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Encyclopedia > Celt

Indo-European topics Image File history File links Acap. ... Celt (pron. ... The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject. ...

Indo-European languages
Albanian · Anatolian · Armenian
Baltic · Celtic · Dacian · Germanic
Greek · Indo-Iranian · Italic · Phrygian
Slavic · Thracian · Tocharian
 
Indo-European peoples
Albanians · Anatolians · Armenians
Balts · Celts · Germanic peoples
Greeks · Indo-Aryans · Indo-Iranians
Iranians · Italic peoples · Slavs
Thracians · Tocharians
 
Proto-Indo-Europeans
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Urheimat hypotheses
Kurgan hypothesis · Anatolia
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Indo-European studies

The term Celt, normally pronounced /kɛlt/ (see article on pronunciation), now refers primarily to a member of any of a number of peoples in Europe using the Celtic languages, which form a branch of the Indo-European languages. It can refer in a wider sense to a user of celtic culture. However, in ancient times the term 'celt' was used either to refer generally to barbarians in north-western Europe or to specific groups of tribes in the Iberian Peninsula and Gaul. The focus of this article is the ancient Celtic peoples of Europe, for the Celts of the present day see Modern Celts. The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ... The Anatolian languages are a group of extinct Indo-European languages, which were spoken in Asia Minor, the best attested of them being the Hittite language. ... The Baltic languages are a group of related languages belonging to the Indo-European language family and spoken mainly in areas extending east and southeast of the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe. ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, spoken by ancient and modern Celts alike. ... The Dacian language was an Indo-European language spoken by the ancient people of Dacia. ... The Indo-Iranian language group constitutes the easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European family of languages. ... The Italic subfamily is a member of the Centum branch of the Indo-European language family. ... The Phrygian language was the Indo-European language of the Phrygians, a people who probably migrated from Thrace to Asia Minor in the Bronze Age. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... The Thracian language was the Indo-European language spoken in ancient times by the Thracians in South-Eastern Europe. ... Tocharian is one of the most obscure branches of the group of Indo-European languages. ... For the language group see Indo-European languages; for other uses see Indo-European (disambiguation) Indo-Europeans are speakers of Indo-European languages. ... Asia Minor lies east of the Bosporus, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. ... http://www. ... Thor/Donar, Germanic thunder god. ... The Indo-Aryans are a wide collection of peoples united by their common status as speakers of the Indo-Aryan (Indic) branch of the family of Indo-European and Indo-Iranian languages. ... Map of the Sintashta-Petrovka culture (red), its expansion into the Andronovo culture during the 2nd millennium BC, showing the overlap with the BMAC in the south. ... Ancient Italic peoples are all those peoples that lived in Italy before the Roman domination. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... Thracian peltast, fifth to fourth century BC. Thracian Roman era heros (Sabazius) stele. ... The Tocharians or Tusharas as known in Indian literature were the easternmost speakers of an Indo-European language in antiquity, inhabiting the Tarim basin in what is now Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwestern Peoples Republic of China. ... The Proto-Indo-Europeans are the hypothetical speakers of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language, a prehistoric people of the Chalcolithic and early Bronze Age. ... The Proto-Indo-Europeans (PIE) were a patrilineal society of the Bronze Age (roughly 5th to 4th millennium BC), probably semi-nomadic, relying on animal husbandry. ... Urheimat (German: ur- original, ancient; Heimat home, homeland) is a linguistic term denoting the original homeland of the speakers of a proto-language. ... The Kurgan hypothesis was introduced by Marija Gimbutas in 1956 in order to combine archaeology with linguistics in locating the origins of the Proto-Indo-European (PIE) speaking peoples. ... Map showing the Neolithic expansion from the 7th to 5th millennia. ... The Paleolithic Continuity Theory (PCT) suggests that the Indo-European languages originated in or nearby Europe and have existed there since the Paleolithic. ... Indo-European studies is a field of linguistics, dealing with the Indo-European languages. ... The pronunciation of the words Celt and Celtic in their various meanings has been surrounded by some confusion: the initial, <c> can be realised either as /k/ or as /s/. Both can be justified philologically and both are correct in terms of English prescriptive usage. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, spoken by ancient and modern Celts alike. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ... Muiredacha Cross. ... Look up Barbarian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... Map of Gaul circa 58 BC Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Although yesterday restricted to the Atlantic coast of Western Europe, the so-called "Celtic fringe", Celtic languages were once predominant over much of Europe, from Ireland and the Iberian Peninsula in the west to northern Italy and Serbia in the east. Archaeological and historical sources show that at their maximum extent in the third century BC, Celtic peoples were also present in areas of Eastern Europe and Asia Minor. The Atlantic Ocean forms a component of the all-encompassing World Ocean and is directly linked to the Arctic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, the Indian Ocean, and the Southern Ocean. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 9th century   -  First unified state c. ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... Anatolia (Greek: &#945;&#957;&#945;&#964;&#959;&#955;&#951; anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to...

