of the Gettysburg Battlefield in Adams County, Pennsylvania. ... Battle of Gettysburg Conflict American Civil War Date July 1–3, 1863 Place Adams County Result Union victory The Battle of Gettysburg (July 1–3, 1863), fought in and around the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, as part of the Gettysburg Campaign, was the largest battle ever conducted in... // The Second Day of the Battle of Gettysburg (July 2, 1863) saw Confederate General Robert E. Lee attempt to capitalize on his first days victory. ... Little Round Top, western slope, photographed by Timothy H. OSullivan, 1863. ... // The Second Day of the Battle of Gettysburg (July 2, 1863) saw Confederate General Robert E. Lee attempt to capitalize on his first days victory. ... Map of Picketts Charge, July 3, 1863. ... // The Second Day of the Battle of Gettysburg (July 2, 1863) saw Confederate General Robert E. Lee attempt to capitalize on his first days victory. ...

Notable CSA Leaders
Robert E. LeeE. Porter AlexanderRichard H. AndersonJubal A. EarlyRichard S. EwellHenry HethA.P. HillJohn B. HoodAllegheny JohnsonJames LongstreetLafayette McLawsW. Dorsey PenderJ. Johnston PettigrewGeorge E. PickettRobert E. RodesJ.E.B. StuartIsaac R. Trimble
Notable USA Leaders
George G. MeadeJohn BufordJoshua L. ChamberlainGeorge A. CusterAbner DoubledayGeorge S. GreeneWinfield S. HancockJoseph HookerOliver O. Howard • Henry J. Hunt • Alfred PleasontonJohn F. ReynoldsJohn SedgwickDaniel E. SicklesHenry W. SlocumGeorge SykesGouverneur K. Warren
Other Topics

