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Encyclopedia > Celtic Christianity
Part of a series on
History of Christianity
in the British Isles
Early

Joseph of Arimathea
Legend of Christ in Britain
Christianity in Roman Britain
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Post-Roman

Celtic Christianity
Anglo-Saxon Christianity
The history of Christianity in England from the Roman departure to the Norman Conquest is often told as one of conflict between the Celtic Christianity spread by the Irish mission, and Roman Catholic Christianity brought across by Augustine of Canterbury. ...

Medieval

England · Wales
Scotland · Ireland
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Reformation

Wars of the Three Kingdoms
Dissolution of the Monasteries
Scottish Reformation
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Post-Reformation

17th century
English Civil War
18th century · 19th century
Catholic Emancipation
1900-present
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Celtic Christianity, or Insular Christianity (sometimes commonly called the Celtic Church) broadly refers to the Early Medieval Christian practice that developed around the Irish Sea in the fifth and sixth centuries: that is, among Celtic/British peoples such as the Irish, Scottish, Welsh, Cornish, Manx, Cumbrians (the inhabitants of the British Isles excepting the Anglo-Saxons and some Picts). By extension, it may refer to the monastic networks founded as satellite institutions of Celtic communities in Scotland and the Continent, especially Gaul (France). In this sense, Celtic (or Insular) Christianity may be distinguished by certain unique traditions (especially matters of liturgy and ritual) that were different from those of the greater sub-Roman world. Justinians wife Theodora and her retinue, in a 6th century mosaic from the Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna. ... This article is about the country. ... This article is about the country. ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ... This article describes the archipelago in north-western Europe. ... For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ... A replica of the Hilton of Cadboll Stone. ... This article is about the country. ... Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe or simply the Continent, is the continent of Europe, explicitly excluding European islands and, at times, peninsulas. ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ...


The term “Celtic Christianity” is sometimes extended beyond the seventh century to describe later Christian practice in these areas; however, because the history of Irish, Welsh, Scots, Breton, Cornish, and Manx Churches diverges significantly after the eighth century (resulting in a great difference between even rival Irish traditions), historians generally avoid this use of the term in this context.[1] Furthermore, historians do not employ the term “Celtic Church”, since that entails a sense of there being a unified and identifiable entity separated from greater Latin Christendom.[2][3]

Contents

Identity and terminology

It is easy to exaggerate the cohesiveness of the Celtic Christian communities. Scholars have long recognised that the term “Celtic Church” is simply inappropriate to describe Christianity among Celtic-speaking peoples, since this would imply a notion of unity, or a self-identifying entity, that simply did not exist.[4] As Patrick Wormald explained, “One of the common misconceptions is that there was a ‘Roman Church’ to which the ‘Celtic’ was nationally opposed.”[5] Celtic-speaking areas were part of Latin Christendom as a whole, wherein a significant degree of liturgical and structural variation existed, along with a collective veneration of the Bishop of Rome that was no less intense in Celtic areas.[6] Nonetheless, it is possible to talk about certain traditions present in Celtic-speaking lands, and the development and spread of these traditions, especially in the sixth and seventh centuries. Some scholars have chosen to apply the term ‘Insular Christianity’ to this Christian practice that arose around the Irish Sea, a cultural nexus in the sub-Roman period that has been called the ‘Celtic Mediterranean’.[7] The term “Celtic Christianity” may also be employed simply in the sense of different Catholic practices, institutions, and saints amongst the Celtic peoples, in which case it could be used meaningfully well beyond the seventh century. This article is about the European people. ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ... This T-and-O map, which abstracts the known world to a cross inscribed within an orb, remakes geography in the service of Christian iconography. ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... Relief map of the Irish Sea. ...