Contents

Overview

The term Celt has been adopted as a label of self-identity for a variety of peoples at different times. However, it does not seem to have been used to refer to Celtic language speakers as a whole before the 18th century. In ancient times it was primarily used by Greeks and Romans as a label for groups of people who were distinguished from others by cultural characteristics.


Celticity refers to the concept which links these peoples. Historically, theories were developed that similar language, material artifacts, social organisation and mythological factors were indicative of a common racial origin, but later theories of culture spreading to differing indigenous peoples have discredited these theories.[citation needed] The current concept of a common cultural heritage has recently been supported by some genetic studies which show that populations consist of people with many origins.[citation needed] The Celtic culture seems to have had numerous diverse characteristics, thus the only commonality between these diverse peoples was the use of one of the Celtic languages. The term indigenous peoples has no universal, standard or fixed definition, but can be used about any ethnic group who inhabit the geographic region with which they have the earliest historical connection. ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, spoken by ancient and modern Celts alike. ...


The term Celtic as a noun means the family of languages but as an adjective it has the meaning "of the Celts" or "in the style of the Celts". The article on Celtic links to a number of applications of this term. It has also been used to refer to several archaeological cultures, defined by unique sets of artifacts. The link between language and artifacts is nothing more than assumption unless inscriptions are present. Thus the term Celtic is reserved by linguists for the language family but is commonly used to denote both linguistic and cultural groups. The word Celtic can refer to: the European Celtic people, ancient or modern the Celtic languages, spoken by these people and their modern descendants the Celtic Lusitania, the Celtici (Celts from the Alentejo). ...


The Celts themselves had an intricate, indigenous polytheistic religion and distinctive material and social culture. In the Iron Age they were spread from the Iberian Peninsula to Turkey and ancient Iberia at Caucasus, but their urheimat is a matter of controversy. Traditionally, scholars have placed the Celtic homeland in what is now southern Germany and Austria, associating the earliest Celtic peoples with the Hallstatt culture. However, modern linguistic studies seem to point to a north Balkan origin. The expansion of the Roman Empire from the south and the Germanic tribes from the north and east spelt the end of Celtic culture on the European mainland where Brittany alone maintained its Celtic language and identity, probably due to later immigrants from Great Britain. Julius Caesar described the term "Celt" as the word used by the people of central France (only) to refer to themselves, the Roman name being Gauls.[citation needed] The known names of Celtic peoples are given in the list of Celtic tribes. Celtic polytheism refers to the religious beliefs and practices of ancient Celts until the Christianization of Celtic-speaking lands. ... Urheimat (German: ur- original, ancient; Heimat home, homeland) is a linguistic term denoting the original homeland of the speakers of a proto-language. ... The Hallstatt culture was the predominant Central European culture during the local Bronze Age, and introduced the Iron Age. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... The term Germanic tribes (or Teutonic tribes) applies to the ancient Germanic peoples of Europe. ... Historical province of Brittany, showing the main areas with their name in Breton language The traditional flag of Brittany (the Gwenn-ha-du), formerly a Breton nationalist symbol but today used as a general civic flag in the region. ... This is a list of Celtic tribes with their geographical localization. ...


