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Encyclopedia > Celtic mythology

The nature and functions of these ancient gods can be deduced from their names, the location of their inscriptions, their iconography, the Roman gods they are equated with, and similar figures from later bodies of Celtic mythology. Look up Iconography in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A head of Minerva found in the ruins of the Roman baths in Bath Roman mythology, the mythological beliefs of the people of Ancient Rome, can be considered as having two parts. ...


Celtic mythology is found in a number of distinct, if related, subgroups, largely corresponding to the branches of the Celtic languages: The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ...

Contents

The Goidelic languages (also sometimes called, particularly in colloquial situations, the Gaelic languages or collectively Gaelic) have historically been part of a dialect continuum stretching from the south of Ireland, the Isle of Man, to the north of Scotland. ... The mythology of pre-Christian Ireland did not entirely survive the conversion to Christianity, but much of it was preserved, shorn of its religious meanings, in medieval Irish literature, which represents the most extensive and best preserved of all the branches of Celtic mythology. ... Scottish mythology consists of the myths and legends historically told by the people of Scotland. ... The mythology of pre-Christian Ireland did not entirely survive the conversion to Christianity, but much of it was preserved, shorn of its religious meanings, in medieval Irish literature, which represents the most extensive and best preserved of all the branches of Celtic mythology. ... The Mythological Cycle is one of the four major cycles of Irish mythology, and is so called because it represents the remains of the pagan mythology of pre-Christian Ireland, although the gods and supernatural beings have been euhemerised by their Christian redactors into historical kings and heroes. ... The Ulster Cycle, formerly the Red Branch Cycle, is a large body of prose and verse centering around the traditional heroes of the Ulaid in what is now eastern Ulster. ... The Fenian Cycle also known as the Fionn Cycle, Finn Cycle, Fianna Cycle, Finnian Tales, Fian Tales, Féinne Cycle, Feinné Cycle, Ossianic Cycle and Fianaigecht, is a body of prose and verse centering on the exploits of the mythic hero Fionn mac Cumhaill and his warriors the Fianna Éireann. ... Cycle of the Kings, also known as the Kings Cycle or the Historical Cycle is a body of Old and Middle Irish Literature. ... The Brythonic languages (or Brittonic languages) form one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic language family. ... Welsh mythology, the remnants of the mythology of the pre-Christian Britons, has come down to us in much altered form in medieval Welsh manuscripts such as the Red Book of Hergest, the White Book of Rhydderch, the Book of Aneirin and the Book of Taliesin. ...

Historical sources

Because of the scarcity of surviving materials bearing written Gaulish, it is surmised that the pagan Celts were not widely literate— although a written form of Gaulish using the Greek, Latin and North Italic alphabets was used (as evidenced by votive items bearing inscriptions in Gaulish and the Coligny Calendar). Caesar attests to the literacy of the Gauls, but also wrote that their priests, the druids, were forbidden to use writing to record certain verses of religious significance (Caesar, De Bello Gallico 6.14) while also noting that the Helvetii had a written census (Caesar, De Bello Gallico 1.29). Gaulish is the name given to the Celtic language that was spoken in Gaul before the Vulgar Latin of the late Roman Empire became dominant in Roman Gaul. ... Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... overview of the re-assembled tablet detail of Mid Samonios The Gaulish Coligny Calendar was found in Coligny, Ain, France (46°23′N 5°21′E) near Lyons in 1897, along with the head of a bronze statue of a youthful male figure. ... Druidry or Druidism was the religion of the ancient druids, the priestly class in ancient Celtic and Gallic societies through much of Western Europe north of the Alps and in the British Isles. ...


Rome introduced a more widespread habit of public inscriptions, and broke the power of the druids in the areas it conquered; in fact, most inscriptions to deities discovered in Gaul (modern France), Britain and other formerly (or presently) Celtic-speaking areas post-date the Roman conquest. This article is about the term Deity in the context of mysticism and theology. ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ...