History

St. Patrick, Apostle to the Irish
St. Patrick, Apostle to the Irish

As the most remote province of the Roman Empire, Britain was reached by Christianity in the first few centuries AD, with the first recorded martyr in Britain being St. Alban (during the reign of Diocletian). The process of Christianisation intensified following the legalization of the religion under Constantine in the 4th century, and its promotion by subsequent Christian emperors. In 407, the Empire withdrew its legions from the province to defend Italy from Visigothic attack. The city of Rome would be sacked in 410, and the legions did not permanently return to Britain. Thus, Roman governmental influence ended on the isle, and, with the following decline of Roman imperial political influence, Britain and the surrounding isles developed distinctively from the rest of the West. The Irish Sea acted as a centre from which a new culture developed among the Celtic peoples, and Christianity acted centrally in this process. What emerged, religiously, was a form of Insular Christianity, with certain distinct traditions and practices. The religion spread to Ireland at this time, though the island had never been part of the Roman empire, establishing a unique organization around monasteries, rather than episcopal dioceses. Important figures in the process were SS. Ninian, Palladius, and Patrick (the "Apostle to the Irish"). Meanwhile, this development was paralleled by the advent of the Anglo-Saxon (English) migration / invasion into western Britain from Frisia and other Germanic areas, resulting in cultural hostility in Britain between the British and the (then pagan) English. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (461 × 614 pixel, file size: 25 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Statue of Saint Patrick at the Hill of Tara, Co. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (461 × 614 pixel, file size: 25 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Statue of Saint Patrick at the Hill of Tara, Co. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... For related place names see Alban Saint Alban was, along with saints Julius and Aaron, one of three Christian martyrs in Britain. ... Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (c. ... Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[2] (27 February c. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... A votive crown belonging to Reccesuinth (653–672) The Visigoths (Latin: ) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe, the Ostrogoths being the other. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Saint Ninian (c. ... Palladius (fl. ... For information about the holiday, see: Saint Patricks Day Saint Patrick (Latin: [2], Irish: Naomh Pádraig) was a Christian missionary and is the patron saint of Ireland along with Brigid of Kildare and Columba. ... For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ... Satellite view of the German Bight (the Frisian Coast). ...


In the sixth and seventh centuries, Irish monks established monastic institutions in parts of modern day Scotland (especially St. Columba, also known as Colum Cille), and on the continent, particularly in Gaul (especially St. Columbanus). Monks from Iona, under St. Aidan, then founded the See of Lindisfarne in Anglo-Saxon Northumbria in 635, whence Celtic practice heavily influenced northern England. These renewed links with the greater Latin West brought the Celtic-speaking peoples into close contact with other subgroups of Catholicism. Thus, the issue of certain customs and traditions particular to Insular Christianity became, to an extent, a matter of dispute, especially the matter of the proper calculation of Easter. Synods were held in Ireland, Gaul, and England (e.g. the Synod of Whitby) where the Easter question was resolved, resulting in the adoption of one method for calculating Easter. A degree of variation continued, and to an extent was encouraged, evidenced by the issuance of a papal privilege by Pope Honorius to the Columbanus’s monastery of Bobbio freeing the institution for Frankish episcopal oversight. Furthermore, the cultural exchange was mutual, evidenced by the spread of a uniquely Irish penitential system, eventually adopted as a universal practice of the Church by the Fourth Lateran Council of 1215. See Columba (disambiguation) and St Columb for other uses. ... Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe or simply the Continent, is the continent of Europe, explicitly excluding European islands and, at times, peninsulas. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... One of the oldest and most important religious centers in western Europe. ... Augustine was the Apostle of Kent, but Aidan was the Apostle of the English. ... Map of the UK showing the location of Lindisfarne at 55. ... For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ... Section from Shepherds map of the British Isles about 802 AD showing the kingdom of Northumbria Northumbria is primarily the name of a petty kingdom of Angles which was formed in Great Britain at the beginning of the 7th century, from two smaller kingdoms of Bernicia and Diera, and... Events Saint Aidan founds Lindisfarne in Northumbria, England Nestorian China Births Pippin of Herstal, Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia (approximate date) 23 May - Chan Bahlum II, king of Palenque Deaths Categories: 635 ... The Synod of Whitby was an important synod which eventually led to the unification of the church in Britain. ... Honorius I (died October 12, 638) was pope from 625 to 638. ... Stone arch bridge over the Trebbia river Bobbio is a city in the Piacenza province of the Emilia-Romagna region in northern Italy. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... For other uses, see Penance (disambiguation). ... The Fourth Council of the Lateran was summoned by Pope Innocent III with his Bull of April 19, 1213. ...