The eventual development of Celtic Christianity in Ireland and Britain brought an early medieval renaissance of Celtic art between 400 and 1200, only ended by the Norman Conquest of Ireland in the late 12th century. Notable works produced during this period include the Book of Kells and the Ardagh Chalice. Antiquarian interest from the 17th century led to the term Celt being extended, and rising nationalism brought Celtic revivals from the 19th century in areas where the use of Celtic languages had continued. Celtic Christianity, or Insular Christianity (sometimes commonly called the Celtic Church) broadly refers to the Early Medieval Christian practice that developed around the Irish Sea in the fifth and sixth centuries, that is among “Celtic”/“British” peoples such as the Irish, Scottish, Welsh, Cornish, Manx, etc. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... Muiredacha Cross. ... Events First invasion of Italy by Alaric (probable date). ... Events University of Paris receives charter from Philip II of France The Kanem-Bornu Empire was established in northern Africa around the year 1200 Mongol victory over Northern China — 30,000,000 killed Births Al-Abhari, Persian philosopher and mathematician (died 1265) Ulrich von Liechtenstein, German nobleman and poet (died... Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to the Battle of Hastings The Norman Conquest of England was the conquest of the Kingdom of England by William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy), in 1066 at the Battle of Hastings and the subsequent Norman control of England. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... This page (folio 292r) contains the lavishly decorated text that opens the Gospel of John. ... The Ardagh Chalice, which ranks with the Book of Kells as one of the finest known works of Celtic art, is thought to have been made in the 9th century AD. A large, two-handled silver cup, decorated with gold, gilt bronze, brass, lead pewter and enamel, assembled from 354... An antiquarian or antiquary is one concerned with antiquities or things of the past. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century &#8212; 19th century &#8212; 20th century &#8212; more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Today, the term Celtic is often used to describe the languages and respective cultures of Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Cornwall, the Isle of Man and Brittany, regions where four Celtic languages are still spoken by minorities today as mother tongues, Irish Gaelic, Scottish Gaelic, Welsh, and Breton plus two recent revivals, Cornish (one of the Brythonic languages) and Manx (one of the Goidelic languages). It is also used for other regions from the Continental Europe of Celtic heritage, but where no Celtic language has survived, which include the northern Iberian Peninsula (northern Portugal, and the Spanish historical regions of Galicia, Asturias and Cantabria), and in a lesser degree, France. (see the Modern Celts article) Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic) Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic and Scots1 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II... This article is about the country. ... Cornwall (pronounced ; Cornish: ) is a county in south-west England, United Kingdom, on the peninsula that lies to the west of the River Tamar and Devon. ... Historical province of Brittany, showing the main areas with their name in Breton language The traditional flag of Brittany (the Gwenn-ha-du), formerly a Breton nationalist symbol but today used as a general civic flag in the region. ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, spoken by ancient and modern Celts alike. ... Percentage of Irish speakers by county of the Republic; the six Northern Ireland counties have been considered as one. ... // Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... The Welsh are, according to Hastings (1997), an ethnic group and nation associated with Wales and the Welsh language, which is a Celtic language. ... Breton (Brezhoneg) is a Celtic language spoken by some of the inhabitants of Brittany (Breizh) in France. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Brythonic languages (or Brittonic languages) form one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic language family. ... The Goidelic languages (also sometimes called, particularly in colloquial situations, the Gaelic languages or collectively Gaelic) have historically been part of a dialect continuum stretching from the south of Ireland, the Isle of Man, to the north of Scotland. ... Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe or simply the Continent, is the continent of Europe, explicitly excluding European islands and, at times, peninsulas. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies Celtic languages are a branch of the Indo-European languages. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... Autonomous communities of Spain. ... There are two well-known places called Galicia: Galicia, one of Spains autonomous communities. ... Anthem: Asturias, patria querida Capital Oviedo Official language(s) Spanish; Asturian has special status Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 10th  10,604 km²  2. ... Anthem: Himno de Cantabria Capital Santander Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 15th  5,321 km²  1. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


The term Continental Celt refers to the celtic speaking people of mainland Europe, excluding Brittany which is a special case. The term insular celt refers to the people of Britain and Ireland.


