FACTOID # 6: Michigan is ranked 22nd in land area, but since 41.27% of the state is composed of water, it jumps to 11th place in total area.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Celts" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Celts
Diachronic distribution of Celtic peoples:
     core Hallstatt territory, by the 6th century BC      maximal Celtic expansion, by the 3rd century BC      the "six Celtic nations" which retained significant numbers of Celtic speakers into the Early Modern period      areas where Celtic languages remain widely spoken today

Indo-European topics Image File history File links Celts_in_Europe. ... Image File history File links Celts_in_Europe. ... The Hallstatt culture was the predominant Central European culture during the local Bronze Age, and introduced the Iron Age. ... The Six Nations considered the heartland of the modern Celts Celtic nations are areas of Europe inhabited by members of Celtic cultures, specifically speakers of Celtic languages. ... The early modern period is a term initially used by historians to refer mainly to the post Late Middle Ages period in Western Europe (Early modern Europe), its first colonies marked by the rise of strong centralized governments and the beginnings of recognizable nation states that are the direct antecedents...

Indo-European languages
Albanian · Armenian · Baltic
Celtic · Germanic · Greek
Indo-Iranian (Indo-Aryan, Iranian)
Italic · Slavic  

extinct: Anatolian · Paleo-Balkans (Dacian,
Phrygian, Thracian) · Tocharian For other uses, see Indo-European. ... The Baltic languages are a group of related languages belonging to the Indo-European language family and spoken mainly in areas extending east and southeast of the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe. ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ... The Indo-Iranian language group constitutes the easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European family of languages. ... The Indo-Aryan languages (within the context of Indo-European studies also Indic[1]) are a branch of the Indo-European language family. ... Hypothetical distribution of languages in Iron Age Italy during the sixth century BC. The Italic subfamily is a member of the Centum branch of the Indo-European language family. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... The Anatolian languages are a group of extinct Indo-European languages, which were spoken in Asia Minor, the best attested of them being the Hittite language. ... The Paleo-Balkan languages were the Indo-European languages which were spoken in the Balkans in ancient times: Dacian language Thracian language Illyrian language Paionian language Ancient Macedonian language The only remnant of them is Albanian, but it is still disputed which language was its ancestor. ... The Dacian language was an Indo-European language spoken by the ancient people of Dacia. ... The Phrygian language was the Indo-European language of the Phrygians, a people of the central Asia Minor. ... The Thracian language was the Indo-European language spoken in ancient times by the Thracians in South-Eastern Europe. ... Tocharian is one of the most obscure branches of the group of Indo-European languages. ...

Indo-European peoples
Albanians · Armenians
Balts · Celts · Germanic peoples
Greeks · Indo-Aryans
Iranians · Latins · Slavs

historical: Anatolians (Hittites, Luwians)
Celts (Galatians, Gauls) · Germanic tribes
Illyrians · Italics  · Sarmatians
Scythians  · Thracians  · Tocharians
Indo-Iranians (Rigvedic tribes, Iranian tribes)  For the language group, see Indo-European languages. ... http://www. ... This article concerns those peoples who consider themselves, or have been considered by others, to be Celts in modern times, ie post 1800. ... Charlemagne, first to unify the Germanic tribal confederations. ... The Indo-Aryans are a wide collection of peoples united by their common status as speakers of the Indo-Aryan (Indic/Indian) branch of the family of Indo-European and Indo-Iranian languages. ... The Latins were an ancient Italic people who migrated to central Italy, (Latium Vetus - Old Latium), in the 2nd millennium B.C., maybe from the Adriatic East Coast and Balkanic Area, perhaps from pressures by Illyrian peoples. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... Asia Minor lies east of the Bosporus, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. ... Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people from KaneÅ¡ who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite... Distribution of the Luwian language (after Melchert 2003) Luwian hieroglyphic inscription from the city of Carchemish. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Gallia (in English Gaul) is the Latin name for the region of western Europe occupied by present-day France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Thor/Donar, Germanic thunder god. ... Illyria (disambiguation) Illyrians has come to refer to a broad, ill-defined Indo-European[1] group of peoples who inhabited the western Balkans (Illyria, roughly from northern Epirus to southern Pannonia) and even perhaps parts of Southern Italy in classical times into the Common era, and spoke Illyrian languages. ... Sarmatia Europea in Scythia map 1697 AD Sarmatia Europæa separated from Sarmatia Asiatica by the Tanais (the River Don), based on Greek literary sources, in a map printed in London, ca 1770 Great steppe in early spring. ... The Scythians (, also ) or Scyths ([1]; from Greek ), a nation of horse-riding nomadic pastoralists who spoke an Iranian language[2], dominated the Pontic steppe throughout Classical Antiquity. ... Thracian peltast, fifth to fourth century BC. Thracian Roman era heros (Sabazius) stele. ... The Tocharians or Tusharas as known in Indian literature were the easternmost speakers of an Indo-European language in antiquity, inhabiting the Tarim basin in what is now Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwestern Peoples Republic of China. ... Map of the Sintashta-Petrovka culture (red), its expansion into the Andronovo culture during the 2nd millennium BC, showing the overlap with the BMAC in the south. ... The Aryan tribes mentioned in the Rigveda are described as semi-nomadic pastoralists, subdivided into villages (vish) and headed by a tribal chief (raja) and administered by a priestly caste. ... Ancient Iranian peoples who settled Greater Iran in the 2nd millennium BC first appear in Assyrian records in the 9th century BC. They remain dominant throughout Classical Antiquity in Scythia and Persia. ...

Proto-Indo-Europeans
Language · Society · Religion
 
Urheimat hypotheses
Kurgan hypothesis · Anatolia
Armenia · India · PCT
 
Indo-European studies

Celts (pronounced /ˈsɛlts/ or /ˈkɛlts/, see pronunciation of Celtic) is a modern term used to describe any of the European peoples who spoke, or speak, a Celtic language. The term is also used in a wider sense to describe the modern descendants of those peoples, notably those who participate in a Celtic culture. The Proto-Indo-Europeans are the hypothetical speakers of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language, a prehistoric people of the Chalcolithic and early Bronze Age. ... The Proto-Indo-Europeans (PIE) were a patrilineal society of the Bronze Age (roughly 5th to 4th millennium BC), probably semi-nomadic, relying on animal husbandry. ... Map of Indo European migrations from ca. ... Map showing the Neolithic expansion from the seventh to fifth millennium BC. The Anatolian hypothesis of Proto-Indo-European origin is the suggestion that the speakers of the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) lived in Anatolia during the Neolithic era, and associates the distribution of historical Indo-European languages with... The Paleolithic Continuity Theory (PCT) suggests that the Indo-European languages originated in Europe and have existed there since the Paleolithic. ... Indo-European studies is a field of linguistics, dealing with the Indo-European languages. ... The pronunciation of the words Celt and Celtic in their various meanings has been surrounded by some confusion: the initial, <c> can be realised either as /k/ or as /s/. Both can be justified philologically and both are correct in terms of English prescriptive usage. ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ... This article concerns those peoples who consider themselves, or have been considered by others, to be Celts in modern times, ie post 1800. ... Muiredacha Cross. ...


The historical Celts were a diverse group of tribal societies in Iron Age Europe. Proto-Celtic culture formed in the Early Iron Age in Central Europe (Hallstatt period). By the later Iron Age (La Tène period), Celts had expanded over wide range of lands: as far west as Ireland and the Iberian Peninsula, as far east as Galatia (central Anatolia), and as far north as Scotland.[1] A tribe, viewed historically or developmentally, consists of a social group existing before the development of, or outside of, states, though some modern theorists hold that contemporary tribes can only be understood in terms of their relationship to states. ... The Proto-Celtic language, also called Common Celtic, is the putative ancestor of all the known Celtic languages. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... The Hallstatt culture was the predominant Central European culture during the local Bronze Age, and introduced the Iron Age. ... The La Tène culture was an Iron Age culture named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchatel in Switzerland, where a rich trove of artifacts was discovered by Hansli Kopp in 1857. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... This article is about the country. ...


The earliest direct attestation of a Celtic language are the Lepontic inscriptions, beginning from the 6th century BC. Continental Celtic languages are attested only in inscriptions and place names. Insular Celtic is attested from about the 4th century AD in Ogham inscriptions. Literary tradition sets in with Old Irish from about the 8th century. Coherent texts of Early Irish literature, such as the Táin Bó Cúailnge, survive in 12th century recensions. Lepontic is an extinct Celtic language that was once spoken in Northern Italy between 700 BCE and 400 BCE. The language is only known from a few inscriptions discovered that were written in a variety of the Northern Italic alphabet, which was related to the Old Italic alphabet. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 6th century BC started on January 1, 600 BC and ended on December 31, 501 BC. // Monument 1, an Olmec colossal head at La Venta The 5th and 6th centuries BC were a time of empires, but more importantly, a time... The Continental Celtic languages are those Celtic languages that are neither Goidelic nor Brythonic. ... The Insular Celtic language hypothesis groups the Goidelic languages, which include Irish, Scottish Gaelic and the recently extinct Manx, together with the Brythonic languages, of which the modern ones are Welsh, Breton, and the moribund Cornish. ... There are roughly 400 known Ogham inscriptions scattered around the Irish Sea, the bulk of them dating to the 5th and 6th centuries. ... Old Irish is the name given to the oldest form of the Irish language, or, rather, the Goidelic languages, for which extensive written texts are possessed. ... This article deals with Old Irish and Middle Irish literature // The earliest existing examples of the written Irish language as preserved in manuscripts do not go back farther than the 8th century; they are chiefly found in Scriptural glosses written between the lines or on the margins of religious works... Táin Bó Cúailnge (the driving-off of cows of Cooley, more usually rendered The Cattle Raid of Cooley or The Táin) is the central tale in the Ulster Cycle, one of the four great cycles that make up the surviving corpus of Irish mythology. ...


By the early centuries AD, following the expansion of the Roman Empire and the Great Migrations of Germanic peoples, Celtic culture had become restricted to the British Isles (Insular Celtic), with the Continental Celtic languages extinct by the mid-1st millennium AD. "Celtic Europe" today refers to the lands surrounding the Irish Sea plus Cornwall and Britanny on either side of the English channel. For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Great Migration is a term often used to describe the early medieval migrations of peoples in Europe. ... Thor/Donar, Germanic thunder god. ... This article explains the archipelago in north-western Europe. ... The Insular Celtic language hypothesis groups the Goidelic languages, which include Irish, Scottish Gaelic and the recently extinct Manx, together with the Brythonic languages, of which the modern ones are Welsh, Breton, and the moribund Cornish. ... The Continental Celtic languages are those Celtic languages that are neither Goidelic nor Brythonic. ... Celtic Europe is a region of Europe where Celtic languages are spoken or where Celtic culture predominates. ... Relief map of the Irish Sea. ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ... This is about the region in France; for other meanings of Brittany and Bretagne, see Brittany (disambiguation). ... For the Thoroughbred racehorse of the same name, see English Channel (horse). ...

Contents

Names and terminology

Main article: Names of the Celts

The origin of the various names used since classical times for the people known today as the Celts is obscure and has been controversial. In particular, there are actually 19 records of the term 'pictish' being used in connection with the inhabitants of Ireland and Britain prior to the 18th century. Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD...


The Latin name Celtus (pl. Celti or Celtae; Greek Κέλτης pl. Κέλται or Κελτός pl. Κελτοί, Keltai or Keltoi) seems to be based on a native Celtic ethnic name.[2] However, the first literary reference to the Celtic people, as Κελτοί (Κeltoi), is by the Greek historian Hecataeus of Miletus in 517 BC; he says that the town of Massilia (Marseille) is near the Celts and also mentions a Celtic town of Nyrex (possibly Noreia in Austria). Herodotus seems to locate the Keltoi at the source of the Danube and/or in Iberia, but the passage is unclear. For other uses, see Historian (disambiguation). ... Hecataeus (c. ... City flag Coat of arms Motto: By her great deeds, the city of Massilia shines The Old Port of Marseille Location Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Coordinates Administration Country Region Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Department Bouches-du-Rhône (13) Subdivisions 16 arrondissements (in 8 secteurs) Intercommunality Urban... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“ródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (c. ... This article is about the Danube River. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ...