American Civil WarConfederate Order of BattleUnion Order of BattleDepartment of the MonongahelaDepartment of the SusquehannaGettysburg AddressGettysburg National CemeteryCemetery RidgeSeminary Ridge
Army of the Potomac: I CorpsII CorpsIII CorpsV CorpsVI CorpsXI CorpsXII Corps1st Minnesota20th Maine
Army of Northern Virginia:
Gettysburg today: BattlefieldTownCollegeLutheran Theological Seminary
Popular media: Gettysburg (film)Gettysburg (game)Gettysburg (music)Sid Meier's Gettysburg!Terrible Swift SwordThe Killer Angels Image File history File links Download high resolution version (712x1024, 122 KB) Summary Description: Portrait of Gen. ... For the author of Inherit the Wind and other works, see Robert Edwin Lee. ... Edward Porter Alexander Edward Porter Alexander (May 26, 1835 – April 28, 1910) was an engineer, an officer in the U.S. Army, a Confederate general in the American Civil War, and later a railroad executive, planter, and author. ... Richard H. Anderson Richard Heron Anderson ( October 7, 1821 – June 26, 1879) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... Jubal Anderson Early (November 3, 1816 – March 2, 1894) was a lawyer and Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... Richard S. Ewell Richard Stoddert Ewell (February 8, 1817 – January 25, 1872) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general during the American Civil War. ... Henry Heth Henry Heth (December 16, 1825 – September 27, 1899) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... Ambrose Powell Hill (November 9, 1825 _ April 2, 1865), was a Confederate States of America general in the American Civil War. ... John Bell Hood John Bell Hood (June 1, 1831–August 30, 1879) was a Confederate general during the American Civil War. ... Edward Allegheny Johnson Edward Johnson (April 16, 1816 – March 2, 1873), also known as Allegheny Johnson (sometimes spelled Alleghany), was a U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... James Longstreet (January 8, 1821 – January 2, 1904) was one of the foremost Confederate generals of the American Civil War, the principal subordinate to General Robert E. Lee, who called him his Old War Horse. ... Lafayette McLaws Lafayette McLaws ( January 15, 1821 – July 24, 1897) was a U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... William Dorsey Pender William Dorsey Pender (February 6, 1834 – July 18, 1863) was one of the youngest, and most promising, generals fighting for the Confederacy in the American Civil War. ... J. Johnston Pettigrew James Johnston Pettigrew (July 4, 1828 – July 17, 1863) was an author, lawyer, linguist, diplomat, and a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... Portrait of George E. Pickett George Edward Pickett (January 25, 1825 – July 30, 1875) was a major-general in the army of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War. ... Robert E. Rodes Robert Emmett Rodes ( March 29, 1829 – September 19, 1864) was a railroad civil engineer and a promising young Confederate general in the American Civil War, killed in battle in the Shenandoah Valley. ... James Ewell Brown Stuart (February 6, 1833 – May 12, 1864) was an American soldier from Virginia and a Confederate Army general during the American Civil War. ... Isaac R. Trimble Isaac Ridgeway Trimble (May 15, 1802 – January 2, 1888) was a U.S. Army officer, a civil engineer, a prominent railroad construction superintendent and executive, and a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (641x899, 96 KB)[edit] Summary Photoshop cropped and cleaned up by Hal Jespersen. ... George Gordon Meade (December 31, 1815 - November 6, 1872) was an American military officer during the American Civil War. ... John F. Buford (March 4, 1826 – December 16, 1863) was an American cavalry officer during the American Civil War. ... Maj. ... George Armstrong Custer George Armstrong Custer (December 5, 1839 - June 25, 1876) was an American cavalry commander in the Civil War and the Indian Wars who is best remembered for his defeat and death at the Battle of the Little Bighorn against a coalition of Native American tribes, led by... Abner Doubleday Abner Doubleday (June 26, 1819 – January 26, 1893), was a career U.S. Army officer and Union general in the American Civil War. ... George Sears Greene George Sears Greene (May 6, 1801 – January 28, 1899) was a civil engineer and a Union general during the American Civil War. ... Portrait of Winfield S. Hancock during the Civil War Winfield Scott Hancock (February 14, 1824 - February 9, 1886) was born in Montgomery Square, Pennsylvania and named after the famous general Winfield Scott. ... Joseph Hooker (November 13, 1814 – October 31, 1879), known as Fighting Joe, was a career U.S. Army officer and a major general in the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... Oliver Otis Howard (November 8, 1830 – October 26, 1909) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Union general in the American Civil War. ... Note: This article is about Gen. ... Alfred Pleasonton Alfred Pleasonton was a U.S. Army officer and general of Union cavalry during the American Civil War. ... Maj. ... Major General John Sedgwick John Sedgwick (September 13, 1813 – May 9, 1864) was a teacher, a career military officer, and a Union Army general in the American Civil War. ... Portrait of Daniel Sickles during the Civil War Daniel Edgar Sickles (October 20, 1825–May 3, 1914) was an American soldier, statesman and diplomat. ... Portrait of General Henry W. Slocum by Mathew Brady, ca. ... George Sykes George Sykes (October 9, 1822 – February 8, 1880) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Union general during the American Civil War. ... Gouverneur K. Warren Gouverneur Kemble Warren (8 January 1830 – 8 August 1882) was a civil engineer and prominent officer in the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... The following units and commanders fought in the Battle of Gettysburg on the Confederate side. ... The following units and commanders fought in the Battle of Gettysburg of the American Civil War on the Union side. ... The Department of the Monogahela was a military department created by the United States War Department during the Gettysburg Campaign of the American Civil War. ... The Department of the Susquehanna was a military department created by the United States War Department during the Gettysburg Campaign of the American Civil War. ... Selection from the Nicolay Copy of the Gettysburg Address, handwritten by Lincoln himself. ... Soldiers National Monument at the center of Gettysburg National Cemetery, Randolph Rogers, sculptor Gettysburg National Cemetery is located on Cemetery Hill in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. ... A strip of land in Gettysburg thats located between Cemetery Hill and Little Round Top. ... Seminary Ridge is a geographic feature immediately to the west of the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. ... Generals Burnside, Hancock, Couch, Ferro, Patrick, Wilcox, Cochrane, Buford and others. ... I Corps (First Corps) was the designation of four different corps_sized units in the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... There were five corps in the Union Army designated as II Corps (Second Corps) during the American Civil War. ... Daniel Sickles and staff after the Battle of Gettysburg There were four formations in the Union Army designated as III Corps (or Third Corps) during the American Civil War. ... The V Corps (Fifth Corps) was a unit of the Union Army of the Potomac during the American Civil War. ... The VI Corps (Sixth Corps) was a corps of the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... The XI Corps (Eleventh Corps) was a corps of the Union Army during the American Civil War, best remembered for its humiliating defeats at the battles of Chancellorsville and Gettysburg in 1863. ... The XII Corps (Twelfth Corps) was a corps of the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... The First Minnesota Volunteer Infantry was a volunteer regiment during the American Civil War that is famous for charging a Confederate brigade on July 2, 1863, during the Battle of Gettysburg, preventing a serious breach in the Union army defensive line on Cemetery Ridge. ... The 20th Maine Volunteer Infantry Regiment was a combat unit of the United States Army during the American Civil War, most famous for its defense of Little Round Top at the 1863 Battle of Gettysburg. ... The Army of Northern Virginia was the primary military force of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War in the eastern theater. ... Gettysburg Map The Gettysburg Battlefield was the site of the Battle of Gettysburg, fought in 1863 in and around the borough of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, the county seat of Adams County, which had approximately 2,400 residents at the time. ... Gettysburg is a borough 38 miles (68 km) south by southwest of Harrisburg in Adams County, Pennsylvania, USA, of which it is the county seatGR6. ... Gettysburg College is a private four-year liberal arts college of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, founded in 1832, in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, adjacent to the famous battlefield. ... Image:Olddorm. ... Gettysburg was a 1993 movie that dramatized the decisive American Civil War Battle of Gettysburg. ... Gettysburg is a board wargame produced by Avalon Hill which re-enacts the American Civil War battle of Gettysburg. ... Jon Schaffer, leader of American heavy metal band Iced Earth, composed a thirty minute epic inspired by the Battle of Gettysburg. ... Sid Meiers Gettysburg! is a real-time tactics computer game designed by Sid Meier the co-founder of Firaxis Games, then was released in 1997 by Electronic Arts. ... Terrible Swift Sword: The Three Days of Gettysburg (often abbreviated as TSS) is a classic grand tactical, regimental level board game depicting the Battle of Gettysburg of the American Civil War. ... The Killer Angels front cover The Killer Angels (1974) is a historical novel by Michael Shaara that was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 1975. ...