And although early Gaels in Ireland and parts of modern Wales used the Ogham script to record short inscriptions (largely personal names), more sophisticated literacy was not introduced to Celtic areas that had not been conquered by Rome until the advent of Christianity; indeed, many Gaelic myths were first recorded by Christian monks, albeit without most of their original religious meanings. This article is about the country. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... A Roman Catholic monk A monk is a person who practices monasticism, adopting a strict religious and ascetic lifestyle, usually in community with others following the same path. ...


The mythology of Ireland

Main article: Irish mythology

The oldest body of myths is found in early medieval manuscripts from Ireland. These were written by Christians, so the formerly divine nature of the characters is obscured. The basic myth appears to be a war between two apparently divine races, the Tuatha Dé Danann and the Fomorians, which forms the basis for the text Cath Maige Tuireadh (the Battle of Mag Tuireadh), as well as portions of the history-focused Lebor Gabála Érenn (the Book of Invasions). The Tuatha Dé represent the functions of human society such as kingship, crafts and war, while the Fomorians represent chaos and wild nature. The mythology of pre-Christian Ireland did not entirely survive the conversion to Christianity, but much of it was preserved, shorn of its religious meanings, in medieval Irish literature, which represents the most extensive and best preserved of all the branches of Celtic mythology. ... Justinians wife Theodora and her retinue, in a 6th century mosaic from the Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna. ... A manuscript (Latin manu scriptus written by hand), strictly speaking, is any written document that is put down by hand, in contrast to being printed or reproduced some other way. ... “Áes dána” redirects here. ... In Irish mythology, the Fomorians, Fomors, or Fomori (Irish Fomóiri, Fomóraig) were a semi-divine race who inhabited Ireland in ancient times. ... Cath Maige Tuireadh (the (second) Battle of Magh Tuiredh) is a tale of the Irish Mythological Cycle in which the Tuatha Dé Danann defeat their enemies, the Fomorians. ... Lebor Gabála Érenn (The Book of the Taking of Ireland) is the Middle Irish title of a loose collection of poems and prose narratives recounting the mythical origins and history of the Irish race from the creation of the world down to the Middle Ages. ...


The Dagda

The supreme god of the Irish pantheon appears to have been The Dagda. The name means the 'Good God', not good in a moral sense, but good at everything, or all-powerful. The Dagda is a father-figure, a protector of the tribe and the basic Celtic god of whom other male Celtic deities were variants. Celtic gods were largely unspecialised entities, and perhaps more like a clan rather than as a formal pantheon. In a sense, all the Celtic gods and goddesses were like the Greek Apollo, who could never be described as the god of any one thing. The Dagda is an important god of Irish mythology. ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ...


Because the particular character of Dagda is a figure of burlesque lampoonery in Irish mythology, some authors conclude that he was trusted to be benevolent enough to tolerate a joke at his expense.


Irish tales depict the Dagda as a figure of power, armed with a spear and associated with a cauldron. In Dorset there is a famous outline of an ithyphallic giant known as the Cerne Abbas Giant with a club cut into the chalky soil. While this was probably produced in relatively modern times (English Civil War era), it was long thought to be a representation of the Dagda. This has been called into question by recent studies which show that there may have been a representation of what looks like a large drapery hanging from the horizontal arm of the figure, leading to suspicion that this figure actually represents Hercules(Heracles), with the skin of the Nemean Lion over his arm and carrying the club he used to kill it. In Gaul, it is speculated that the Dagda is associated with Sucellos, the striker, equipped with a hammer and cup. Three-legged iron pots being used to cater for a school-leavers party in Botswana. ... Dorset (pronounced DOR-sit or [dɔ.sət], and sometimes in the past called Dorsetshire) is a county in the south-west of England, on the English Channel coast. ... Comparison between flaccid and erect states of an uncircumcised penis. ... Layout of the giant as seen from directly above The Cerne Abbas giant, also referred to as the Rude Man or the Rude Giant (rude meaning naked), is a hill figure of a giant naked man on a hillside near the village of Cerne Abbas, to the north of Dorchester... For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hercules (disambiguation). ... Alcides redirects here. ... The Nemean Lion (Latin: Leo Nemaeus) was a vicious monster in Greek mythology that lived in Nemea. ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... The Dagda is an important god of Irish mythology. ...