Other important Celtic saints, or saints who influenced the development of Christianity amongst the Celtic-speaking peoples, include SS. Dubricius, Illtud, David, Cadoc, Deiniol, Samson, Paul Aurelian, Petroc, Piran, Ia, Brigit, Moluag, Kentigern (aka Mungo), and Germanus of Auxerre. For other uses, see Saint (disambiguation). ... Saint Dubricius (also known in his native Welsh as Dyfrig and in corrupt Norman-French as Devereux) was the 6th century evangelist of Archenfield/Ergyng and much of South Wales. ... Illtud (Illtyd, Eltut, Hildutus) (d. ... For other uses, see Saint David (disambiguation). ... For the Cornish king of the same name see King Cadoc Saint Cadoc or Cadog, Abbot of Llancarfan, was one of the 6th century Welsh saints whose life touched King Arthur. ... Saint Deiniol (died 584) was the first Bishop of Bangor in North Wales. ... Samson of Dol (born 486?) was a Christian religious figure of the fifth century. ... Paul Aurelian (also known, in French, as Pol de Léon and, in Latin, as Paulinus Aurelianus) is a 6th century Welsh saint, who became one of the seven founder saints of Brittany. ... Saint Petroc (sometimes spelt Petrock, also Pedrog in Welsh and Perreux in French) (c. ... For the coastal town and a municipality in southwestern Slovenia please see Piran (Italian Pirano) Saint Piran or Perran is the patron saint of tin-miners. ... Saint Ia of Cornwall (also known as Hia or Ives) was a 5th or 6th century Cornish evangelist and martyr. ... Saint Brigid of Ireland (Bridget, Bridgit, Brigit, Bride) (451- 525) was born at Faughart near Dundalk, County Louth, Ireland. ... Saint Moluag, also known as Lua, Luan, Lugaidh, Moloag, Molluog, Molua, Murlach,[1] was a Scottish missionary, and a contemporary of Saint Columba, who evangelized the Hebrides region of Scotland in the sixth century. ... Saint Mungo, also known as Saint Kentigern, traditional apostle to Strathclyde and patron saint and alleged founder of the city of Glasgow. ... Germanus of Auxerre (378–31 July 448) became bishop of Auxerre in Gaul. ...


Distinctive Traditions

Because Celtic Christianity is a broad term, it is difficult to define precisely which practices diverged from the remainder of the Latin West except in a general sense. In any specific area there will be exceptions to the list that follows. [8] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 145 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Celtic cross at dawn in Knock, Ireland (at the bus stop to Westport) 28/07/2005 Croix celtique à Knock en Irlande. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 145 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Celtic cross at dawn in Knock, Ireland (at the bus stop to Westport) 28/07/2005 Croix celtique à Knock en Irlande. ... For the band, see Celtic Cross (band). ... Knock is an electoral ward of East Belfast. ...


Episcopal structure

By the seventh century, the established ecclesiastical structure for Catholicism on the Continent consisted of one bishop for each diocese. The bishop would reside in a “see”, or a city able to support a cathedral. This structure was in part based on the secular administrative organisation of the Roman Empire, which had subdivided provinces into “dioceses” (see Roman province). Catholic Church redirects here. ... Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe or simply the Continent, is the continent of Europe, explicitly excluding European islands and, at times, peninsulas. ... A bishop in the Catholic Church is a member of the College of Bishops, is an ordained minister, and holds the fullness of the priesthood. ... Pope Pius XI blesses Bishop Stephen Alencastre as fifth Apostolic Vicar of the Hawaiian Islands in a Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace window. ... A see (from the Latin word sedem, meaning seat) is the throne (cathedra) of a bishop. ... For other uses, see Cathedral (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Map of the Roman Empire, with the provinces, after 120. ...


It was after Christianity had spread throughout the Empire, and especially after the advent of the Christian Emperor Constantine I, that dioceses had acquired an administrative function within the Church. Most of the Celtic world, however, had never been part of the Roman Empire, and even the notable exceptions of Wales, Devon, and Cornwall were nonetheless without developed cities. Hence, a much different ecclesiastical structure was needed for Insular Christianity, especially in Ireland. Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[2] (27 February c. ... This article is about the country. ... Part of the seafront of Torquay, south Devon, at high tide Devon is a large county in South West England, bordered by Cornwall to the west, and Dorset and Somerset to the east. ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ...


What emerged was a structure based around monastic networks ruled by abbots. These abbots were of royal kin. The nobility who ruled over different tribes, and whose sources of power were rural estates, integrated the monastic institutions they established into their royal houses and domains. Abbots were monastic, and thus were not necessarily ordained (i.e. they were not necessarily priests or bishops), and so bishops were still needed, since certain sacramental functions were reserved only for the ordained; however, unlike on the Continent, these bishops had little authority within Celtic ecclesiastical structure.[9] Monastery of St. ... For other uses, see Abbot (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Monk (disambiguation). ... Roman Catholic deacon candidates prostrate before the altar of the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels in Los Angeles during a 2004 diaconate ordination liturgy. ... The Ministerial Priesthood in the Catholic Church includes both the orders of bishops and presbyters, which in Latin is sacerdos. ... Sacraments in the Roman Catholic Church or preferably, the Catholic Church are efficacious signs, perceptible to the senses, of grace. ...