The English word Celt is modern, attested from 1707 in the writings of Edward Lhuyd whose work, along with that of other late 17th century scholars, brought academic attention to the languages and history of these early inhabitants of Great Britain.[3] Edward Llwyd (also spelt Lhuyd) ( 1660 - June 30, 1709) was a Welsh naturalist, botanist, linguist, geographer and antiquary. ...


English "Gaul(s)" and Latin Gallus or Galli might be from an originally Celtic ethnic or tribal name, perhaps borrowed into Latin during the early 400s BC Celtic expansions into Italy. Its root may be the Common Celtic *galno, meaning 'power' or 'strength'. The Greek Galatai seems to be based on the same root, borrowed directly from the same hypothetical Celtic source which gave us Galli (the suffix -atai is simply an ethnic name indicator). (see Galatia in Anatolia) A tribal name is a name of an ethnic tribe —usually of ancient origin, which represented its self-identity. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The English form Gaul comes from the French Gaule and Gaulois, which is the traditional rendering of Latin Gallia and Gallus, -icus respectively. However, the diphthong au points to a different origin, namely a Romance adaptation of the Germanic *Walha-. (see Gaul: Name) The English word 'Welsh' originates from word wælisc, the Anglo-Saxon form of walhiska-, the Germanic word for "foreign".[4] Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Old English redirects here. ... brass replica of the Tjurkö Bracteate showing the attestation of the name Walha Walha () is an ancient Germanic word, meaning foreigner or stranger (welsh) or roman. It is attested in the Roman Iron Age Tjurkö Bracteate inscription as walhakurne, probably welsh crown for Roman coin, i. ...


'Celticity' generally refers to the cultural commonalities of these peoples, based on similarities in language, material artifacts, social organisation and mythological factors. Earlier theories were that this indicated a common racial origin but more recent theories are reflective of culture and language rather than race. Celtic cultures seem to have had numerous diverse characteristics but the commonality between these diverse peoples was the use of a Celtic language. For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... The nature and functions of these ancient gods can be deduced from their names, the location of their inscriptions, their iconography, the Roman gods they are equated with, and similar figures from later bodies of Celtic mythology. ...


'Celtic' is a descriptor of a family of languages and, more generally, means 'of the Celts,' or 'in the style of the Celts'. It has also been used to refer to several archaeological cultures defined by unique sets of artifacts. The link between language and artifact is aided by the presence of inscriptions. (see Celtic (disambiguation) for other applications of the term) The word Celtic can refer to: the European Celtic people, ancient or modern the Celtic languages, spoken by these people and their modern descendants the Celtic Lusitania, the Celtici (Celts from the Alentejo). ...


Today, the term 'Celtic' is generally used to describe the languages and respective cultures of Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Cornwall, the Isle of Man and Brittany, also known as the Six Celtic Nations. These are the regions where four Celtic languages are still spoken to some extent as mother tongues: Irish Gaelic, Scottish Gaelic, Welsh, and Breton plus two recent revivals, Cornish (one of the Brythonic languages) and Manx (one of the Goidelic languages). 'Celtic' is also sometimes used to describe regions of Continental Europe that have Celtic heritage, but where no Celtic language has survived; these areas include the western Iberian Peninsula, i.e. Portugal, and north-central Spain (Galicia, Asturias, Cantabria, Castile and León, Extremadura), and to a lesser degree, France. (see Modern Celts) This article is about the country. ... This article is about the country. ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ... This article is about the historical kingdom, duchy and French province, as well as one of the Celtic nations. ... The Six Nations considered the heartland of the modern Celts Celtic nations are areas of Europe inhabited by members of Celtic cultures, specifically speakers of Celtic languages. ... This article is about the modern Goidelic language. ... // Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... The Welsh are, according to Hastings (1997), an ethnic group and nation associated with Wales and the Welsh language, which is a Celtic language. ... Breton (Brezhoneg) is a Celtic language spoken by some of the inhabitants of Brittany (Breizh) in France. ... For the Cornish-English dialect, see West Country dialects. ... The Brythonic languages (or Brittonic languages) form one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic language family. ... The Goidelic languages (also sometimes called, particularly in colloquial situations, the Gaelic languages or collectively Gaelic) have historically been part of a dialect continuum stretching from the south of Ireland, the Isle of Man, to the north of Scotland. ... Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe or simply the Continent, is the continent of Europe, explicitly excluding European islands and, at times, peninsulas. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... Galicia (Spain) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Anthem: Asturias, patria querida Capital Oviedo Official language(s) Spanish; Asturian has special status Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 10th  10,604 km²  2. ... For the Mesozoic island Cantabria, see Cantabria (Mesozoic island). ... Capital Valladolid Official language(s) Spanish/Castilian Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked  94,223 km²  18. ... Capital Mérida Official languages Spanish; Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 5th  41,634 km²  8. ... This article concerns those peoples who consider themselves, or have been considered by others, to be Celts in modern times, ie post 1800. ...


'Continental Celts' refers to the Celtic-speaking people of mainland Europe. 'Insular Celts' refers to the Celtic-speaking people of the British Isles and their descendants. The Celts of Brittany derive their language from migrating insular Celts from the British Isles and so are grouped accordingly. This article explains the archipelago in north-western Europe. ...


Origins

Overview of the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures.      The core Hallstatt territory (HaC, 800 BC) is shown in solid yellow,      the eventual area of Hallstatt influence (by 500 BC, HaD) in light yellow.      The core territory of the La Tène culture (450 BC) is shown in solid green,      the eventual area of La Tène influence (by 50 BC) in light green. The territories of some major Celtic tribes of the late La Tène period are labelled.
Overview of the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures.      The core Hallstatt territory (HaC, 800 BC) is shown in solid yellow,      the eventual area of Hallstatt influence (by 500 BC, HaD) in light yellow.      The core territory of the La Tène culture (450 BC) is shown in solid green,      the eventual area of La Tène influence (by 50 BC) in light green. The territories of some major Celtic tribes of the late La Tène period are labelled.

The Celtic languages form a branch of the larger Indo-European family, belonging to the Centum subgroup native to Bronze Age Europe (c.f. Old European hydronymy). By the time speakers of Celtic languages enter history around 400 BC (Brennus's attack on Rome in 387 BC), they were already split into several language groups, and spread over much of Central Europe, the Iberian peninsula, Ireland and Britain. The Hallstatt culture was the predominant Central European culture during the local Bronze Age, and introduced the Iron Age. ... The La Tène culture was an Iron Age culture named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchatel in Switzerland, where a rich trove of artifacts was discovered by Hansli Kopp in 1857. ... This is a list of Celtic tribes with their geographical localization. ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Indo-European languages include some 443 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken by about three billion people, including most of the major language families of Europe and western Asia, which belong to a single superfamily. ... Centum is the collective name for the branches of Indo-European in which the so-called Satem shift, the change of palato-velar *k^, *g^, *g^h into fricatives or affricates, did not take place, and the palato-velar consonants merged with plain velars (*k, *g, *gh). ... A simplified map archaeological cultures of the late Bronze Age (c. ... Old European (alteuropäisch) is the term used by Krahe (1964) for the language of the oldest reconstructed stratum of Indo-European hydronymy in Central and Western Europe. ... A sculpture, depicting this Brennus that adorned an 18th or 19th century French naval vessel Brennus, a chieftain of the Senones of the Adriatic coast of Italy, who in 387 BC, in the Battle of the Allia, led an army of Cisalpine Gauls in their attack on Rome. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ...


Some scholars think that the Urnfield culture of northern Germany and the Netherlands represents an origin for the Celts as a distinct cultural branch of the Indo-European family. This culture was preeminent in central Europe during the late Bronze Age, from ca. 1200 BC until 700 BC, itself following the Unetice and Tumulus cultures. The Urnfield period saw a dramatic increase in population in the region, probably due to innovations in technology and agricultural practices. The Greek historian Ephoros of Cyme in Asia Minor, writing in the fourth century BC, believed that the Celts came from the islands off the mouth of the Rhine who were "driven from their homes by the frequency of wars and the violent rising of the sea". The Urnfield culture of central European culture is dated roughly between 1300 BC and 750 BC. The name describes the custom of cremating the dead and placing them in cemeteries. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Unetice, or more properly Únětice, culture, (German: Aunjetitz) is the name given to an early Bronze Age culture, preceded by the Beaker culture and followed by the Tumulus culture. ... The Tumulus culture which followed the Unetice culture, and from which they descended, dominated central Europe during mca 1600 BC tp 1200 BC. As the name implies, the Tumulus culture is distinguished by the practice of burying the dead beneath burial mounds. ... Ephorus (c. ... For other uses, see Rhine (disambiguation). ...


The spread of iron-working led to the development of the Hallstatt culture directly from the Urnfield (c. 700 to 500 BC). Proto-Celtic, the latest common ancestor of all known Celtic languages, is considered by this school of thought to have been spoken at the time of the late Urnfield or early Hallstatt cultures, in the early first millennium BC. The spread of the Celtic languages to Iberia, Ireland and Britain would have occurred during the first half of the 1st millennium, the earliest chariot burials in Britain dating to ca. 500 BC. Over the centuries they developed into the separate Celtiberian, Goidelic and Brythonic languages. Whether Goidelic and Brythonic are descended from a common Insular-Celtic language, or reflect two separate waves of migration, is disputed.[citation needed] Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... The Hallstatt culture was the predominant Central European culture during the local Bronze Age, and introduced the Iron Age. ... The Proto-Celtic language, also called Common Celtic, is the putative ancestor of all the known Celtic languages. ... A school is a collection or group of people who share common characteristics of opinion or outlook of a philosophy, discipline, belief, social movement, cultural movement, or art movement. ... (2nd millennium BC – 1st millennium BC – 1st millennium AD – other millennia) Events The Iron Age began in Western Europe Egypt declined as a major power The Tanakh was written Buddhism was founded Cyrus the Great conquered Babylon and created the Persian Empire (6th century BC) Sparta and Athens fought the... In the Gregorian calendar, the 1st millennium is the period of one thousand years that commenced with the year 1 Anno Domini. ... Chariot burials are tombs in which the deceased was buried together with his chariot, usually including his horses and other possessions. ... Celtiberian (also Hispano-Celtic) is an extinct Celtic language spoken by the Celtiberians in northern Spain before and during the Roman Empire. ... The Brythonic languages (or Brittonic languages) form one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic language family. ...


The Hallstatt culture was succeeded by the La Tène culture of central Europe, and during the final stages of the Iron Age gradually transformed into the explicitly Celtic culture of early historical times. Celtic river-names are found in great numbers around the upper reaches of the Danube and Rhine, which led many Celtic scholars to place the ethnogenesis of the Celts in this area. Others however believe that the fact that the La Tène culture is too late to explain the original Celtic homeland; rather its extent demonstrates the subsequent spread of a pre-existing Celtic culture throughout Switzerland, Austria, southern and central Germany, northern regions of Italy, eastern France, Czech Republic, Portugal, Slovakia and parts of Hungary and Ukraine. Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... This article is about the Danube River. ... Ethnogenesis is the process by which a group of human beings comes to be understood or to understand themselves as ethnically distinct from the wider social landscape from which their grouping emerges. ... The La Tène culture was an Iron Age culture named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchatel in Switzerland, where a rich trove of artifacts was discovered by Hansli Kopp in 1857. ...


Diodorus Siculus and Strabo both suggest that the Celtic heartland was in southern France. The former says that the Gauls were to the north of the Celts but that the Romans referred to both as Gauls. Before the discoveries at Hallstatt and La Tene, it was generally considered that the Celtic heartland was southern France, see Encyclopedia Britannica for 1813. Diodorus Siculus (c. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ...


Pliny the Elder places Celtica in the delta of the river Guadalquivir in the south of Portugal and Spain, i.e. referring to Celtiberia: "praeter haec in Celtica Acinippo, Arunda, Arunci, Turobriga, Lastigi, Salpesa, Saepone, Serippo. altera Baeturia, quam diximus Turdulorum et conventus Cordubensis, habet oppida non ignobilia Arsam, Mellariam, Mirobrigam Reginam, Sosintigi, Sisaponem."[5] Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... The Celtiberians were a Celtic people living in the Iberian Peninsula, chiefly in what is now north central Spain and northern Portugal, before and during the Roman Empire. ...