The Morrígan

The Morrígan was a tripartite battle goddess of the ancient Irish Celts. Collectively she was known as the Morrígan, but her divisions were also referred to as Nemhain, Macha, and Badb (among other, less common names), with each representing different aspects of combat. She is most commonly known for her involvement in the Táin Bó Cúailnge, where she is at various times a helper and a hindrance to the hero Cúchulainn, and in the Cath Maige Tuireadh (the Battle of Mag Tuired) where she also plays the role of a poet, magician and sovereignty figure, and gives the victory to the Tuatha Dé Danann. She was most often represented as a crow or raven but could take many different forms, including a cow, wolf or eel. The Morrígan can be compared to other Indo-European goddesses of death such as Kali in the Hindu pantheon and the Valkyries in Norse Mythology. The Morrígan (terror or phantom queen) or Mórrígan (great queen) (aka Morrígu, Mórríghan, Mór-Ríogain) is a figure from Irish mythology who appears to have once been a goddess, although she is not referred to as such in the texts. ... In Irish mythology Nemain (alternative spelling Nemhain) was a goddess of war, possibly another aspect of Morrigan. ... In Irish mythology, Macha is a goddess linked with war, horses and kingship. ... In Irish mythology, the Badb ( crow in Old Irish; modern Irish Badhbh means vulture or carrion-crow) was a goddess of war who took the form of a crow, and was thus sometimes known as Badb Catha (battle crow). ... Táin Bó Cúailnge (the driving-off of cows of Cooley, more usually rendered The Cattle Raid of Cooley or The Táin) is the central tale in the Ulster Cycle, one of the four great cycles that make up the surviving corpus of Irish mythology. ... Cuchulain Slays the Hound of Culain, illustration by Stephen Reid from Eleanor Hulls The Boys Cuchulain, 1904 Cúchulainn ( ) (Irish Hound of Culann; also spelled Cú Chulainn, Cú Chulaind, Cúchulain, or Cuchullain) is an Irish mythological hero who appears in the stories of the Ulster Cycle, as well... In Irish mythology, Magh Tuiredh (Mag Tuired, Magh Tuireadh, anglicised as Moytura) is the name of the locations of two battles said to have been waged by the Tuatha Dé Danann. ... For other uses, see Raven (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Eel (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... This article is about the Valkyries, figures of Norse mythology. ... Norse, Viking or Scandinavian mythology comprises the indigenous pre-Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian peoples, including those who settled on Iceland, where most of the written sources for Norse mythology were assembled. ...


Lúgh/Lug

The widespread diffusion of the god Lugus (seemingly related to the mythological figure Lugh in Irish) in Celtic religion is apparent from the number of place names in which his name appears, occurring across the Celtic world from Ireland to Gaul. The most famous of these are the cities of Lugdunum (the modern French city of Lyon) and Lugdunum Batavorum (the modern city of Leiden). Lug is described in the Celtic myths as a latecomer to the list of deities, and is usually described as having the appearance of a young man. He is often associated with light, the sun, and summer. His weapons were the throwing-spear and sling, and in Ireland a festival called the Lughnasa (Modern Irish lúnasa) was held in his honour. Lugus was a deity widely hypothesized to have been worshipped in Gaul, Britain, Ireland, Spain and other ancient Celtic regions. ... For other subjects with similar names, see Lug. ... Colonia Copia Claudia Augusta Lugdunum (modern: Lyon) was an important Roman city in Gaul. ... This article is about the French city. ... Coordinates: , Country Province Area (2006)  - Municipality 23. ... Home-made sling. ... Lughnasadh (or Lughnasa; modern Irish Lúnasa) is a Gaelic holiday celebrated on 1 August, during the time of the harvesting. ...