The term Atlantic Celt had been introduced to refer to people in Iberia, France, Ireland and Britain with a celtic heritage. However, it has been asserted that since the assumption that there is a genetic link between Atlantic and Continental Celts.


In the last two decades of the twentieth century, multidisciplinary studies were brought to bear on the history of the Celts. Disciplines such as ancient history, palaeolinguistics, historical linguistics, archaeology, history of art, anthropology, population genetics, history of religion, ethnology, mythology and folklore studies all had an influence on celtic studies. “Ancient” redirects here. ... Historical linguistics (also diachronic linguistics or comparative linguistics) is primarily the study of the ways in which languages change over time. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Celtic Studies is the academic discipline occupied with the study of any sort of cultural output relating to a Celtic people. ...


Development of the term "Celt"

Ancient uses

The first literary reference to the Celtic people, as Κελτοί (Κeltoi) is by the Greek historian Hecataeus in 517 BC; he locates the Keltoi tribe in Rhenania (West/Southwest Germany). The next Greek reference to the Keltoi is by Herodotus in the mid 5th century. He says that "the river Ister [Danube] begins from the Keltoi and the city of Pyrene and so runs that it divides Europe in the midst (now the Keltoi are outside the Pillars of Heracles and border upon the Kynesians, who dwell furthest towards the sunset of all those who have their dwelling in Europe)". This confused passage was generally later interpreted as implying that the homeland of the Celts was at the source of the Danube not in Spain/France. However, this was mainly because of the association of the Hallstatt and La Tene cultures with the Celts. A historian is an individual who studies history and who writes on history. ... Hecataeus (c. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC Events and Trends Establishment of the Roman Republic March 12, 515 BC - Construction is completed on the... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


According to Greek mythology, Κελτός (Celtus) was the son of Heracles and Κελτίνη (Keltine), the daughter of Βρεττανός (Bretannus).[1] Celtus became the eponymous ancestor of Celts.[2] In Latin Celta came in turn from Herodotus' word for the Gauls, Keltoi. The Romans used Celtae to refer to continental Gauls, but apparently not to Insular Celts. The latter were long divided linguistically into Goidhels and Brythons (see Insular Celtic languages), although other research provides a more complex picture (see below under "Classification"). The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... Keltos (Greek: Κέλτος Latin: Celtus) was in Greek mythology the son of Heracles and Keltine, and the mythical father of the Celtic race. ... Hercules, a Roman bronze (Louvre Museum) For other uses, see Heracles (disambiguation). ... Keltine was in Greek Mythology the daughter of Bretannus and mother of Keltos. ... An eponym is a person (real or fictitious) whose name has become identified with a particular object or activity. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Gallia (in English Gaul) is the Latin name for the region of western Europe occupied by present-day France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... The Insular Celtic hypothesis concerns the origin of the Celtic languages. ... Goidelic is one of two major divisions of modern-day Celtic languages (the other being Brythonic). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Insular Celtic hypothesis concerns the origin of the Celtic languages. ...