Linguistic evidence

Main article: Proto-Celtic language

The Proto-Celtic language is usually dated to the early European Iron Age. The earliest records of a Celtic language are the Lepontic inscriptions of Cisalpine Gaul, the oldest of which still predate the La Tène period. Other early inscriptions are Gaulish, appearing from the early La Tène period in inscriptions in the area of Massilia, in the Greek alphabet. Celtiberian inscriptions appear comparatively late, after about 200 BC. Evidence of Insular Celtic is available only from about AD 400, in the form of Primitive Irish Ogham inscriptions. Besides epigraphical evidence, an important source of information on early Celtic is toponymy.[6] The Proto-Celtic language, also called Common Celtic, is the putative ancestor of all the known Celtic languages. ... The Proto-Celtic language, also called Common Celtic, is the putative ancestor of all the known Celtic languages. ... Lepontic is an extinct Celtic language that was once spoken in Northern Italy between 700 BCE and 400 BCE. The language is only known from a few inscriptions discovered that were written in a variety of the Northern Italic alphabet, which was related to the Old Italic alphabet. ... Map with location of Cisalpine Gaul This article is about the Roman province. ... La Tène is a village located at the eastern end of the Lake Neuchâtel (Lac de Neuchâtel), a lake in Switzerland. ... Gaulish is name given to the now-extinct Celtic language that was spoken in Gaul before the Romans, the Franks and the British Celts invaded. ... Marseilles redirects here. ... Celtiberian (also Hispano-Celtic) is an extinct Celtic language spoken by the Celtiberians in northern Spain before and during the Roman Empire. ... The Insular Celtic language hypothesis groups the Goidelic languages, which include Irish, Scottish Gaelic and the recently extinct Manx, together with the Brythonic languages, of which the modern ones are Welsh, Breton, and the moribund Cornish. ... Primitive Irish is the oldest known form of the Irish language, known only from fragments, mostly personal names, inscribed on stone in the ogham alphabet in Ireland and western Britain up to about the 4th century. ... There are roughly 400 known Ogham inscriptions scattered around the Irish Sea, the bulk of them dating to the 5th and 6th centuries. ... Toponymy is the taxonomic study of toponyms (place-names), their origins and their meanings. ...


Very few references to the language of the Celts are found in ancient ethnography. Jerome (AD 342-419) his commentary on St Paul's epistle to the Galatians notes that the language of the Anatolian Galatians in his day was still very similar to the language of the Treveri.[7] St Jerome probably had first-hand knowledge of these Celtic languages, as he had both visited Augusta Treverorum and Galatia.[8] Ethnography ( ethnos = people and graphein = writing) is the genre of writing that presents varying degrees of qualitative and quantitative descriptions of human social phenomena, based on fieldwork. ... For other uses, see Jerome (disambiguation). ... Paul of Tarsus (b. ... The Epistle to the Galatians is a book of the New Testament. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Treveri tribe of Gaul inhabited the lower valley of the Moselle, within the southern fringes of the vast Arduenna Silva (Ardennes Forest). ... Trier (French: ; Luxembourgish Tréier) is a city in Germany on the banks of the Moselle River. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Archaeological evidence

Further information: Iron Age Europe
map of the Hallstatt culture
map of the Hallstatt culture

The Iron Age Hallstatt (c. 800-475 BC) and La Tène (c. 500-50 BC) cultures are typically associated with Proto-Celtic and Celtic culture.[9] The Hallstatt culture was the predominant Central European culture during the local Bronze Age, and introduced the Iron Age. ... The La Tène culture was an Iron Age culture named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchatel in Switzerland, where a rich trove of artifacts was discovered by Hansli Kopp in 1857. ...


The La Tène culture developed and flourished during the late Iron Age (from 450 BCE to the Roman conquest in the 1st century BCE) in eastern France, Switzerland, Austria, southwest Germany, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary. It developed out of the Hallstatt culture without any definite cultural break, under the impetus of considerable Mediterranean influence from Greek, and later Etruscan civilizations. A shift of settlement centres took place in the 4th century. Extent of Etruscan civilization and the twelve Etruscan League cities. ...


The western La Tène culture corresponds to historical Celtic Gaul. Whether this means that the whole of La Tène culture can be attributed to a unified Celtic people is difficult to assess; archaeologists have repeatedly concluded that language, material culture, and political affiliation do not necessarily run parallel. Frey notes that in the 5th century, "burial customs in the Celtic world were not uniform; rather, localised groups had their own beliefs, which, in consequence, also gave rise to distinct artistic expressions".[10] Thus, while the La Tène culture is certainly associated with the Gauls, the presence of La Tène artefacts may be due to cultural contact and does not imply the permanent presence of Celtic speakers. Map of Gaul circa 58 BC Gaul (from Latin Gallia, c. ... Gallia (in English Gaul) is the Latin name for the region of western Europe occupied by present-day France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ...


Historical evidence

Polybius published a history of Rome about 150 BC in which he describes the Gauls of Italy and their conflict with Rome. Pausanias in the second century BC says that the Gauls "originally called Celts live on the remotest region of Europe on the coast of an enormous tidal sea". Posidonius described the southern Gauls about 100 BC. Though his original work is lost it was used by later writers such as Strabo. The latter, writing in the early first century AD, deals with Britain and Gaul as well as Hispania, Italy and Galatia. Caesar wrote extensively about his Gallic Wars in 58-51 BC. Diodorus Siculus wrote about the Celts of Gaul and Britain in his first century History. Polybius (c. ... Pausanias is the name of several ancient people: Pausanias was a Spartan general of the 5th century BC. Pausanias of Sparta was King of Sparta from 409 BC-395 BC. Pausanias was the servant/lover who assassinated Philip II of Macedon in 336 BC Pausanias, Greek traveller and geographer of... The bust of Posidonius as an older man depicts his character as a Stoic philosopher. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Look up Caesar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Commentarii de Bello Gallico (literally Commentaries on the Gallic War in Latin) is an account written by Julius Caesar (in the third person) about his nine years of war in Gaul. ... Diodorus Siculus (c. ...


Distribution

Continental Celts

Gaul

Repartition of Gaul ca. 54 BC
Repartition of Gaul ca. 54 BC
Main article: Gaul

At the dawn of history in Europe, the Celts then living in what is now France were known as Gauls to the Romans. The territory of these peoples probably included the low countries, the Alps and what is now northern Italy. Their descendants were described by Julius Caesar in his Gallic Wars. Eastern Gaul was the centre of the western La Tene culture. In later Iron Age Gaul, the social organisation was similar to that of the Romans, with large towns. From the third century BC the Gauls adopted coinage, and texts with Greek characters are known in southern Gaul from the second century. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (787x799, 169 KB) Map of Gallia (58 BC) with important Tribes, Towns, Rivers etc. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (787x799, 169 KB) Map of Gallia (58 BC) with important Tribes, Towns, Rivers etc. ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Belligerents Roman Republic Several Gallic tribes Commanders Julius Caesar, Titus Labienus, Mark Antony, Quintus Cicero, Publius Crassus Vercingetorix, Ambiorix, Commius Strength estimated around 120,000 (legionaries and auxilia) estimated several hundreds of thousands, possibly millions Casualties and losses estimated tens of thousands according to Caesar, one million This article is...


Greek traders founded Massalia in about 600BC, with exchange up the Rhone valley, but trade was disrupted soon after 500BC and re-oriented over the Alps to the Po valley in Italy. The Romans arrived in the Rhone valley in the second century BC and found that a large part of Gaul was Celtic speaking. Rome needed land communications with its Iberian provinces and fought a major battle with the Saluvii at Entremont in 124-123 BC. Gradually Roman control extended, the Roman Province of Gallia Transalpina being along the Mediterranean coast. The remainder was known as Gallia Comata "Hairy Gaul".


In 58 BC, the Helvetii planned to migrate westward but were forced back by Julius Caesar. He then became involved in fighting the various tribes in Gaul, and by 55 BC, most of Gaul had been overrun. In 52 BC, Vercingetorix led a revolt against the Roman occupation but was defeated at the siege of Alesia and surrendered.


Following the Gallic Wars of 58-51 BC, Celticia formed the main part of Roman Gaul. Place name analysis shows that Celtic was used east of the Garonne river and south of the Seine and Marne. However, the Celtic languages did not survive there, having been replaced by Romance languages: Franco-Provençal, Catalan, Occitan; French eventually added to them, becoming the main vernacular language of the area. Franco-Provençal (Francoprovençal) or Arpitan (in vernacular: patouès) (in Italian: francoprovenzale, provenzale alpina, arpitano, patois; French: francoprovençal, arpitan, patois) is a Romance language with several dialects in a linguistic sub-group separate from Langue dOïl and Langue dOc. ... Catalan can refer to: Catalan people Catalan language An inhabitant of Catalonia A Catalan speaker, whether or not from Catalonia proper (see Catalan Countries). ... Occitan, or langue doc is a Romance language characterized by its richness, variability, and by the intelligibility of its dialects. ...


Iberia

Main language areas in Iberia, showing Celtic and Proto-Celtic languages in blue, circa 200 BC.
Main language areas in Iberia, showing Celtic and Proto-Celtic languages in blue, circa 200 BC.
Main article: Celtiberians
See also: Pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula, Prehistoric Iberia, Hispania, Lusitania, Gallaecia, and Celtici

Traditional 18th/19th centuries scholarship surrounding the Celts virtually ignored the Iberian Peninsula, since material culture relatable to the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures that have defined Iron Age Celts was rare in Iberia, and did not provide a cultural scenario that could easily be linked to that of Central Europe. The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... Main language areas in Iberia circa 200 BC. The Celtiberians (or Celt-Iberians)[1] were a Celtic people of late La Tène culture living in the Iberian Peninsula, chiefly in what is now north central Spain and northern Portugal, before and during the Roman Empire. ... Main language areas in Iberia circa 250 BC. This is a list of the Pre-Roman people of the Iberian peninsula (the Roman Hispania - modern Andorra, Portugal and Spain). ... The Prehistory of the Iberian peninsula begins with the arrival of the first hominins c. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iberian Peninsula. ... In red is the province of Lusitania within the Roman Empire, AD 117 Lusitania was an ancient Roman province including approximately all of modern Portugal south of the Douro river, and part of modern Spain (the present autonomous community of Extremadura and a small part of the province of Salamanca). ... Gallaecia or Callaecia (from Gaulish *gal-laikos smoke?-hero/warrior) was the name of a Roman province that comprised a territory in the north-west of Hispania (approximately the current Galicia of Spain and the north of Portugal). ... The Celtici were an ancient celtic tribe akin to the Lusitanians and Calaicians or Gallaeci, living in what today is the province of Alentejo in modern Portugal. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... In archaeology, culture refers to either of two separate but allied concepts: An archaeological culture is a pattern of similar artefacts and features found within a specific area over a limited period of time. ... Hallstatt, Upper Austria is a village in the Salzkammergut, a region in Austria. ... La Tène is a village near the Neuenburger See, also called Lac du Neuchâtel, a lake in Switzerland. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ...


Modern scholarship, however, has proven that Celtic presence and influences were very substantial in Iberia. The Celts in Iberia were divided in two main archaeological and cultural groups, even if the divide is not very clear:

The origins of the Celtiberians might provide a key to unlocking the Celticization process in the rest of the Peninsula. The process of celticization of the southwest by the Keltoi and of the northwest is however not a simple celtiberian question. Recent investigation about the Callaici Bracari in northwest Portugal is bringing new approaches to understand Celtic culture evidences (language, art and religion) in western Iberia.[11] Galicia (Spain) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Atlantic Europe is a geographical and anthropological term for the western portion of Europe which borders the Atlantic Ocean At its widest definition, it comprises Spain, France and the British Isles. ... The Lusitanians (or Lusitani in Latin) were a tribe, or various tribes, from the western Iberian peninsula (province of Lusitania), who spoke a Lusitanian language until the conquest of their territory by the Romans. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Algarve NUTS II region, and the district of Faro in Portugal. ... The Celtici were an ancient celtic tribe akin to the Lusitanians and Calaicians or Gallaeci, living in what today is the province of Alentejo in modern Portugal. ... The Vettones were one of the pre-Roman peoples of Iberia, dwelling in the northwestern part of the meseta— the high central upland plain of the Iberian peninsula, the region where the Spanish provinces of Avila and Salamanca are today, as well as parts of Zamora, Toledo and Cáceres. ... Map of the area occupied by the Vaccaei. ... Gallaecia or Callaecia (from Gaulish *gal-laikos smoke?-hero/warrior) was the name of a Roman province that comprised a territory in the north-west of Hispania (approximately the current Galicia of Spain and the north of Portugal). ... ASTUR or ASTURES is a region of Northern Spain and also referes to the original inhabitants of this region. ... Cantabri was an ancient tribe which inhabited the north coast of Spain near Santander and Bilbao and the mountains behind a district hence known as Cantabria. ... Castros de Baroña, Baroña, Porto Do Son, Coruña Castro de Troña, Pías, Ponteareas, Pontevedra Castro culture (Cultura Castreja in Portuguese, Cultura Castrexa in Galician and Cultura castreña in Spanish) is the archaeologists descriptor for the culture of the northwestern part of the Iberian Peninsula... Main language areas in Iberia circa 200 BC. The Celtiberians (or Celt-Iberians)[1] were a Celtic people of late La Tène culture living in the Iberian Peninsula, chiefly in what is now north central Spain and northern Portugal, before and during the Roman Empire. ... The Lady of Baza, made by Iberians The Iberians were an ancient, Pre-Indo-European people who inhabited the east and southeast of the Iberian Peninsula in prehistoric and historic times. ... The Callaici or callaeci were a single or various tribes living in the North of Douro River in Northern Portugal and Galicia (Spain). ... The Bracari were an ancient celtiberian tribe akin to the Lusitanians and Calaicians or Gallaeci, living in the north of modern Portugal, in the province of Minho, between the rivers Tâmega and Cávado, around the area of the modern city of Braga. ...