Others

A statuette in the Museum of Brittany, Rennes, probably depicting Brigantia (Brigid): c2nd century BCE
A statuette in the Museum of Brittany, Rennes, probably depicting Brigantia (Brigid): c2nd century BCE

Among these are the goddess Brigid (or Brigit), the Dagda's daughter; nature goddesses like Tailtiu and Macha; Epona, the horse goddess; and Ériu. In Irish mythology as it is presently constituted, Brigit or Brighit (exalted one) was the daughter of the Dagda (and therefore one of the Tuatha Dé Danann) and wife of Bres of the Fomorians. ... Tailtiu (Tailltiu, Tailte, Teia Tephi) is the name of a presumed goddess from Irish mythology and the town in County Meath that was named after her. ... In Irish mythology, Macha is a goddess linked with war, horses and kingship. ... For other uses of Epona, see Epona (disambiguation) Image:Epona link. ... In Irish mythology, Ériu (), daughter of Ernmas of the Tuatha Dé Danann, was the eponymous patron goddess of Ireland. ...


Male gods included Goibniu, the smith god and immortal brewer of beer, as well as Angus Og, the god of love. In Irish mythology Goibniu or Goibhniu (pronounced Goive-nu) was a son of Brigid and Tuireann and the smith of the Tuatha Dé Danann. ... A smith, or metalsmith, is a person involved in the shaping of metal objects. ... For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ...


The mythology of Wales

Main article: Welsh mythology

Less is known about the pre-Christian mythologies of Britain than those of Ireland. Important reflexes of British mythology appear in the Four Branches of The Mabinogi, especially in the names of several characters, such as Rhiannon (‘the Divine Queen’), Teyrnon (‘the Divine King’), and Bendigeidfran (‘Bran [Crow] the Blessed’). Other characters, in all likelihood, derive from mythological sources, and various episodes, such as the appearance of Arawn, a king of the Otherworld seeking the aid of a mortal in his own feuds, and the tale of the hero who cannot be killed except under seemingly contradictory circumstances, can be traced throughout Indo-European myth and legend. The children of Llŷr (‘Sea’ = Irish Lir) in the Second and Third Branches, and the children of Dôn (Danu in Irish and earlier Indo-European tradition) in the Fourth Branch are major figures, but the tales themselves are not primary mythology. Welsh mythology, the remnants of the mythology of the pre-Christian Britons, has come down to us in much altered form in medieval Welsh manuscripts such as the Red Book of Hergest, the White Book of Rhydderch, the Book of Aneirin and the Book of Taliesin. ... The Mabinogion is a collection of prose stories from medieval Welsh manuscripts. ... For the Stevie Nicks/Fleetwood Mac song, see Rhiannon (Will You Ever Win). ... In Welsh mythology, Teyrnon or Teirnon was the foster father of Pryderi. ... Bran the Blessed, also known as Bran Vendigaid, Bendigeidfran or Branovices, is a giant and king of Britain in Welsh mythology. ... In Welsh mythology, Arawn was the Lord of the Underworld, which was called Annwn. ... In Welsh mythology, LlÅ·r is the father of Bran, Branwen and Manawydan by Penarddun. ... In Celtic mythology, Lir (the sea) was the god of the sea, father of Manannan mac Lir, Bran, Branwen and Manawydan by Penarddun and a son of Danu and Beli. ... Dôn was a Welsh mother goddess, equivalent of the Irish Danu. ... In Irish mythology, Danu or Dana was the mother goddess of the Tuatha Dé Danann (peoples of the goddess Danu), although little is recorded about her as a character. ...