Liturgical and ritual practices

Easter Calculation

A distinguishing mark of Celtic Christianity was its distinct conservatism, even archaism.[10] One example is their method of calculating Easter. Calculating the proper date of Easter was (and is) a complicated process involving a lunisolar calendar. Various tables were produced in antiquity that attempted to calculate Easter for a series of years. Insular Christianity used a calculation table (Celtic-84) that was similar to one approved by St. Jerome. However, by the sixth and seventh centuries it had become obsolete and had been replaced by those of Victorius of Aquitaine and, more accurately, those of Dionysius Exiguus. As the Celtic world established renewed contact with the Continent it became aware of the divergence; most groups, like the southern Irish, accepted the updated tables with relatively little difficulty, with the notable exception of monks from the monastery of Iona and its many satellite institutions.[11] For example, the southern Irish accepted the common Easter calculation at the Synod of Mag Léne around 630, as did the northern Irish at the Council of Birr around 697, and Northumbria with the Synod of Whitby in 664. Nonetheless, in 716 Iona converted its practice. A lunisolar calendar is a calendar whose date indicates both the moon phase and the time of the solar year. ... For other uses, see Jerome (disambiguation). ... Victorius of Aquitaine, a countryman of Prosper of Aquitaine and also working in Rome, produced in 457 an Easter Cycle, which was based on the consular list provided by Prospers Chronicle. ... Dionysius Exiguus (Dennis the Little, meaning humble) (c. ... One of the oldest and most important religious centers in western Europe. ... Events Muhammad captures Mecca (January). ... End of the reign of Empress Jitō, empress of Japan Emperor Mommu ascends to the throne of Japan Paolo Lucio Anafesto elected first Doge of Venice Approximate date of the Council of Birr, when the northern part of Ireland accepted the Roman calculations for celebrating Easter. ... The Synod of Whitby was an important synod which eventually led to the unification of the church in Britain. ...

The "Roman" tonsure, in the shape of a crown, differing from the Irish tradition, where the hair above the forehead was shaved.
The "Roman" tonsure, in the shape of a crown, differing from the Irish tradition, where the hair above the forehead was shaved.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 525 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2536 × 2898 pixel, file size: 607 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Celtic Christianity List of Roman Catholic... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 525 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2536 × 2898 pixel, file size: 607 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Celtic Christianity List of Roman Catholic... Tonsure is the practice of some Christian churches of cutting the hair from the scalp of clerics as a symbol of their renunciation of worldly fashion and esteem. ...

Monastic Tonsure

Irish monks kept a distinct tonsure, or method of cutting one’s hair, to distinguish their social identity as monks (rather than warriors or peasants, who wore different styles of hair). The ‘Celtic’ tonsure involved cutting away the hair above one’s forehead. This differed from the prevailing custom, which was to shave the top of the head, leaving a halo of hair (in imitation of Christ’s crown of thorns). Tonsure is the practice of some Christian churches of cutting the hair from the scalp of clerics as a symbol of their renunciation of worldly fashion and esteem. ... For other uses, see Crown of Thorns (disambiguation). ...


Penitentials

In Ireland a distinctive form of penance developed, where confession was made privately to a priest, under the seal of secrecy, and where penance was given privately and ordinarily performed privately as well.[12] Certain handbooks were made, called “penitentials”, designed as a guide for confessors and as a means of regularising the penance given for each particular sin. The Sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation is popularly called Confession. ...


In antiquity, penance had been a public ritual. Penitents were divided into a separate part of the church during liturgical worship, and they came to mass wearing sackcloth and ashes in a process known as exomologesis that often involved some form of general confession.[13] There is evidence that this public penance was preceded by a private confession to a bishop or priest (sacerdos), and it seems that, for some sins, private penance was allowed instead.[14] Nonetheless, penance and reconciliation was prevailingly a public rite (sometimes unrepeatable), which included absolution at its conclusion.[15] Hairshirt is also a 1998 movie. ... Absolution in a liturgical church refers to the pronouncement of Gods forgiveness of sins. ...


The Irish penitential practice spread throughout the continent, where the form of public penance had fallen into disuse. St. Columbanus was credited with introducing the medicamenta paentitentiae, the “medicines of penance”, to Gaul at a time when they had come to be neglected.[16] Though the process met some resistance, by 1215 the practice had become established as the norm, with the Fourth Lateran Council establishing a canonical statute requiring confession at a minimum of once per year. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Fourth Council of the Lateran was summoned by Pope Innocent III with his Bull of April 19, 1213. ...