Alps and Po Valley

Main articles: Cisalpine Gaul and Lepontians
Further information: History of the Alps

There was an early Celtic presence in northern Italy since inscriptions dated to the sixth century BC have been found there. In 391 BC Celts "who had their homes beyond the Alps streamed through the passes in great strength and seized the territory that lay between the Appeninne mountains and the Alps" according to Diodorus Siculus. The Po Valley and the rest of northern Italy (known to the Romans as Cisalpine Gaul) was inhabited by Celtic-speakers who founded cities such as Milan. Later the Roman army was routed at the battle of Allia and Rome was sacked in 390BC by the Senones. Map with location of Cisalpine Gaul This article is about the Roman province. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Diodorus Siculus (c. ... Po redirects here, for alternate uses see Po (disambiguation). ... Map with location of Cisalpine Gaul This article is about the Roman province. ... For other uses, see Milan (disambiguation). ... The Senones were a Celtic people of Gallia Celtica, who in the time of Julius Caesar inhabited the district which now includes the departments of Seine-et-Marne, Loiret and Yonne. ...


At the battle of Telemon in 225 BC a large Celtic army was trapped between two Roman forces and crushed.


The defeat of the combined Samnite, Celtic and Etruscan alliance by the Romans in the Third Samnite War sounded the beginning of the end of the Celtic domination in mainland Europe, but it was not until 192 BC that the Roman armies conquered the last remaining independent Celtic kingdoms in Italy. Samnium (Oscan Safinim) was a region of the southern Apennines in Italy that was home to the Samnites, a group of Sabellic tribes that controlled the area from about 600 BC to about 290 BC. Samnium was delimited by Latium in the north, by Lucania in the south, by Campania... Belligerents Roman Republic Samnium The First, Second, and Third Samnite wars, between the early Roman Republic and the tribes of Samnium, extended over half a century, involving almost all the states of Italy, and ended in Roman domination of the Samnites. ...


The Celts settled much further south of the Po River than many maps show. Remnants in the town of Doccia, in the province of Emilia-Romagna, showcase Celtic houses in very good condition dating from about the 4th century BC. Emilia-Romagna is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. ...


Eastward expansion

The Celts also expanded down the Danube river and its tributaries. One of the most influential tribes, the Scordisci, had established their capital at Singidunum in 3rd century BC, which is present-day Belgrade, Serbia. The concentration of hill-forts and cemeteries shows a density of population in the Tisza valley of modern-day Vojvodina, Serbia, Hungary and into Ukraine. Expansion into Romania was however blocked by the Dacians. This article is about the Danube River. ... Scordisci were, in ancient geography, a war-like tribe inhabiting the southern part of lower Pannonia, comprising parts of the present-day countries Austria, Croatia, Hungary, Serbia, Slovenia, Slovakia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, between the Savus (Sava), Dravus (Drava) and Danube rivers. ... Singidunum was an ancient Roman city, first settled by the Scordisci in the 3rd century B.C., and later garrisoned and fortified by the Romans who romanized the name. ... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost... The Tisza or Tisa is one of the major rivers of Central Europe. ... Vojvodina (red) is one of Serbias two autonomous provinces Capital (and largest city) Novi Sad Official languages Ethnic groups  2. ... Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost... Dacian kingdom during the reign of Burebista, 82 BC The Dacians (Lat. ...


Further south, Celts settled in Thrace (Bulgaria), which they ruled for over a century, and Anatolia, where they settled as the Galatians. Then, having taken advantage of easing of Macedon after civil war, the Celts have destroyed an army of its king Ptolemeus Keravn and have plundered Greece. Despite their geographical isolation from the rest of the Celtic world, the Galatians maintained their Celtic language for at least seven hundred years. St Jerome, who visited Ancyra (modern-day Ankara) in 373 AD, likened their language to that of the Treveri of northern Gaul. Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Ancient Macedons regions and towns Macedon or Macedonia (Greek ) was the name of an ancient kingdom in the northern-most part of ancient Greece, bordered by the kingdom of Epirus to the west and the region of Thrace to the east. ... Saint-Jérôme, Quebec is a town in Quebec, near Mirabel, about 40 kilometers (25 miles) northwest of Montreal along Autoroute des Laurentides. ... Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after Ä°stanbul. ... The Treveri tribe of Gaul inhabited the lower valley of the Moselle, within the southern fringes of the vast Arduenna Silva (Ardennes Forest). ...


The Boii tribe gave their name to Bohemia (Czech Republic) and to -see above- Bologna (Italy ) and Celtic artifacts and cemeteries have been discovered further east in both Poland and Slovakia. A celtic coin (Biatec) from Bratislava's mint is displayed on today's Slovak 5 crown coin. Boii (Latin plural, singular Boius; Greek Βοιοι) is the Roman name of an ancient Celtic tribe, attested at various times in Transalpine Gaul (modern France) and Cisalpine Gaul (northern Italy), as well as in Pannonia (today Western Hungary), Bohemia, Moravia and western Slovakia and also Transylvania (from 1st century to 18... For other uses, see Bohemia (disambiguation). ... For the food product, see Bologna sausage. ... An original Biatec and its replica on a modern 5-koruna coin. ... , Nickname: Beauty on the Danube, City of peace Country  Slovakia Region Districts 5  - Bratislava I  - Bratislava II  - Bratislava III  - Bratislava IV  - Bratislava V Rivers Elevation 134 m (440 ft) Coordinates , Highest point Devínska Kobyla  - elevation 514 m (1,686 ft) Lowest point Danube River  - elevation 126 m (413 ft...


As there is no archaeological evidence for large scale invasions in some of the other areas, one current school of thought holds that Celtic language and culture spread to those areas by contact rather than invasion. However, the Celtic invasions of Italy, Greece, and western Anatolia are well documented in Greek and Latin history. Examine the Map of Celtic Lands for more information.[12]


There are records of Celtic mercenaries in Egypt serving the Ptolemies. Thousands were employed in 283-246 BC and they were also in service around 186 BC. They attempted to overthrow Ptolemy II.


Insular Celts

Main articles: Iron Age Britain, Gaels, Britons (historic), and Genetic history of the British Isles
Principal sites in Roman Britain, with indication of the Celtic tribes.
Principal sites in Roman Britain, with indication of the Celtic tribes.
Tribes of Wales at the time of the Roman invasion. Exact boundaries are conjectural.

A large portion of the indigenous populations of Britain and Ireland today may be partially descended from the ancient peoples that have long inhabited these lands, before the coming of Celtic and later Germanic peoples, language and culture. Little is known of their original culture and language, but remnants of the latter may remain in the names of some geographical features, such as the rivers Clyde, Tamar and Thames, whose etymology is unclear but possibly derive from a pre-Celtic substrate (Gelling). By the Roman period, however, most of the inhabitants of the isles of Ireland and Britain were speaking Goidelic or Brythonic languages, close counterparts to Gallic languages spoken on the European mainland. In Britain, the Iron Age lasted from about the 7th century BC until the Roman conquest and until the 5th century AD in non-Romanised parts. ... “Gael” redirects here. ... Download high resolution version (880x1394, 179 KB)Map of Roman Britain from Atlas of European History, Earle W Dowe, London, G Bell & Sons, 1910 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (880x1394, 179 KB)Map of Roman Britain from Atlas of European History, Earle W Dowe, London, G Bell & Sons, 1910 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Image File history File links CymruLlwythi. ... Image File history File links CymruLlwythi. ... For other rivers, see Clyde River (disambiguation) , The River Clyde (Gaelic: Abhainn Chluaidh, pronounced ) is a major river in Scotland. ... The Tamar is a river in south western England, that forms most of the border between Devon (to the east) and Cornwall (to the west). ... Several places exist with the name Thames, and the word is also used as part of several brand and company names Most famous is the River Thames in England, on which the city of London stands Other Thames Rivers There is a Thames River in Canada There is a Thames... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Goidelic is one of two major divisions of modern-day Celtic languages (the other being Brythonic). ... Brythonic is one of two major divisions of Insular Celtic languages (the other being Goidelic). ...


Historians explained this as the result of successive invasions from the European continent by diverse Celtic-speaking peoples over the course of several centuries, though this is now generally seen as only the elite. The Book of Leinster, written in the twelfth century, but drawing on a much earlier Irish oral tradition, states that the first Celts to arrive in Ireland were from Iberia. In 1946 the Celtic scholar T. F. O'Rahilly published his extremely influential model of the early history of Ireland which postulated four separate waves of Celtic invaders. It is still not known what languages were spoken by the peoples of Ireland and Britain before the arrival of the Celts, or if these invasions ever took place. An invasion is a military action consisting of armed forces of one geopolitical entity entering territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of conquering territory, or altering the established government. ... The Book of Leinster (Irish Lebor Laignech), formerly known as the Book of Noughaval (Lebor na Nuachongbála), is a medieval Irish manuscript compliled ca. ... Thomas Francis ORahilly, also Tomás Ó Rahille, born 1883 in Listowel, County Kerry, Ireland; died 1953 in Dublin, was an influential scholar of the Celtic languages, particularly in the fields of Historical linguistics and Irish dialects. ... Newgrange, a famous Irish passage tomb built c3,200 BC // What little is known of pre-Christian Ireland comes from a few references in Roman writings, Irish poetry and myth, and archaeology. ...

Celtic dagger found in Britain.
Celtic dagger found in Britain.

Later research indicated that the culture may have developed gradually and continuously between the Celts and the indigenous people of Britain. Similarly in Ireland little archaeological evidence was found for large intrusive groups of Celtic immigrants, suggesting to archaeologists such as Colin Renfrew that the native late Bronze Age inhabitants gradually absorbed European Celtic influences and language. Although archaeological evidence has often been proved unreliable in the past. It should also be noted that genetic evidence proves that most Celtic people of coastal and northern Ireland have little traces of R1b genes, therefore indicating that when the Celts came to Ireland, the absorption of the indigenous inhabitants was regional (mainly central).[13] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x576, 90 KB) Summary Celtic dagger, scabbard and a buckle. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x576, 90 KB) Summary Celtic dagger, scabbard and a buckle. ... Andrew Colin Renfrew, Baron Renfrew of Kaimsthorn (born 25 July 1937), English archaeologist, notable for his work on the radiocarbon revolution, the prehistory of languages, archaeogenetics, and the prevention of looting of archaeological sites. ...


Julius Caesar wrote of people in Britain who came from Belgium (the Belgae), but archaeological evidence which was interpreted in the 1930s as confirming this was contradicted by later interpretations.[citation needed] The archaeological evidence is of substantial cultural continuity through the first millennium BC, although with a significant overlay of selectively-adopted elements of La Tène culture. There is numismatic and other evidence of continental-style states appearing in southern England close to the end of the period, possibly reflecting in part immigration by élites from various Gallic states such as those of the Belgae.[citation needed] However, this immigration would be far too late to account for the origins of Insular Celtic languages. In the 1970s the continuity model was taken to an extreme, popularized by Colin Burgess in his book The Age of Stonehenge which theorised that Celtic culture in Great Britain "emerged" rather than resulted from invasion and that the Celts were not invading aliens, but the descendants of the people of Stonehenge. The existence of Celtic language elsewhere in Europe, however, and the dating of the Proto-Celtic culture and language to the Bronze Age, makes the most extreme claims of continuity impossible. For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... The Belgae were a group of nations or tribes living in north-eastern Gaul, on the west bank of the Rhine, in the 1st century BC, and later also attested in Britain. ... Colin Burgess (1947 - ) is an Australian author and historian, specializing in space flight and military history. ...