While further mythological names and references appear elsewhere in Welsh narrative and tradition, especially in the tale of Culhwch and Olwen, where we find, for example, Mabon ap Modron (‘the Divine Son of the Divine Mother’), and in the collected Triads of the Island of Britain, not enough is known of the British mythological background to reconstruct either a narrative of creation or a coherent pantheon of British deities. Indeed, though there is much in common with Irish myth, there may have been no unified British mythological tradition per se. Whatever its ultimate origins, the surviving material has been put to good use in the service of literary masterpieces that address the cultural concerns of Wales in the early and later Middle Ages. Culhwch and Olwen (Welsh: Culhwch ac Olwen) is a Welsh tale about a hero connected with Arthur and his warriors that survives in only two manuscripts: a complete version in the Red Book of Hergest, ca. ... In Welsh mythology, Mabon (divine son) was the son of Modron (divine mother). He was a hunter god who was stolen from his mother three days after his birth. ... The Welsh Triads (Welsh, Trioedd Ynys Prydein) is used to describe any of the related Medieval collection of groupings of three that preserve a major portion of Welsh folklore and Welsh literature. ... This article is about the country. ...


Remnants of Gaulish and other mythology

The Celts also worshipped a number of deities of which we know little more than their names. Classical writers preserve a few fragments of legends or myths that may possibly be Celtic.[1] The gods and goddesses of Celtic mythology are known from a variety of sources. ...


According to the Syrian rhetorician Lucian, Ogmios was supposed to lead a band of men chained by their ears to his tongue as a symbol of the strength of his eloquence. For other uses, see Lucian (disambiguation). ... Ogmios was a Gaulish deity, usually depicted as a bald old man with a bow and club who leads an apparently happy band of men with chains attached to their ears and tongues. ...


The Roman poet Lucan (1st century AD) mentions the gods Taranis, Teutates and Esus, but there is little Celtic evidence that these were important deities. Marcus Annaeus Lucanus (November 3, AD 39-April 30, 65), better known in English as Lucan, was a Roman poet, and is one of the outstanding figures of the Silver Latin period. ... In Celtic mythology Taranis was a god of thunder worshipped in Gaul and Britain and mentioned, along with Esus and Toutatis, by the Roman poet Lucan in his epic poem Pharsalia. ... Toutatis or Teutates, ancient god of Celts and Gauls, whose name means father of the tribe. ... Image of Esus on the Pillar of the Boatmen. ...


A number of objets d'art, coins, and altars may depict scenes from lost myths, such as the representations of Tarvos Trigaranus or of an equestrian ‘Jupiter’ surmounting a snake-legged human-like figure. The Gundestrup cauldron has been also interpreted mythically.[2] The relief of Tarvos Trigaranus on the Pillar of the Boatmen. ... For the planet see Jupiter. ... A photo of the Gundestrup cauldron. ...


Along with dedications giving us god names, there are also deity representations to which no name has yet been attached. Among these are images of a three headed or three faced god, a squatting god, a god with a snake, a god with a wheel, and a horseman with a kneeling giant.[3] Some of these images can be found in Late Bronze Age peat bogs in Britain,[4] indicating the symbols were both pre-Roman and widely spread across Celtic culture. The distribution of some of the images has been mapped and shows a pattern of central concentration of an image along with a wide scatter indicating these images were most likely attached to specific tribes and were distributed from some central point of tribal concentration outward along lines of trade. The image of the three headed god has a central concentration among the Belgae, between the Oise, Marne and Moselle rivers. The horseman with kneeling giant is centered on either side of the Rhine. These examples seem to indicate regional preferences of a common image stock.[3] The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Lütt-Witt Moor, a bog in Henstedt-Ulzburg in northern Germany. ...