Achievement

The achievements of Christianity in the Celtic-speaking world are significant beyond what could be expected. Irish society, for example, had no history of literacy until the advent of Christianity, yet within a few generations of the arrival of the first missionaries the monastic and clerical class of the isle had become fully integrated with the culture of Latin letters. Besides just Latin, Irish ecclesiastics developed a written language for Old Irish. Likewise, they adapted the Christian episcopal structure to an environment that was wholly different from the prevailing sub-Roman world. Irish monks also founded monastic networks throughout Gaul and Northumbria, exerting a profound influence greater than many Continental centres that could boast much more ancient traditions.[17] One example is the spread of the cult of Peter within Gaul, which was largely the product of Irish influence, and the similar veneration for the papacy. Hence the first issuance of a papal privilege granting a monastery freedom from episcopal oversight was that of Pope Honorius I to one of Columbanus's institutions.[18] But perhaps the best example is the development of the Irish penitential practice. Old Irish is the name given to the oldest form of the Irish language which can be, more or less, fully reconstructed from extant sources. ... Section from Shepherds map of the British Isles about 802 AD showing the kingdom of Northumbria Northumbria is primarily the name of a petty kingdom of Angles which was formed in Great Britain at the beginning of the 7th century, from two smaller kingdoms of Bernicia and Diera, and... “St Peter” redirects here. ...


Myths and anachronisms

The notion of a “Celtic Church”, and its nature, has been a continual source of myth and anachronistic propaganda, beginning especially with the Protestant Reformation, where authors such as George Buchanan supplied “the initial propaganda for the makers of the Scottish Kirk” by inventing the notion of a national “Celtic” Church opposed to a “Roman” one.[19] In recent works published by the leading authorities on early Christian “Celtic” culture, such a notion is completely rejected as without the slightest support; examples include Dáibhí Ó. Cróinín’s Early Medieval Ireland: 400-1200, T. M. Charles-Edwards’s Early Christian Ireland, W. Davies’s ‘The Myth of the Celtic Church’, and Kathleen Hughes’s ‘The Celtic Church: is this a valid concept?’ (her answer was, no).[20] Nonetheless, as Patrick Wormald stated, “The idea that there was a ‘Celtic Church’ in something of a post-Reformation sense is still maddeningly ineradicable from the minds of students.” [21] Wormald also observed that, “It is difficult to resist the impression that what Protestant Confessionalism did for the idea of a ‘Celtic’ church until the 1960s is now being done by ‘new age’ paganism,” based on notions of some sort of "Celtic spirituality" supposedly distinguished by a unique ‘closeness to nature’.[22] Look up Anachronism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Propaganda (disambiguation). ... Reformation redirects here. ... George Buchanan (1506 - 1582) was a Sixteenth Century Scottish, Humanist theorist, see George Buchanan (humanist) Sir George Buchanan (1854 - 1924) was a United Kingdom, Diplomat who was British ambassador to Russia during the Russian Revolution in 1917, see George Buchanan (diplomat) Sir George Buchanan was a British civil engineer active... Confessionalism, in a religious (and particularly Christian) sense, is a belief in the importance of full and unambiguous assent to the whole of a religious teaching. ... New Age describes a broad movement characterized by alternative approaches to traditional Western culture. ...