More recently a number of genetic studies have also supported this model of culture and language being absorbed by native populations. A study by Christian Capelli, David Goldstein and others at University College, London showed that genes associated with Gaelic names in Ireland and Scotland are also common in certain parts of Wales (in most cases) are similar to the genes of the Basque people, who speak a non-Indo-European language. This similarity supported earlier findings in suggesting a large pre-Celtic genetic ancestry, possibly going back to the Paleolithic. They suggest that 'Celtic' culture and the Celtic language may have been imported to Britain by cultural contact, not mass invasions around 600 BC. A different possibility is that the Celtic language should differentiated from the Celtic culture. This article is about the general scientific term. ... The Front Quad University College London, commonly known as UCL, is one of the colleges that make up the University of London. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... // The Paleolithic is a prehistoric era distinguished by the development of stone tools. ...


Some recent studies have suggested that, contrary to long-standing beliefs, the Germanic tribes (Angles, Saxons) did not wipe out the Romano-British of England but rather, over the course of six centuries, conquered the native Brythonic people of what is now England and south-east Scotland and imposed their culture and language upon them (this may also be the case with the Celts and aboriginals of Ireland), much as the Gaels may have spread over Northern Britain. Still others maintain that the picture is mixed and that in some places the indigenous population was indeed wiped out while in others it was assimilated. According to this school of thought the populations of Yorkshire, East Anglia, Northumberland and the Orkney and Shetland Islands are those populations with the fewest traces of ancient (Celtic) British continuation.[14] White cliffs of Dover in England White cliffs of Rugen down the Baltic coast from Schleswig The Angles is a modern English word for a Germanic-speaking people who took their name from the cultural ancestor of Angeln, a modern district located in Schleswig, Germany. ... For other uses, see Saxon (disambiguation). ... Romano-British is a term used to refer to the Romanized Britons under the Roman Empire (and later the Western Roman Empire) and in the years after the Roman departure exposed to Roman culture and Christian religion. ... Gododdin (pronounced god-o-th-in), or Guotodin (Votadini in Latin), refers to both the people and to the region of a Dark Ages Brythonic kingdom south of the Firth of Forth, extending from the Stirling area to the Northumberland kingdom of Brynaich, and including what are now the Lothian... “Gael” redirects here. ... Norfolk and Suffolk, the core area of East Anglia. ... The Shetland Islands, also called Shetland (archaically spelled Zetland) formerly called Hjaltland, comprise one of 32 council areas of Scotland. ...


The Celtic invasion of the British Isles is difficult to document genetically. Two published books - The Blood of the Isles by Bryan Sykes and The Origins of the British: a Genetic Detective Story by Stephen Oppenheimer - are based upon recent genetic studies, and show that the majority of Britons have ancestors from the Iberian Peninsula, as a result of a series of migrations that took place during the Mesolithic and, to a lesser extent, the Neolithic eras.[15] Bryan Sykes is Professor of Human Genetics at the University of Oxford, and a Fellow of Wolfson College, Oxford. ... Stephen Oppenheimer is a well-known expert in the field of synthesizing DNA studies with archaeological, anthropological, linguistic and other field studies. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... The Mesolithic (Greek mesos=middle and lithos=stone or the Middle Stone Age[1]) was a period in the development of human technology between the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods of the Stone Age. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ...


Sykes sees little genetic evidence relating to people from the heartland of the Hallstatt and La Tene cultures. On the paternal side he finds that the "Oisin" (R1b) clan is in the majority which has strong affinities to Iberia, with no evidence of a large scale arrival from Central Europe. He considers that the genetic structure of Britain and Ireland is "Celtic":


Romanisation

Under Caesar the Romans conquered Celtic Gaul, and from Claudius onward the Roman empire absorbed parts of Britain. Roman local government of these regions closely mirrored pre-Roman 'tribal' boundaries, and archaeological finds suggest native involvement in local government. Latin was the official language of these regions after the conquests. For other persons named Claudius, see Claudius (disambiguation). ... http://www. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ...


The native peoples under Roman rule became Romanized and keen to adopt Roman ways. Celtic art had already incorporated classical influences, and surviving Gallo-Roman pieces interpret classical subjects or keep faith with old traditions despite a Roman overlay.


The Roman occupation of Gaul, and to a lesser extent of Britain, led to Roman-Celtic syncretism (see Roman Gaul, Roman Britain). In the case of Gaul, this eventually resulted in a language shift from Gaulish to Vulgar Latin (see also Gallo-Roman culture). However, the Celts were master horsemen,[citation needed] which so impressed the Romans[citation needed] that they adopted Epona, the Celtic horse goddess, into their pantheon. During and after the fall of the Roman Empire many parts of France threw out their Roman administrators. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Gaul in the Roman Empire Roman Gaul consisted of an area of provincial rule in what would become modern day France, Belgium, Luxembourg, and western Germany. ... Roman Britain refers to those parts of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire between 43 and 410. ... Language shift is the process whereby an entire speech community of a language shifts to speaking another language. ... Gaulish is the name given to the Celtic language that was spoken in Gaul before the Vulgar Latin of the late Roman Empire became dominant in Roman Gaul. ... Not to be confused with Latin profanity. ... Gallo-Roman figures, found in Ingelheim. ... For other uses of Epona, see Epona (disambiguation) Image:Epona link. ...


Gaulish Calendar

The Coligny Calendar, which was found in 1897 in Coligny, Ain, was engraved on a bronze tablet, preserved in 73 fragments, that originally was 1.48 m wide and 0.9 m high (Lambert p.111). Based on the style of lettering and the accompanying objects, it probably dates to the end of the 2nd century.[16] It is written in Latin inscriptional capitals, and is in the Gaulish language. The restored tablet contains sixteen vertical columns, with sixty-two months distributed over five years. overview of the re-assembled tablet detail of Mid Samonios The Gaulish Coligny Calendar was found in Coligny, Ain, France (46°23′N 5°21′E) near Lyons in 1897, along with the head of a bronze statue of a youthful male figure. ... Coligny is a commune in the French département of Ain. ... Préfecture building of the Ain département, in Bourg-en-Bresse Ain is a département named after the Ain River on the eastern edge of France bordering Switzerland. ... This article is about the metal alloy. ... Gaulish is the name given to the Celtic language that was spoken in Gaul before the Vulgar Latin of the late Roman Empire became dominant in Roman Gaul. ...


The French archaeologist J. Monard speculated that it was recorded by druids wishing to preserve their tradition of timekeeping in a time when the Julian calendar was imposed throughout the Roman Empire. However, the general form of the calendar suggests the public peg calendars (or parapegmata) found throughout the Greek and Roman world[17] For other uses, see Druid (disambiguation). ... The Julian calendar was a reform of the Roman calendar which was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...


There were four major festivals in the Gallic Calendar: "Imbolc" on 1 February, possibly linked to the lactation of the ewes and sacred to the Irish Goddess Brigid. "Beltaine" on 1 May, connected to fertility and warmth, possibly linked to the Sun God Belenos. "Lúnasa" on 1 August, connected with the harvest and associated with the God Lugh. And finally "Samhain" on 1 November, possibly the start of the year.[18] Two of these festivals, Beltaine and Lúnasa are shown on the Coligny Calendar by sigils, and it is not too much of a stretch of the imagination to match the first month on the Calendar (Samonios) to Samhain. Imbolc does not seem to be shown at all however.[19] is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Celtic Calendar seems to be based on astronomy[20] but how any astrology system would have worked is harder to tell. We have to base our knowledge on Old Irish manuscripts, none of which have been published or fully translated. It seems to have been based on an indigenous Irish symbol system, and not that of any of the more commonly-known astrological systems such as Western, Chinese or Vedic astrology.[21] Old Irish is the name given to the oldest form of the Irish language, or, rather, the Goidelic languages, for which extensive written texts are possessed. ... Western astrology is the system of astrology most popular in Western countries. ... Jyotisha (, in Hindi and English usage Jyotish; sometimes called Hindu astrology, Indian astrology, and/or Vedic astrology) is the Hindu system of astrology, one of the six disciplines of Vedanga, and regarded as one of the oldest schools of ancient astrology to have had an independent origin, affecting all other...


Society

To the extent that sources are available, they depict a pre-Christian Celtic social structure based formally on class and kinship. Patron-client relationships similar to those of Roman society are also described by Caesar and others in the Gaul of the first century BC. See Social structure of the United States for an explanation of concepts exsistance within US society. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 1st century BC started on January 1, 100 BC and ended on December 31, 1 BC. An alternative name for this century is the last century BC. The AD/BC notation does not use a year zero. ...


In the main, the evidence is of tribes being led by kings, although some argue that there is evidence of oligarchical republican forms of government eventually emerging in areas in close contact with Rome. Most descriptions of Celtic societies describe them as being divided into three groups: a warrior aristocracy; an intellectual class including professions such as druid, poet, and jurist; and everyone else. There are instances recorded where women participated both in warfare and in kingship, although they were in the minority in these areas. In historical times, the offices of high and low kings in Ireland and Scotland were filled by election under the system of tanistry, which eventually came into conflict with the feudal principle of primogeniture where the succession goes to the first born son. Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A form of government is a term that refers to the set of political institutions by which a state is organized in order to exert its powers over a Community politics. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Primogeniture is the common law right of the first born son to inherit the entire estate, to the exclusion of younger siblings. ...


Little is known of family structure among the Celts. Athenaeus in his Deipnosophists, 13.603, claims that "the Celts, in spite of the fact that their women are the most beautiful of all the barbarian tribes, prefer boys as sexual partners. There are some of them who will regularly go to bed – on those animal skins of theirs – with a pair of lovers", implying a woman and a boy. Such reports reflect an outsiders observation of Celtic culture.[22] It is unknown whether Athenaeus, born in Egypt of Greek origin ever visited any Celts since little is known about him beyond his surviving writings. Athenaeus (ca. ...


Patterns of settlement varied from decentralised to the urban. The popular stereotype of non-urbanised societies settled in hillforts and duns, drawn from Britain and Ireland contrasts with the urban settlements present in the core Hallstatt and La Tene areas, with the many significant oppida of Gaul late in the first millennium BC, and with the towns of Gallia Cisalpina. The term hill fort is commonly used by archeologists to describe fortified enclosures located to exploit a rise in elevation for defensive advantage. ... Dun comes from the Brythonic Din and Gaelic Dun, meaning fort, and is now used as a general term for small stone built strongholds, enclosures or roundhouses in Scotland, as a sub-group of hill forts. ... Map with location of Cisalpine Gaul This article is about the Roman province. ...


There is archaeological evidence to suggest that the pre-Roman Celtic societies were linked to the network of overland trade routes that spanned Eurasia. Large prehistoric trackways crossing bogs in Ireland and Germany have been found by archaeologists. They are believed to have been created for wheeled transport as part of an extensive roadway system that facilitated trade.[23] The territory held by the Celts contained tin, lead, iron, silver and gold.[24] Celtic smiths and metalworkers created weapons and jewelry for international trade, particularly with the Romans. Celtic traders were also in contact with the Phoenicians: gold works made in pre-Roman Ireland have been unearthed in archaeological digs in Palestine and trade routes between Atlantic societies and Palestine dating back to at least 1600 BC. A trade route is the sequence of pathways and stopping places used for the commercial transport of cargo. ...


Local trade was largely in the form of barter, but as with most tribal societies they probably had a reciprocal economy in which goods and other services are not exchanged, but are given on the basis of mutual relationships and the obligations of kinship. Low value coinages of potin, silver and bronze, suitable for use in trade, were minted in most Celtic areas of the continent, and in South-East Britain prior to the Roman conquest of these areas.