Julius Caesar’s comments on Celtic religion and their significance

The classic entry about the Celtic gods of Gaul is the section in Julius Caesar's Commentarii de bello Gallico (52–51 BC; The Gallic War). In this he names the five principal gods worshipped in Gaul (according to the practice of his time, he gives the names of the closest equivalent Roman gods) and describes their roles. Mercury was the most venerated of all the deities and numerous representations of him were to be discovered. Mercury was seen as the originator of all the arts (and is often taken to refer to Lugus for this reason), the supporter of adventurers and of traders, and the mightiest power concerning trade and profit. Next the Gauls revered Apollo, Mars, Jupiter, and Minerva. Among these divinities the Celts are described as holding roughly equal views as did other populations: Apollo dispels sickness, Minerva encourages skills, Jupiter governs the skies, and Mars influences warfare. In addition to these five, he mentions that the Gauls traced their ancestry to Dis Pater. For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... De Bello Gallico (literally On the Gallic Wars in Latin) is an account written by Julius Caesar about his nine years of war in Gaul. ... Interpretatio graeca is a Latin term for the common tendency of ancient Greek writers to equate foreign divinities to members of their own pantheon. ... A sculpture of the Roman god Mercury by 17th-century Flemish artist Artus Quellinus. ... Lugus was a deity widely hypothesized to have been worshipped in Gaul, Britain, Ireland, Spain and other ancient Celtic regions. ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... Mars, painting by Diego Velazquez Mars was the Roman warrior god, the son of Juno and Jupiter, husband of Bellona, and the lover of Venus. ... For the planet see Jupiter. ... This article is about the Roman goddess. ... Dis Pater, or Dispater, was a Roman and Celtic god of the underworld, later subsumed by Pluto or Jupiter. ...


The problem with Caesar’s ‘equivalent’ Roman gods

As typical of himself as a Roman of the day, though, Caesar does not write of these gods by their Celtic names but by the names of the Roman gods with which he equated them, a process that significantly confuses the chore of identifying these Gaulish gods with their native names in the insular mythologies. He also portrays a tidy schema which equates deity and role in a manner that is quite unfamiliar to the colloquial literature handed down. Still, despite the restrictions, his short list is a helpful and fundamentally precise observation. In balancing his description with the oral tradition, or even with the Gaulish iconography, one is apt to recollect the distinct milieus and roles of these gods. Caesar's remarks and the iconography allude to rather dissimilar phases in the history of Gaulish religion. The iconography of Roman times is part of a setting of great social and political developments, and the religion it depicts may actually have been less obviously ordered than that upheld by the druids (the priestly order) in the era of Gaulish autonomy from Rome. Conversely, the want of order is often more ostensible than factual. It has, for example, been noticed that out of the several hundred names including a Celtic aspect that can be found in Gaul the greater part crop up only once. This has led some scholars to conclude that the Celtic deities and the related cults were local and tribal as opposed to pan-Celtic. Proponents of this opinion quote Lucan's reference to a divinity called Teutates, which they translate as “tribal spirit” (*teuta is believed to have meant “tribe” in Proto-Celtic). The apparent array of divine names may, nonetheless, be justified differently: many may be mere epithets applied to key gods worshiped in extensive pan-Celtic cults. The concept of the Celtic pantheon as a large number of local deities is gainsaid by certain well-testified gods whose cults seem to have been followed across the Celtic world. Interpretatio graeca is a Latin term for the common tendency of ancient Greek writers to equate foreign divinities to members of their own pantheon. ... Oral tradition or oral culture is a way of transmitting history, literature or law from one generation to the next in a civilization without a writing system. ... Toutatis or Teutates, ancient god of Celts and Gauls, whose name means father of the tribe. ...


See also

The armoured triskelion on the flag of the Isle of Man Triskelion (or triskele, from Greek τρισκελης three-legged) is a symbol consisting of three bent human legs, or, more generally, three interlocked spirals, or any similar symbol with three protrusions exhibiting a symmetry of the cyclic group C3. ...