See also

Pelagianism is the belief that original sin did not taint human nature (which, being created from God, was divine), and that mortal will is still capable of choosing good or evil without Divine aid. ... This box:      Anglicanism most commonly refers to the beliefs and practices of the Anglican Communion, a world-wide affiliation of Christian Churches, most of which have historical connections with the Church of England. ... The Celtic Catholic Church a Western Rite church that counts itself as both Catholic and Orthodox. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... // How Christianity Reached the Area One part of Britain, indeed, derived a great part of its Christianity from post-Patrician Irish missions. ... Irish and Scottish missionaries (Iro-Scottish, Hiberno-Scottish) were instrumental in the spread of Christianity in Anglo-Saxon England and the Frankish Empire during the 6th and 7th centuries. ... The Papar (from Irish pap, father) were, according to early Icelandic sources some Irish monks that inhabited Iceland and left after the arrival of the Vikings. ... The history of Christianity in England from the Roman departure to the Norman Conquest is often told as one of conflict between the Celtic Christianity, that had survived with the native Brythons, and Roman Catholic Christianity brought across by Augustine of Canterbury. ... Quartodecimanism (derived from the Vulgate Latin: quarta decima[1], meaning fourteen) refers to the custom of Christians celebrating Passover on the 14th day of Nisan in the Old Testaments Hebrew Calendar (Lev 23:5). ... The Culdees formed an ancient monastic order with settlements in Ireland and Scotland. ... An Immram (pl. ... Joseph of Arimathea by Pietro Perugino. ... Sub-Roman Britain is a term derived from an archaeologists label for the material culture of Britain in Late Antiquity. ... Celts, normally pronounced //, is a modern term used to describe any of the European peoples who spoke, or speak, a Celtic language. ... Celts, normally pronounced //, is a modern term used to describe any of the European peoples who spoke, or speak, a Celtic language. ... Celtic Studies is the academic discipline occupied with the study of any sort of cultural output relating to a Celtic people. ... Gallia (in English Gaul) is the Latin name for the region of western Europe occupied by present-day France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Main language areas in Iberia circa 200 BC. The Celtiberians (or Celt-Iberians)[1] were a Celtic people of late La Tène culture living in the Iberian Peninsula, chiefly in what is now north central Spain and northern Portugal, before and during the Roman Empire. ... Prehistoric Britain was a period in the human occupation of Great Britain that extended throughout prehistory, ending with the Roman invasion of Britain in AD 43. ... The Prehistory of the Iberian peninsula begins with the arrival of the first hominins c. ... The La Tène culture was an Iron Age culture named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchatel in Switzerland, where a rich trove of artifacts was discovered by Hansli Kopp in 1857. ... This article covers the culture of Romanized areas of Gaul. ... The Early Medieval era in Ireland, from 800 to 1166 is characterised by Viking raids, then settlement, in what had become a stable and wealthy country. ... It has been suggested that Schottenklöster be merged into this article or section. ... Celtic Law The social structure of Iron Age Celtic society was highly developed. ... Celtic mythology is the mythology of Celtic polytheism, apparently the religion of the Iron Age Celts. ... Celtic polytheism refers to the religious beliefs and practices of ancient Celts until the Christianization of Celtic-speaking lands. ... Druidry or Druidism was the religion of the ancient druids, the priestly class in ancient Celtic and Gallic societies through much of Western Europe north of the Alps and in the British Isles. ... This article deals with Old Irish and Middle Irish literature // The earliest existing examples of the written Irish language as preserved in manuscripts do not go back farther than the 8th century; they are chiefly found in Scriptural glosses written between the lines or on the margins of religious works... Muiredacha Cross. ... Bardic Poetry refers to the writings of poets trained in the Bardic Schools of Ireland and the Gaelic parts of Scotland, as they existed down to about the middle of the 17th century, or, in Scotland, the early 18th century. ... For the band, see Celtic Cross (band). ... A classic Celtic knot pattern Celtic knots are a variety of (endless) knots and stylized graphical representations of knots used for decoration, first known to have been used by the Celts. ... The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 605 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1373 × 1361 pixel, file size: 672 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Dessin celtique de forme ronde, contours tracé en noir et blanc, représentant des chiens entrelacés. ... This article concerns those peoples who consider themselves, or have been considered by others, to be Celts in modern times, ie post 1800. ... The Celtic Revival, also known as the Irish Literary Revival, was begun by Lady Gregory, Edward Martyn and William Butler Yeats in Ireland in 1896. ... The Six Nations considered the heartland of the modern Celts Celtic nations are areas of Europe inhabited by members of Celtic cultures, specifically speakers of Celtic languages. ... Celtic music is a term utilized by artists, record companies, music stores and music magazines to describe a broad grouping of musical genres that evolved out of the folk musical traditions of the Celtic peoples of Northern Europe. ... The pronunciation of the words Celt and Celtic in their various meanings has been surrounded by some confusion: the initial, <c> can be realised either as /k/ or as /s/. Both can be justified philologically and both are correct in terms of English prescriptive usage. ... Pan-Celticism is the name given to a variety of movements that espouse greater contact between the various Celtic countries. ... Although Irish has been used as a literary language for more than a thousand years (see Irish literature), and in a form intelligible to contemporary speakers since at least the sixteenth century, modern Irish literature is thought to begin with the revival movement. ... The International Celtic Congress is a cultural organisation that seeks to promote the Celtic languagues of the nations of Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Brittany, Cornwall and the Isle of Man. ... The Celtic League is a political and cultural organisation in the modern Celtic nations of Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Brittany, Cornwall and the Isle of Man. ... A group of Neo-druids from the Sylvan Grove of the OBOD at Stonehenge on the morning of the summer solstice 2005. ... The Proto-Celtic language, also called Common Celtic, is the putative ancestor of all the known Celtic languages. ... The Insular Celtic language hypothesis groups the Goidelic languages, which include Irish, Scottish Gaelic and the recently extinct Manx, together with the Brythonic languages, of which the modern ones are Welsh, Breton, and the moribund Cornish. ... The Brythonic languages (or Brittonic languages) form one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic language family. ... The Goidelic languages (also sometimes called, particularly in colloquial situations, the Gaelic languages or collectively Gaelic) have historically been part of a dialect continuum stretching from the south of Ireland, the Isle of Man, to the north of Scotland. ... The Continental Celtic languages are those Celtic languages that are neither Goidelic nor Brythonic. ... Celtiberian (also Hispano-Celtic) is an extinct Celtic language spoken by the Celtiberians in northern Spain before and during the Roman Empire. ... Gaulish is the name given to the Celtic language that was spoken in Gaul before the Vulgar Latin of the late Roman Empire became dominant in Roman Gaul. ... Galatian is an extinct Celtic language once spoken in Galatia in Asia Minor (modern Turkey) from the 3rd century BC up to the 4th century AD. Of the language only a few glosses and brief comments in classical writers and scattered names on inscriptions survive. ... Lepontic is an extinct Celtic language that was once spoken in Northern Italy between 700 BCE and 400 BCE. The language is only known from a few inscriptions discovered that were written in a variety of the Northern Italic alphabet, which was related to the Old Italic alphabet. ... See: list of Scots list of Irish people list of Welsh people list of English people list of Breton people Celt Category: Lists of people by ancestry ... This is a list of Celtic tribes and associated celtic peoples with their geographical localization. ... A map of Gaul showing the relative position of the tribes. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Ireland This page aims to list articles related to the island of Ireland. ... This is a list of topics related to Cornwall, UK. The Cornwall category contains a more comprehensive selection of Cornish articles. ... The gods and goddesses of Celtic mythology are known from a variety of sources. ...