There are only very limited records from pre-Christian times written in Celtic languages. These are mostly inscriptions in the Roman, and sometimes Greek, alphabets. The Ogham script was mostly used in early Christian times in Ireland and Scotland (but also in Wales and England), and was only used for ceremonial purposes such as inscriptions on gravestones. The available evidence is of a strong oral tradition, such as that preserved by bards in Ireland, and eventually recorded by monasteries. The oldest recorded rhyming poetry in the world is of Irish origin and is a transcription of a much older epic poem, leading some scholars to claim that the Celts invented Rhyme. They were highly skilled in visual arts and Celtic art produced a great deal of intricate and beautiful metalwork, examples of which have been preserved by their distinctive burial rites. Note: This article contains special characters. ... For other meanings of epic, see Epic. ... A rhyme is a repetition of identical or similar sounds in two or more different words and is most often used in poetry. ...


In some regards the Atlantic Celts were conservative, for example they still used chariots in combat long after they had been reduced to ceremonial roles by the Greeks and Romans, though when faced with the Romans in Britain, their chariot tactics defeated the invasion attempted by Julius Caesar. For other uses, see Chariot (disambiguation). ... // Relief of early wagons on the Standard of Ur, ca. ...

The Dying Gaul, a Roman marble copy of a Hellenistic work of the late third century BC Capitoline Museums, Rome
The Dying Gaul, a Roman marble copy of a Hellenistic work of the late third century BC Capitoline Museums, Rome

According to Didorus Siculus: Image:Dying gaul. ... Image:Dying gaul. ... The Dying Gaul The Dying Gaul is an ancient Roman marble copy of a lost ancient Greek statue, thought to have been executed in bronze, that was commissioned some time between 230 BC-220 BC by Attalos I of Pergamon to honor his victory over the Galatians. ... The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance... Michelangelos design for Capitoline Hill, now home to the Capitoline Museums. ...

The Gauls are tall of body with rippling muscles and white of skin and their hair is blond, and not only naturally so for they also make it their practice by artificial means to increase the distinguishing colour which nature has given it. For they are always washing their hair in limewater and they pull it back from the forehead to the nape of the neck, with the result that their appearance is like that of Satyrs and Pans since the treatment of their hair makes it so heavy and coarse that it differs in no respect from the mane of horses. Some of them shave the beard but others let it grow a little; and the nobles shave their cheeks but they let the moustache grow until it covers the mouth.

Diodorus Siculus Diodorus Siculus (c. ...

Clothing

During the later Iron Age the Gauls generally wore long-sleeved shirts or tunics and long trousers (called braccae by the Romans[25]). Clothes were made of wool or linen, with some silk being used by the rich. Cloaks were worn in winter. Broaches and armlets were used but the most famous item of jewellery was the torc. Braccae is the Latin term for trousers, and in this context is today used to refer to a style of pants, made from wool and apparently invented by the ancient Celts. ...


Gender and sexual norms

According to Aristotle, most "belligerent nations" are strongly influenced by their women, but the Celts were unusual because of openly preferred male lovers (Politics II 1269b).[26] H. D. Rankin in Celts and the Classical World notes that Athenaeus echoes this comment (603a) and so does Ammianus (30.9). It seems to be the general opinion of antiquity"[27] In book VIII of his Deipnosophists, the Roman Greek rhetorician and grammarian Athenaeus, repeating assertions made by Diodorus Siculus in the 1st century BC, wrote that Celtic women were beautiful but that the men preferred to sleep together and "the young men will offer themselves to strangers and are insulted if the offer is refused" (Diod 5:32). Rankin argues that the ultimate source of these assertions is likely to be Poseidonius[28][29][30][31] There are no direct sources from ancient Celtic cultures to confirm or contradict these statements. Rankin speculates that these authors may be recording male "bonding rituals". For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... Aristotles Politics (Greek Πολιτικά) is a work of political philosophy. ... Ammianus Marcellinus, thought by some to be the last Roman historian of worth, was born about A.D. 325‑330 likely at Antioch (the likelihood hingeing on whether he was the recipient of a surviving letter to a Marcellinus from a fellow citizen of Antioch). ... The Deipnosophistae (deipnon, dinner, and sophistai, professors; original Greek title Deipnosophistai, English Deipnosophists) may be translated as The Banquet of the Learned or Philosophers at Dinner or The Gastronomers. ... Athenaeus (ca. ... Diodorus Siculus (c. ... The bust of Posidonius as an older man depects his character as a Stoic philosopher. ...


Under Brehon Law which written down in early Medieval Ireland after conversion to Christianity, a woman had the right to divorce her husband and gain his property if he was unable to perform his maritial duties due to impotence, obesity, homosexual inclination or preference for other women.[32] The Brehon Laws were statutes that governed everyday life and politics in Ireland until the Norman invasion of 1171 (the word Brehon is an Anglicisation of breitheamh (earlier brithem), the Irish word for a judge). ...


The sexual freedom of women in Britain was noted by Cassius Dio:[33] A sexual norm can refer to a personal or a social norm. ... Cassius Dio Cocceianus (ca. ...

...a very witty remark is reported to have been made by the wife of Argentocoxus, a Caledonian, to Julia Augusta. When the empress was jesting with her, after the treaty, about the free intercourse of her sex with men in Britain, she replied: "We fulfill the demands of nature in a much better way than do you Roman women; for we consort openly with the best men, whereas you let yourselves be debauched in secret by the vilest." Such was the retort of the British woman. Livia Drusilla, after 14 AD called Livia Augusta (Classical Latin: LIVIA•DRVSILLA, later LIVIA•AVGVSTA[1]) (58 BC-AD 29) was the wife of Caesar Augustus (also known as Octavian) and the most powerful woman in the early Roman Empire, acting several times as regent and being Augustus faithful advisor. ...

Cassius Dio Cassius Dio Cocceianus (ca. ...

Very few reliable sources exist regarding Celtic views towards gender divisions, though some archaeological evidence does suggest that their views towards gender roles may have been different to those of their contemporary classical counterparts.[34] There are instances recorded where women participated both in warfare and in kingship, although they were in the minority in these areas. Plutarch reports Celtic women acting as ambassadors to avoid a war amongst Celts chiefdoms on the Po valley during the 4th century BC.[35] Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ...


There are some general indications coming from Iron Age burial sites in the Champagne and Bourgogne regions of Northeastern France suggesting that women may have had roles in combat during the earlier portions of the La Tène period. The evidence is, however, far from conclusive.[36] Examples of individuals buried with both torcs (generally associated as being female grave goods[citation needed]), and weaponry have been identified, and there are some questions regarding the sexing of some skeletons that were buried with warrior assemblages.[37] A torc, also spelled torq or torque (from Latin torqueo, to twist, because of the twisted shape of the collar) is a rigid circular necklace that is open-ended at the front. ...


Among the insular Celts, there is a greater amount of historic documentation to suggest warrior roles for women however. In addition to commentary by Tacitus about Boudica, there are indications from later period histories that also suggest a more substantial role for "women as warriors" in symbolic if not actual roles. For other uses, see Tacitus (disambiguation). ... A sculpture depicting Boudica, the warrior queen of the Iceni who led the revolt against the Romans in AD 61, and her daughters, commissioned by Prince Albert and executed by Thomas Thornycroft, stands near Westminster Pier, London Boudica (also spelt Boudicca, formerly better known as Boadicea) (d. ...


Posidonius and Strabo described an island of women where men could not venture to for fear of death and the women ripped each other apart.[38] Other writers, such as Ammianus Marcellinus and Tacitus, mentioned Celtic women inciting, participating, and leading battles.[39] Poseidonius' anthropological comments on the Celts had common themes, primarily primitivism, extreme ferocity, cruel sacrificial practices, and the strength and courage of their women.[40] The bust of Posidonius as an older man depicts his character as a Stoic philosopher. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Ammianus Marcellinus (325/330-after 391) was a fourth-century Greek historian [1][2]. His is the last major historical account of the late Roman empire which survives today: his work chronicled the history of Rome from 96 to 378, although only the sections covering the period 353 - 378 are... For other uses, see Tacitus (disambiguation). ...


Warfare and weapons

Main article: Celtic warfare

Tribal warfare appears to have been a regular feature of Celtic societies. While epic literature depicts this as more of a sport focused on raids and hunting rather than organised territorial conquest, the historical record is more of tribes using warfare to exert political control and harass rivals, for economic advantage, and in some instances to conquer territory. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Endemic warfare is the state of continual, low-threshold warfare in a tribal warrior society. ...


The Celts were described by classical writers such as Strabo, Livy, Pausanias, and Florus as fighting like "wild beasts", and as hordes. Dionysius said that their "manner of fighting, being in large measure that of wild beasts and frenzied, was an erratic procedure, quite lacking in military science. Thus, at one moment they would raise their swords aloft and smite after the manner of wild boars, throwing the whole weight of their bodies into the blow like hewers of wood or men digging with mattocks, and again they would deliver crosswise blows aimed at no target, as if they intended to cut to pieces the entire bodies of their adversaries, protective armour and all".[41] Such descriptions have been challenged by contemporary historians.[42] The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... A portrait of Titus Livius made long after his death. ... Pausanias is the name of several ancient people: Pausanias was a Spartan general of the 5th century BC. Pausanias of Sparta was King of Sparta from 409 BC-395 BC. Pausanias was the servant/lover who assassinated Philip II of Macedon in 336 BC Pausanias, Greek traveller and geographer of... Florus, Roman historian, flourished in the time of Trajan and Hadrian. ... Hordes is the name of the newest miniature wargame to be produced by Privateer Press. ... Dionysius Halicarnassensis (of Halicarnassus), Greek historian and teacher of rhetoric, flourished during the reign of Augustus. ... Military science concerns itself with the study of the diverse technical, psychological, and practical phenomena that encompass the events that make up warfare, especially armed combat. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 The wild boar (Sus scrofa) is the wild ancestor of the domestic pig. ...


Swords

Main article: Celtic sword

Polybius (2.33) indicates that the principle Celtic weapon was a long sword which was used for hacking edgewise rather than stabbing. Celtic warriors are described by Polybius and Plutarch as frequently having to cease fighting in order to straighten their sword blades. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Iron Age sword. ...


Celts as head-hunters?

"Amongst the Celts the human head was venerated above all else, since the head was to the Celt the soul, centre of the emotions as well as of life itself, a symbol of divinity and of the powers of the other-world." —Paul Jacobsthal, Early Celtic Art. Arguments for a Celtic cult of the severed head include the many sculptured representations of severed heads in La Tène carvings, and the surviving Celtic mythology, which is full of stories of the severed heads of heroes and the saints who carry their decapitated heads, right down to Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, where the Green Knight picks up his own severed head after Gawain has struck it off, just as St. Denis carried his head to the top of Montmartre. Paul Jacobsthal (born 1880, Berlin; died 27 October 1957, Oxford) was a scholar of Greek vase painting and Celtic art. ... Sir Gawain and the Green Knight is a late 14th century metrical romance recorded in a manuscript containing three other pieces of an altogether more Christian orientation, which are linked by a commonality of dialect usage. ... The Basilica of Saint Denis (in French, la Basilique de Saint-Denis), a famous burial site for French monarchs, is located in Saint Denis (near Paris). ... Montmartre seen from the centre Georges Pompidou (1897), a painting by Camille Pissarro of the boulevard that led to Montmartre as seen from his hotel room. ...


A further example of this regeneration after beheading lies in the tales of Connemara's St. Feichin, who after being beheaded by Viking pirates carried his head to the Holy Well on Omey Island and on dipping the head into the well placed it back upon his neck and was restored to full health. Connemara (Irish Conamara), which derives from Conmhaicne Mara (meaning: descendants of Con Mhac, of the sea), is a district in the west of Ireland (County Galway). ... // Saint Feichin (pron. ... Omey Island is a Tidal island, though rather more low lying than Mont Saint Michel. ...


Diodorus Siculus, in his 1st century History had this to say about Celtic head-hunting: Diodorus Siculus (c. ...

They cut off the heads of enemies slain in battle and attach them to the necks of their horses. The blood-stained spoils they hand over to their attendants and striking up a paean and singing a song of victory; and they nail up these first fruits upon their houses, just as do those who lay low wild animals in certain kinds of hunting. They embalm in cedar oil the heads of the most distinguished enemies, and preserve them carefully in a chest, and display them with pride to strangers, saying that for this head one of their ancestors, or his father, or the man himself, refused the offer of a large sum of money. They say that some of them boast that they refused the weight of the head in gold Cedar oil was used as the base for paints by the ancient Sumerians. ...