References

  1. ^ Paul-Marie Duval. 1993. Les dieux de la Gaule. Éditions Payot, Paris. ISBN 2-228-88621-1. pp.94-98.
  2. ^ G.S. Olmsted. "The Gundestrup version of Táin Bó Cuailnge". Antiquity, vol. 50, pp. 95-103.
  3. ^ a b Powell, T.G.E. The Celts. Thames & Hudson, London. 1958.
  4. ^ Chadwick, Nora. The Celts. Pelican Books. 1970.
  • de Vries, Jan, Keltische Religion (1961)
  • Duval, Paul-Marie, Les Dieux de la Gaule, new ed. updated and enlarged (1976).
  • Green, Miranda J. Dictionary of Celtic Myth and Legend New York: Thames and Hudson, 1992. ISBN 0-500-27975-6.
  • MacCana, Proinsias. Celtic Mythology. New York: Hamlyn, 1970. ISBN 0-600-00647-6.
  • Mac Cana, Proinsias, The Learned Tales of Medieval Ireland (Irish Literature - Studies), Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies (1980): ISBN 1-85500-120-9
  • MacKillop, James. Dictionary of Celtic Mythology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998. ISBN 0-19-280120-1.
  • Monaghan, Patricia. The Red-Haired Girl from the Bog: The Landscape of Celtic Myth and Spirit. New World Library, 2002. ISBN 1-57731-190-6.
  • O'Rahilly, Thomas F. Early Irish History and Mythology (1946, reissued 1971)
  • Rhys, John, Lectures on the Origin and Growth of Religion as Illustrated by Celtic Heathendom 3rd ed. (1898, reprinted 1979).
  • Sjoestedt, M. L. Gods and Heroes of the Celts. 1949; translated by Myles Dillon. repr. Berkeley, CA: Turtle Press, 1990. ISBN 1-85182-179-1.
  • Stercks, Claude, Éléments de cosmogonie celtique (1986)
  • Vendryès, Joseph, Ernest Tonnelat, and B.-O. Unbegaun Les Religions des Celtes, des Germains et des anciens Slaves (1948).
  • Wood, Juliette The Celts: Life, Myth, and Art Thorsons Publishers (2002): ISBN 0-00-764059-5

Antiquity is one of the worlds leading learned journals dedicated to the subject of archaeology. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Celtic deities
The Continental Celtic languages are those Celtic languages that are neither Goidelic nor Brythonic. ... Celtiberian (also Hispano-Celtic) is an extinct Celtic language spoken by the Celtiberians in northern Spain before and during the Roman Empire. ... Gaulish is the name given to the Celtic language that was spoken in Gaul before the Vulgar Latin of the late Roman Empire became dominant in Roman Gaul. ... Galatian is an extinct Celtic language once spoken in Galatia in Asia Minor (modern Turkey) from the 3rd century BC up to the 4th century AD. Of the language only a few glosses and brief comments in classical writers and scattered names on inscriptions survive. ... Lepontic is an extinct Celtic language that was once spoken in Northern Italy between 700 BCE and 400 BCE. The language is only known from a few inscriptions discovered that were written in a variety of the Northern Italic alphabet, which was related to the Old Italic alphabet. ... Noric language was the ancient Celtic language spoken in the Roman province of Noricum. ... The term Celtic calendar is used to refer to a variety of calendars used by Celtic-speaking peoples at different times in history. ... Look up Samhain in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Imbolc is one of the four principal festivals of the Irish calendar, celebrated either at the beginning of February or at the first local signs of Spring. ... This article is about the Gaelic holiday. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This is a list of Celtic tribes and associated celtic peoples with their geographical localization. ... The gods and goddesses of Celtic mythology are known from a variety of sources. ... See: list of Scots list of Irish people list of Welsh people list of English people list of Breton people Celt Category: Lists of people by ancestry ... A list of English language words derived from Celtic languages. ...

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In Celtic mythology, Cuchulinn is a hero-king of Ulster and son of Lugh.
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