References

  1. ^ Patrick Wormald, ‘Bede and the ‘Church of the English’’, in The Times of Bede, ed. Stephen Baxter (Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2006), pp. 223-224 n. 1
  2. ^ Kathleen Hughes, "The Celtic Church: Is This a Valid Concept?", O'Donnell lectures in Celtic Studies, University of Oxford 1975 (published in Cambridge Medieval Celtic Studies, 1 [1981], pp. 1-20).
  3. ^ Wendy Davies, "The Myth of the Celtic Church", in The Early Church in Wales and the West, Oxbow Monograph, no. 16, edited by Nancy Edwards and Alan Lane, 12-21. Oxford: Oxbow, 1992.
  4. ^ Dáibhí Ó Cróinín, Early Medieval Ireland 400-1200 (London, 1995); T. M. Charles-Edwards, Early Christians Ireland (Cambridge, 2000); W. Davies, ‘The Myth of the Celtic Church’, in N. Edwards and A. Lane, The Early Church in Wales and the West (Oxbow Monograph 16, Oxford, 1992), pp. 12-21; Kathleen Hughes, ‘The Celtic Church: is this a valid concept?’, in Cambridge Medieval Celtic Studies 1 (1981), pp. 1-20; Kathleen Hughes, The Church in Early English Society (London, 1966); W. Davies and P. Wormald, The Celtic Church (Audio Learning Tapes, 1980).
  5. ^ Patrick Wormald, ‘Bede and the ‘Church of the English’’, in The Times of Bede, ed. Stephen Baxter (Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2006), p. 207.
  6. ^ Richard Sharpe, ‘Some problems concerning the organization of the Church in early medieval Ireland’, Peritia 3 (1984), pp. 230-270; Patrick Wormald, ‘Bede and the ‘Church of the English’’, in The Times of Bede, ed. Stephen Baxter (Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2006), pp. 207-208, 220 n. 3
  7. ^ Peter Brown, The Rise of Western Christendom, 2nd edition (Oxford, Blackwell Publishing, 2003), pp. 16, 51, 129, 132.
  8. ^ This list includes information from Charles Plummer's essay, "Excursus on the Paschal Controversy and Tonsure" in his edition Venerablilis Baedae, Historiam Ecclesiasticam Gentis Anglorum, 1892 (Oxford: University Press, 1975), pp. 348-354.
  9. ^ Eric John, ‘The Social and Political Problems of the Early English Church’, in Anglo-Saxon History: Basic Readings, ed. David A. E. Pelteret (New York & London: Garland Publishing, 2000), pp. 32-34.
  10. ^ Patrick Wormald, Bede and the Church of the English, in The Times of Bede, ed. Stephen Baxter (Oxford, Blackwell Publishing, 2006), p. 224 n. 1.
  11. ^ Eric John, The Social and Political Problems of the Early English Church, in Anglo-Saxon History: Basic Readings, ed. David A. E. Pelteret (New York & London: Garland Publishing, 2000), p. 34
  12. ^ Medieval Handbooks of Penance, eds. John T. McNeil and Helena M. Gamer (New York, Columba University Press, 1938), p. 28
  13. ^ Medieval Handbooks of Penance, eds. John T. McNeil and Helena M. Gamer (New York, Columba University Press, 1938), pp. 7-9
  14. ^ Medieval Handbooks of Penance, eds. John T. McNeil and Helena M. Gamer (New York, Columba University Press, 1938), pp. 9-12.
  15. ^ Medieval Handbooks of Penance, eds. John T. McNeil and Helena M. Gamer (New York, Columba University Press, 1938), pp. 13-17.
  16. ^ Peter Brown, The Rise of Western Christendom, 2nd edition (Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2003), p. 252
  17. ^ Eric John, ‘The Social and Political Problems of the Early English Church’, in Anglo-Saxon History: Basic Readings, ed. David A. E. Pelteret (New York & London: Garland Publishing, 2000), p. 36.
  18. ^ Eric John, ‘The Social and Political Problems of the Early English Church’, in Anglo-Saxon History: Basic Readings, ed. David A. E. Pelteret (New York & London: Garland Publishing, 2000), p. 37.
  19. ^ Patrick Wormald, ‘Bede and the ‘Church of the English’, in The Times of Bede, p. 207.
  20. ^ Dáibhí Ó Cróinín, Early Medieval Ireland 400-1200 (London, 1995); T. M. Charles-Edwards, Early Christians Ireland (Cambridge, 2000); Kathleen Hughes, "The Celtic Church: Is This a Valid Concept?", O'Donnell lectures in Celtic Studies, University of Oxford 1975 (published in Cambridge Medieval Celtic Studies, 1 (1981), pp. 1-20; Wendy Davies, "The Myth of the Celtic Church", in The Early Church in Wales and the West, Oxbow Monograph, no. 16, edited by Nancy Edwards and Alan Lane, 12-21. Oxford: Oxbow, 1992.
  21. ^ Patrick Wormald, ‘Bede and the ‘Church of the English’, in The Times of Bede, p. 207.
  22. ^ Patrick Wormald, ‘Bede and the ‘Church of the English’, in The Times of Bede, pp. 223-4 n1.