In Gods and Fighting Men, a translation of early Irish mythology by prominent Irish translator Lady Gregory, heads of men killed in battle are described in the beginning of the story The Fight With The Fir Bolgs as pleasing to Macha, one aspect of the Morrigu (the Irish trinity of war-goddesses). A photograph of Lady Gregory from her 1913 book Our Irish Theatre Isabella Augusta, Lady Gregory (15 March 1852–22 May 1932), née Isabella Augusta Persse, was an Irish dramatist and folklorist. ... In Irish mythology, Macha is a goddess linked with war, horses and kingship. ... The Mórrígan (Morrígan, Morrigu, Mór-Rhioghain) (great queen or phantom queen), is an Irish goddess of war and destruction. ...


The Celts believed that if they attached the head of their enemy to a pole or a fence near their house, the head would start screaming when the enemy was near. The Celtic headhunters venerated the image of the severed head as a continuing source of spiritual power. If the head is the seat of the soul, possessing the severed head of an enemy, honorably reaped in battle, added prestige to any warrior's reputation. According to tradition the buried head of a god or hero named Bran the Blessed protected Britain from invasion across the English Channel. However, the Celts only took heads of those which they deemed to be worthy of respect, and did not go to battle seeking to take them, so 'head hunters' is probably innacurate Bran the Blessed, also known as Bran Vendigaid, Bendigeidfran or Branovices, is a giant and king of Britain in Welsh mythology. ... For the Thoroughbred racehorse of the same name, see English Channel (horse). ...


Religion

Polytheism

Main article: Celtic polytheism
A statuette in the Museum of Brittany, Rennes, probably depicting Brigantia/Brigid: c2nd century BCE
A statuette in the Museum of Brittany, Rennes, probably depicting Brigantia/Brigid: c2nd century BCE

The Celts had an indigenous, polytheistic religion and culture. Celtic polytheism refers to the religious beliefs and practices of ancient Celts until the Christianization of Celtic-speaking lands. ... The word indigenous is an adjective derived from the Latin word indigena, meaning native, belonging to, aboriginal; and has several applications: Indigenous peoples, communities and cultures native or indigenous to a territory; Indigenous (band), a Native American blues-rock band; In biology, indigenous means native to a place or biota... Polytheism is belief in, or worship of, multiple gods or divinities. ...


Many Celtic gods are known from texts and inscriptions from the Roman period, such as Aquae Sulis, while others have been inferred from place names such as Lugdunum "stronghold of Lug". Rites and sacrifices were carried out by priests, some known as Druids. The Celts did not see their gods as having a human shape until late in the Iron Age. Celtic Shrines were situated in remote areas such as hilltops, groves and lakes.


Celtic religious patterns were regionally variable, however some patterns of deity forms, and ways of worshiping these deities, appear over a wide geographical and temporal range. The Celts worshipped both gods and goddesses. In general, the gods were deities of particular skills, such as the many-skilled Lugh and Dagda, and the goddesses associated with natural features, most particularly rivers, such as Boann, goddess of the River Boyne. This was not universal, however, as Goddesses such as Brighid and The Morrígan were associated with both natural features (holy wells and the River Unius) and skills such as blacksmithing, healing and warfare.[43] For other subjects with similar names, see Lug. ... The Dagda is an important god of Irish mythology. ... In Irish mythology, Boann or Boand (white cow) was the goddess of the River Boyne. ... Boyne-Valley from Passage tomb The River Boyne (Irish: ) is a river in Leinster, Ireland, the course of which is about 112 kilometres (70 miles) long. ... In Irish mythology, Brigid or Brighid (exalted one) was the daughter of Dagda (and therefore one of the Tuatha de Danaan) and wife of Bres of the Fomorians. ... The Morrígan (terror or phantom queen) or Mórrígan (great queen) (aka Morrígu, Mórríghan, Mór-Ríogain) is a figure from Irish mythology who appears to have once been a goddess, although she is not referred to as such in the texts. ... Clootie wells (also Cloutie or Cloughtie wells) are places of pilgrimage in Celtic areas. ...


Triplicities are a common theme in Celtic cosmology and a number of deities were seen as threefold.[44]


The Celts had literally hundreds of deities, some unknown outside of a single family or tribe, while others were popular enough to have a following that crossed boundaries of language and culture. For instance, the Irish god Lugh, associated with storms, lightning, and culture, is seen in a similar form as Lugos in Gaul and Lleu in Wales. Similar patterns are also seen with the Continental Celtic horse goddess Epona, and what may well be her Irish and Welsh counterparts, Macha and Rhiannon, respectively.[45] Lugos is a commune in the Gironde département, in France. ... In Welsh mythology, Lleu Llaw Gyffes (sometimes called Llew Llaw Gyffes) is a character appearing in the fourth of the Four Branches of the Mabinogion, the tale of Math fab Mathonwy. ... For other uses of Epona, see Epona (disambiguation) Image:Epona link. ... In Irish mythology, Macha is a goddess linked with war, horses and kingship. ... For the Stevie Nicks/Fleetwood Mac song, see Rhiannon (Will You Ever Win). ...


Roman reports of the druids mention ceremonies being held in sacred groves. La Tène Celts built temples of varying size and shape, though they also maintained shrines at sacred trees, and votive pools.[46] Sacred groves were a feature of the mythological landscape and the cult practice of Old Europe, of the most ancient levels of Scandinavian mythology, Greek mythology, Slavic mythology, Roman mythology, and in Druidic practice. ... Trees were often regarded as sacred in the ancient world, throughout Europe and Asia. ...


Druids fulfilled a variety of roles in Celtic religion, as priests and religious officiants, but also as judges, sacrificers, teachers and lore-keepers. In general, they were the "college professors" of their time. Druids organized and ran the religious ceremonies, as well as memorizing and teaching the calendar. Though generally quite accurate, the Celtic calendar required manual correction about every 40 years, therefore knowledge of mathematics was required. Other classes of druids performed ceremonial sacrifices of crops and animals for the perceived benefit of the community.[47] Celtic Religion Celtic religion refers the pre-Christian religious beliefs and practices of the Celtic speaking peoples. ... The term Celtic calendar is used to refer to a variety of calendars used by Celtic-speaking peoples at different times in history. ... A sheep is led to the altar, 6th century BC Corinthian fresco. ...


Celtic Christianity

Main article: Celtic Christianity

While the regions under Roman rule adopted Christianity along with the rest of the Roman empire, unconquered areas of Ireland and Scotland moved from Celtic polytheism to Celtic Christianity in the fifth century AD. Ireland was converted under missionaries from Britain such as Patrick. Later missionaries from Ireland were a major source of missionary work in Scotland, Saxon parts of Britain and central Europe (see Hiberno-Scottish mission). This brought the early medieval renaissance of Celtic art between 390 and 1200 A.D.[citation needed], developing many of the styles now thought of as typically Celtic, and found through much of Ireland and Britain, including the north-east and far north of Scotland, Orkney and Shetland. This was brought to an end by Roman Catholic and Norman influence, though the Celtic languages, as well as some and some influences from Celtic art, continued. Celtic Christianity, or Insular Christianity (sometimes commonly called the Celtic Church) broadly refers to the Early Medieval Christian practice that developed around the Irish Sea in the fifth and sixth centuries: that is, among Celtic/British peoples such as the Irish, Scottish, Welsh, Cornish, Manx, Cumbrians (the inhabitants of the... Image File history File links Ccross. ... Image File history File links Ccross. ... For the band, see Celtic Cross (band). ... Celtic polytheism refers to the religious beliefs and practices of ancient Celts until the Christianization of Celtic-speaking lands. ... Celtic Christianity, or Insular Christianity (sometimes commonly called the Celtic Church) broadly refers to the Early Medieval Christian practice that developed around the Irish Sea in the fifth and sixth centuries: that is, among Celtic/British peoples such as the Irish, Scottish, Welsh, Cornish, Manx, Cumbrians (the inhabitants of the... St Patrick redirects here, for other uses, see St. ... For other uses, see Missionary (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Schottenklöster be merged into this article or section. ... Justinians wife Theodora and her retinue, in a 6th century mosaic from the Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna. ... Location Geography Area Ranked 16th  - Total 990 km²  - % Water  ? Admin HQ Kirkwall ISO 3166-2 GB-ORK ONS code 00RA Demographics Population Ranked 32nd  - Total (2006) 19,800  - Density 20 / km² Scottish Gaelic  - Total () {{{Scottish council Gaelic Speakers}}} Politics Orkney Islands Council http://www. ... For other uses, see Shetland (disambiguation). ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Norman conquests in red. ...


The development of Christianity in Ireland and Britain brought an early medieval renaissance of Celtic art between 400 and 1200, only ended by the Norman Conquest of Ireland in the late 12th century.[citation needed] Notable works produced during this period include the Book of Kells and the Ardagh Chalice. Antiquarian interest from the 17th century led to the term 'Celt' being extended, and rising nationalism brought Celtic revivals from the 19th century in areas where the use of Celtic languages had continued.[citation needed] Celtic Christianity, or Insular Christianity (sometimes commonly called the Celtic Church) broadly refers to the Early Medieval Christian practice that developed around the Irish Sea in the fifth and sixth centuries: that is, among Celtic/British peoples such as the Irish, Scottish, Welsh, Cornish, Manx, Cumbrians (the inhabitants of the... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... Muiredacha Cross. ... Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to the Battle of Hastings The Norman Conquest of England was the conquest of the Kingdom of England by William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy), in 1066 at the Battle of Hastings and the subsequent Norman control of England. ... This page (folio 292r) contains the lavishly decorated text that opens the Gospel of John. ... The Ardagh Chalice, which ranks with the Book of Kells as one of the finest known works of Celtic art, is thought to have been made in the 9th century AD. A large, two-handled silver cup, decorated with gold, gilt bronze, brass, lead pewter and enamel, assembled from 354... An antiquarian or antiquary is one concerned with antiquities or things of the past. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolizing French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ...