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References

  • Eicher, David J., The Longest Night: A Military History of the Civil War, Simon & Schuster, 2001, ISBN 0-684-84944-5.
  • Frassanito, William A., Early Photography at Gettysburg, Thomas Publications, 1995, ISBN 1-57747-032-X.
  • Harman, Troy D., Lee's Real Plan at Gettysburg, Stackpole Books, 2003, ISBN 0-8117-0054-2.
  • Pfanz, Harry W., The Battle of Gettysburg, U.S. National Park Service and Eastern National, 1994, ISBN 0-915992-63-9.
  • Pfanz, Harry W., Gettysburg: Culp's Hill and Cemetery Hill, University of North Carolina Press, 1993, ISBN 0-8078-2118-7.
  • Sears, Stephen W., Gettysburg, Houghton Mifflin, 2003, ISBN 0-395-86761-4.
  • National Park Service description

Notes

  1. ^ Harman, pp. 9-10.
  2. ^ Frassanito, p. 144.
  3. ^ Pfanz, Culp's Hill, p. 25.
  4. ^ Pfanz, Culp's Hill, p. 412.
  5. ^ Sears, pp. 227-34.
  6. ^ Pfanz, Battle of Gettysburg, p. 21.
  7. ^ Pfanz, Culp's Hill, pp. 169-89.
  8. ^ Pfanz, Battle of Gettysburg, pp. 37-40.
  9. ^ Pfanz, Culp's Hill, pp. 169-89. Eicher, p. 538.
  10. ^ Pfanz, Culp's Hill, pp. 238, 240-48.
  11. ^ Pfanz, Culp's Hill, pp. 169-89. National Park Service description
  12. ^ Pfanz, Culp's Hill, pp. 263-75.
  13. ^ Pfanz, Culp's Hill, pp. 276-82. Sears, p. 341.
  14. ^ Eicher, p. 538.
  15. ^ Pfanz, Culp's Hill, p. 363.
  16. ^ Harman, pp. 63-67.
  17. ^ Pfanz, Culp's Hill, pp. 372-73. Pfanz cites her name as Catherine Thorn.
  18. ^ Pfanz, Culp's Hill, pp. 372-74.

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Cemetery Hill (595 words)
While the defending infantry appreciated this slope, and the park service has lined up an impressive array of cannon along the crest of the hill to defend it, operating the guns at targets close to the base of the hill was problematic.
Cemetery and Culp's Hill are connected by a low ridge.
The hill had been wooded at the time of the battle, as it is wooded now.
Cemetery Hill - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1921 words)
The slopes to the north and west rise gradually; to the east, the section known as East Cemetery Hill, the rise is steeper.
During the battle, Cemetery Hill was a critical part of the Union army defensive line, the curved portion of what is described as the "fish-hook" line.
On July 1, Cemetery Hill was the rallying point for retreating Union troops of the I Corps and XI Corps who were overwhelmed by Confederate assaults from the west and north.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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