Bibliography

Primary Sources

  • Adomnan, Life of Columba, ed. A. O. and M. O. Anderson, 2nd edition (Oxford Medieval Texts, 1991)
  • Annales Cambriae, ed. Rev. John Williams ab Ithel (London : Longman, Green, Longman and Roberts, 1860)
  • Bede, Historiam Ecclesiasticam Gentis Angelorum, in Venerabilis Baedae Opera Historica. ed. C. Plummer (Oxford, 1896)
  • Cummian, De controversia paschali and De ratione conputandi, <eds. Maura Walsh and Dáibhí Ó Cróinín (Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 1988), pp. 93-5.
  • Gildas, De Excidio Brittaniae, ed. J. A. Giles, Six Old English Chronicles (London, 1848)
  • Historia Brittonum, ed. J. A. Giles, Six Old English Chronicles (London, 1848)
  • Medieval Handbooks of Penance, eds. J. T. McNeill and H. M. Gamer (New York: Columba University Press, 1939)
  • Patrick (Saint), Confessio, ed. and trans. John Skinner (Image, 1998)

Secondary Sources

  • Brown, Peter. The Rise of Western Christendom: Triumph and Diversity, 2nd ed. (Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2003).
  • Charles-Edwards. T. M. Early Christian Ireland (Cambridge, 2000).
  • Cróinín, Dáibhí Ó. Early Medieval Ireland: 400-1200 (London, 1995).
  • Davies, Wendy. "The Myth of the Celtic Church", in The Early Church in Wales and the West, Oxbow Monograph, no. 16, edited by Nancy Edwards and Alan Lane, 12-21. (Oxford: Oxbow, 1992).
  • Hughes, Kathleen. "The Celtic Church: Is This a Valid Concept?", O'Donnell lectures in Celtic Studies, University of Oxford 1975 (published in Cambridge Medieval Celtic Studies, 1 (1981), pp. 1-20.
  • Hughes, Kathleen. The Church in Early English Society (London, 1966).
  • Mayr-Harting, Henry. The Coming of Christianity to Anglo-Saxon England, 3rd edition (London: B. T. Batsford Ltd, 1991).
  • Sharpe, Richard Sharpe. ‘Some problems concerning the organization of the Church in early medieval Ireland’, Peritia 3 (1984).
  • Wormald, Patrick. The Times of Bede: Studies in Early English Christian Society and its Historian, ed. Stephen Baxter (Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2006).

External links

  • The Fellowship of St Piran
  • Celtic Catholic Church
  • St. Fillan's Celtic Apostolic Church - Auckland, NZ
  • The Celtic Church in Scotland
  • Celtic Saints & The Early Church

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