See also

This article concerns those peoples who consider themselves, or have been considered by others, to be Celts in modern times, ie post 1800. ... The Six Nations considered the heartland of the modern Celts Celtic nations are areas of Europe inhabited by members of Celtic cultures, specifically speakers of Celtic languages. ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Britannica (Turkey) People and Culture
  2. ^ Julius Caesar, Commentarii de Bello Gallico 1.1: "All Gaul is divided into three parts, one of which the Belgae live, another in which the Aquitani live, and the third are those who in their own tongue are called Celts (Celtae), in our language Gauls (Galli).
  3. ^ (Lhuyd, p. 290) Lhuyd, E. "Archaeologia Britannica; An account of the languages, histories, and customs of the original inhabitants of Great Britain." (reprint ed.) Irish University Press, 1971. ISBN 0-7165-0031-0
  4. ^ Neilson, William A. (ed.) (1957). Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, second edition. G & C Merriam Co., p.2903. 
  5. ^ LacusCurtius • Pliny the Elder's Natural History — Book 3
  6. ^ e.g. Patrick Sims-Williams, Ancient Celtic Placenames in Europe and Asia Minor, Publications of the Philological Society, No. 39 (2006); Bethany Fox, The P-Celtic Place-Names of North-East England and South-East Scotland See also List of Celtic place names in Portugal.
  7. ^ Galatas excepto sermone Graeco, quo omnis oriens loquitur, propriam linguam eamdem pene habere quam Treviros ("That the Galatians, apart from the Greek language, which they speak just like the rest of the Orient, have their own language, which is almost the same as the Treverans'.") S. Eusebii Hieronymi commentariorum in epistolam ad Galatas libri tres, in Migne, Patrologia Latina 26, 382.
  8. ^ Birkan, Kelten, p. 301.
  9. ^ F. Fleming, Heroes of the Dawn: Celtic Myth, 1996. p. 9 & 134.
  10. ^ *Otto Hermann Frey, "A new approach to early Celtic art". Setting the Glauberg finds in context of shifting iconography, Royal Irish Academy (2004)
  11. ^ Archeological site of Tavira, official website
  12. ^ Map of Celtic Lands. Retrieved on December 5, 2005.
  13. ^ "study shows R1b is regional (panel C) in the Isles, and that parts of Ireland (coastal and northern) have some of the lowest R1b genes in the region. Also this study used many more subject samples than other studies in Ireland"[1]
  14. ^ "By analyzing 1772 Y chromosomes from 25 predominantly small urban locations, we found that different parts of the British Isles have sharply different paternal histories; the degree of population replacement and genetic continuity shows systematic variation across the sampled areas."A Y Chromosome Census of the British IslesPDF (208 KiB)
  15. ^ How did pygmy shrews colonize Ireland? Clues from a phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences
  16. ^ Lambert, Pierre-Yves (2003). La langue gauloise. Paris, Editions Errance. 2nd edition. ISBN 2-87772-224-4. Chapter 9 is titled "Un calandrier gaulois"
  17. ^ Lehoux, D. R. Parapegmata: or Astrology, Weather, and Calendars in the Ancient World, pp63-5. PhD Dissertation, University of Toronto, 2000.
  18. ^ James, Simon (1993). "Exploring the World of the Celts" Reprint, 2002. pp-155.
  19. ^ The Coligny Calendar, Roman Britain, 2/10/01: [2]
  20. ^ Celtic Astrology [3]
  21. ^ Ellis, Peter Berresford (1996). "Early Irish Astrology: An Historical Argument". Réalta vol.3 (issn.3). 
  22. ^ Athenaeus The Deipnosophists, or, Banquet of the Learned of Athenaeus, Book XIII, pp. 961. The Literature Collection, University of Wisconsin Digital Collections,.
  23. ^ "Neolithic wooden trackways and bog hydrology" (January, 1994). Journal of Paleolimnology 12. Springer Netherlands. 
  24. ^ http://www.nationaltrust.org.uk/main/w-ar_r_wal.pdfPDF (369 KiB) Beatrice Cauuet (Université Toulouse Le Mirail, UTAH, France)
  25. ^ Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca Historica
  26. ^ Percy, William A. (1996). Pederasty and Pedagogy in Archaic Greece. University of Illinois Press, pp.18. ISBN 0252067401. ; Rankin, H.D. Celts and the Classical World, p.55
  27. ^ Rankin, p. 55
  28. ^ Rankin, p.78
  29. ^ Borris, Kenneth (2003). Same-Sex Desire in the English Renaissance: A Sourcebook of Texts, 1470-1650. Routledge, pp.211. ISBN 0815336268. 
  30. ^ Dynes, Wayne R. (1990). Encyclopedia of Homosexuality. Garland Pub., pp.209. ISBN 1410206203. 
  31. ^ Forberg, Friedrich Karl (1963). Manual of classical erotology (De figuris Veneris). Medical Press of New York, pp.93. 
  32. ^ University College, Cork. Cáin Lánamna (Couples Law) . 2005.[4] Access date: 7 March 2006.
  33. ^ Roman History Volume IX Books 71-80, Dio Cassiuss and Earnest Carry translator (1927), Loeb Classical Library ISBN-10: 0674991966.
  34. ^ Evans, Thomas L. (2004). Quantified Identities: A Statistical Summary and Analysis of Iron Age Cemeteries in North-Eastern Frace 600 - 130 BC, BAR International Series 1226. Archaeopress, pp.34-40, 158-188. 
  35. ^ Ellis, Peter Berresford (1998). The Celts: A History. Caroll & Graf, pp.49-50. ISBN 0-786-71211-2. 
  36. ^ Evans, Thomas L. (2004). Quantified Identities: A Statisical Summary and Analysis of Iron Age Cemeteries in North-Eastern Frace 600 - 130 BC, BAR International Series 1226. Archaeopress, pp.34-37. 
  37. ^ Evans, Thomas L. (2004). Quantified Identities: A Statisical Summary and Analysis of Iron Age Cemeteries in North-Eastern Frace 600 - 130 BC, BAR International Series 1226. Archaeopress, pp, 158-188. 
  38. ^ Bitel, Lisa M. (1996). Land of Women: Tales of Sex and Gender from Early Ireland. Cornell University Press, p.212. ISBN 0-801-48544-4. 
  39. ^ Tierney, J. J. (1960). The Celtic Ethnography of Posidonius, PRIA 60 C. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, pp1.89-275. 
  40. ^ Rankin, David (1996). Celts and the Classical World. Routledge, p.80. ISBN 0-415-15090-6. 
  41. ^ Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Roman Antiquities p259 Excerpts from Book XIV
  42. ^ Ellis, Peter Berresford (1998). The Celts: A History. Caroll & Graf, pp.60-3. ISBN 0-786-71211-2. 
  43. ^ Sjoestedt, Marie-Louise (originally published in French, 1940, reissued 1982) Gods and Heroes of the Celts. Translated by Myles Dillon, Berkeley, CA, Turtle Island Foundation ISBN 0-913666-52-1, pp. 24-46.
  44. ^ Sjoestedt (1940) pp.16, 24-46.
  45. ^ Sjoestedt (1940) pp.xiv-xvi, 14-46.
  46. ^ Cunliffe, Barry, (1997) The Ancient Celts. Oxford, Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-815010-5, pp.202, 204-8.
  47. ^ Sjoestedt (1982) pp.xxvi-xix.

For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Commentarii de Bello Gallico (literally Commentaries on the Gallic War in Latin) is an account written by Julius Caesar (in the third person) about his nine years of war in Gaul. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to...

References

  • Alberro, Manuel and Arnold, Bettina (eds.), e-Keltoi: Journal of Interdisciplinary Celtic Studies, Volume 6: The Celts in the Iberian Peninsula, University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee, Center for Celtic Studies, 2005.
  • Collis, John. The Celts: Origins, Myths and Inventions. Stroud: Tempus Publishing, 2003. ISBN 0-7524-2913-2. Historiography of Celtic studies.
  • Coutinhas, José Manuel. "Callaeci Bracari - aproximação à identidade etno-cultural". Porto: Universidade Portucalense. 2006.
  • Cunliffe, Barry. The Ancient Celts. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997. ISBN 0-19-815010-5.
  • Cunliffe, Barry. Iron Age Britain. London: Batsford, 2004. ISBN 0-7134-8839-5
  • Cunliffe, Barry. The Celts: A Very Short Introduction. 2003
  • del Giorgio, J.F. The Oldest Europeans: Who are we? Where do we come from? What made European women different?. A.J.Place, 2006. ISBN 980-6898-00-1
  • Freeman, Philip Mitchell The earliest classical sources on the Celts: A linguistic and historical study. Diss. Harvard University, 1994. (link)
  • Gamito, Teresa J. The Celts in Portugal. In E-Keltoi, Journal of Interdisciplinary Celtic Studies, vol. 6. 2005.
  • Gelling, Margaret. Signposts to the Past,Phillimore 1988.
  • Green, Miranda. Celtic Goddesses British Museum Press 1998.
  • Haywood. Historical Atlas of the Celtic World. 2001.
  • James, Simon. Exploring the World of the Celts 1993.
  • James, Simon. The Atlantic Celts - Ancient People Or Modern Invention? Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, August 1999. ISBN 0-299-16674-0.
  • James, Simon & Rigby, Valerie. Britain and the Celtic Iron Age. London: British Museum Press, 1997. ISBN 0-7141-2306-4.
  • Kruta, V., O. Frey, Barry Raftery and M. Szabo. eds. The Celts. New York: Thames & Hudson, 1991. ISBN 0-8478-2193-5. A translation of Les Celtes: Histoire et Dictionnaire 2000.
  • Laing, Lloyd. The Archaeology of Late Celtic Britain and Ireland c. 400–1200 AD. London: Methuen, 1975. ISBN 0-416-82360-2
  • Laing, Lloyd and Jenifer Laing. Art of the Celts, London: Thames and Hudson, 1992 ISBN 0-500-20256-7
  • MacKillop, James. A Dictionary of Celtic Mythology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998. ISBN 0-19-280120-1
  • McEvedy, Colin. The Penguin Atlas of Ancient History. New York: Penguin, 1985. ISBN 0-14-070832-4
  • Mallory, J. P. In Search of the Indo-Europeans: Language, Archaeology and Myth. London: Thames and Hudson, 1991. ISBN 0-500-27616-1.
  • Morse, Michael. How the Celts came to Britain.
  • Oppenheimer Stephen. The Origins of the British.
  • O'Rahilly, T. F. Early Irish History Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 1946.
  • Palmer, Douglas. The Neanderthal Channel 4 Books, 2000.
  • Powell, T. G. E. The Celts. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1980. third ed. 1997. ISBN 0-500-27275-1.
  • Raftery, Barry. Pagan Celtic Ireland: The Enigma of the Irish Iron Age. London: Thames & Hudson, 1994. ISBN 0-500-27983-7.
  • Renfrew, Colin. Archaeology and Language: The Puzzle of Indo-European Origins. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990. ISBN 0-521-38675-6.
  • Rosser, ZH et al. "Y-chromosomal diversity in Europe is clinal and influenced primarily by geography, rather than by language.", Am J Hum Genet. 2000 Dec;67(6):1376-81.
  • Sykes, Bryan. The Blood of the British.
  • Ward-Perkins, Bryan. "Why Did The Anglo-Saxons Not Become More British?" in English Historical Review, June 2000.
  • Weale, M., et al. "Y Chromosome Evidence For Anglo-Saxon Mass Migration." in Society For Molecular Biology And Evolution, 2002.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Celts

Additional articles

Geography The Citizendium (pronounced the citizens compendium of everything) is an English-language online wiki-based free encyclopedia project spearheaded by Larry Sanger, co-founder of Wikipedia. ... Plaque on Bascom Hall, UW-Madison. ...

Multimedia

Organisations Barrington Windsor Cunliffe CBE (born December 10, 1939), known as Barry Cunliffe, has been Professor of European Archaeology at the University of Oxford since 1972. ... old Radio 4 logo BBC Radio 4 is a UK domestic radio station which broadcasts a wide variety of spoken-word programmes including news, drama, comedy, science and history. ... In Our Time is a discussion programme hosted by Melvyn Bragg on BBC Radio 4 in the United Kingdom. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... RealPlayer, briefly known also as RealOne Player, is a cross-platform media player by RealNetworks that plays a number of multimedia formats including MP3, MPEG-4, QuickTime, Windows Media and multiple versions of proprietary RealAudio and RealVideo formats. ...

Special interest

The Continental Celtic languages are those Celtic languages that are neither Goidelic nor Brythonic. ... Celtiberian (also Hispano-Celtic) is an extinct Celtic language spoken by the Celtiberians in northern Spain before and during the Roman Empire. ... Gaulish is the name given to the Celtic language that was spoken in Gaul before the Vulgar Latin of the late Roman Empire became dominant in Roman Gaul. ... Galatian is an extinct Celtic language once spoken in Galatia in Asia Minor (modern Turkey) from the 3rd century BC up to the 4th century AD. Of the language only a few glosses and brief comments in classical writers and scattered names on inscriptions survive. ... Lepontic is an extinct Celtic language that was once spoken in Northern Italy between 700 BCE and 400 BCE. The language is only known from a few inscriptions discovered that were written in a variety of the Northern Italic alphabet, which was related to the Old Italic alphabet. ... Noric language was the ancient Celtic language spoken in the Roman province of Noricum. ... The term Celtic calendar is used to refer to a variety of calendars used by Celtic-speaking peoples at different times in history. ... Look up Samhain in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Imbolc is one of the four principal festivals of the Irish calendar, celebrated either at the beginning of February or at the first local signs of Spring. ... This article is about the Gaelic holiday. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This is a list of Celtic tribes and associated celtic peoples with their geographical localization. ... The gods and goddesses of Celtic mythology are known from a variety of sources. ... See: list of Scots list of Irish people list of Welsh people list of English people list of Breton people Celt Category: Lists of people by ancestry ... A list of English language words derived from Celtic languages. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
CELT (Centre for Environmental Living and Training) c/o East Clare Community Co-op Main Street Scariff Co Clare Ireland (604 words)
CELT (Centre for Environmental Living and Training) c/o East Clare Community Co-op Main Street Scariff Co Clare Ireland
CELT Weekend in the Woods May 2006 - Photo report by Niall Harnett on Indymedia
CELT is a member of AONTAS (National Association for Adult Education), The Wheel (National Community and Voluntary Support Group), Clare Community Forum, Clare Environmental Forum, Clare Biodiversity Group and ISSA (Irish Seedsavers Association).
CELT: The online resource for Irish history, literature and politics (87 words)
CELT, the Corpus of Electronic Texts, brings the wealth of Irish literary and historical culture to the Internet, for the use and benefit of everyone worldwide.
It has a searchable online textbase consisting of 935 contemporary and historical documents from many areas, including literature and the other arts.
It will search resources on both CELT and our sister project, Multitext.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m