The term in English

The English word is modern, attested from 1707 in the writings of Edward Lhuyd whose work, along with that of other late 17th century scholars, brought academic attention to the languages and history of these early inhabitants of Great Britain.[3] In the 18th century the interest in "primitivism" which led to the idea of the "noble savage" brought a wave of enthusiasm for all things "Celtic". The antiquarian William Stukeley pictured a race of "Ancient Britons" putting up the "Temples of the Ancient Celts" such as Stonehenge before he decided in 1733 to recast the Celts in his book as Druids. The Ossian fables written by James Macpherson and portrayed as ancient Scottish Gaelic language poems added to this romantic enthusiasm. The "Irish revival" came after the Catholic Emancipation Act of 1829 as a conscious attempt to demonstrate an Irish national identity, and with its counterpart in other countries subsequently became the "Celtic revival".[4] Events January 1 - John V is crowned King of Portugal March 26 - The Acts of Union becomes law, making the separate Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one country, the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... Edward Llwyd (also spelt Lhuyd) ( 1660 - June 30, 1709) was a Welsh naturalist, botanist, linguist, geographer and antiquary. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Primitivism is an artistic movement which originated as a reaction to the Enlightenment. ... A section of Benjamin Wests The Death of General Wolfe; Wests depiction of this Native American has been considered an idealization in the tradition of the Noble savage (Fryd, 75) In the 18th century culture of Primitivism the noble savage, uncorrupted by the influences of civilization was considered... William Stukeley (November 7, 1687–March 3, 1765) was an English antiquary who pioneered the archaeological investigation of Stonehenge and Avebury. ... For other uses, see Stonehenge (disambiguation). ... Two druids, from an 1845 publication, based on a bas-relief found at Autun, France. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Oisín. ... James Macpherson (October 27, 1736–February 17, 1796), was a Scottish poet, known as the translator of the Ossian cycle of poems (also known as the Oisín cycle). ... Catholic Emancipation was a process in Great Britain and Ireland in the late 18th century and early 19th century which involved reducing and removing many of the restrictions on Roman Catholics which had been introduced by the Act of Uniformity, the Test Acts and the Penal Laws. ...


Nowadays "Celt" and "Celtic" are usually pronounced /kɛlt/ and /kɛltɪk/, derived from a Greek root keltoi, when referring to the ethnic group and its languages. The pronunciation /'sɛltɪk/, derived from the French celtique, is mainly used for the names of sports teams (for example the NBA team, Boston Celtics and the SPL side, Celtic F.C. in Glasgow.[5] “NBA” redirects here. ... The Boston Celtics are a professional basketball team based in Boston, Massachusetts. ... The Clydesdale Bank Scottish Premier League commonly known as the Scottish Premier League, Premier League or SPL is a professional league competition for football clubs located at the top level of the Scottish football league system - above the Scottish Football League. ... Celtic Football Club (pronounced seltik in IPA; AIM: CCP)[1] is a Scottish football club, competing in the Scottish Premier League, the highest form of competition in Scotland. ... “Glaswegian” redirects here. ...


Modern uses

In a historical context, the terms "Celt" and "Celtic" can be used in several senses: they can denote peoples speaking Celtic languages; the peoples of prehistoric and early historic Europe who shared common cultural traits which are thought to have originated in the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures; or the peoples known to the Greeks as Keltoi, to the Romans as Celtae and to either by cognate terms such as Gallae or Galatae. The extent to which each of these meanings refers to the same group of people is a matter of debate. Prehistory (Greek words &#960;&#961;&#959; = before and &#953;&#963;&#964;&#959;&#961;&#943;&#945; = history) is the period of human history prior to the advent of writing (which marks the beginning of recorded history). ... The Hallstatt culture was the predominant Central European culture during the local Bronze Age, and introduced the Iron Age. ... The La Tène culture was an Iron Age culture named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchatel in Switzerland, where a rich trove of artifacts was discovered by Hansli Kopp in 1857. ...

Brittany
Cornwall
Ireland
Isle of Man
Scotland
Wales

In a modern context, the term "Celt" or "Celtic" can be used to denote areas where Celtic languages are spoken—this is the criterion employed by the Celtic League and the Celtic Congress. In this sense, there are six modern nations that can be defined as Celtic: Brittany, Cornwall, Ireland, the Isle of Man, Scotland and Wales. Only four, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, and Brittany have native speakers of Celtic languages and in none of them is it the language of the majority. However, all six have significant traces of a Celtic language in personal and place names, and in culture and traditions. Image File history File links Flag_of_Brittany. ... Historical province of Brittany, showing the main areas with their name in Breton language The traditional flag of Brittany (the Gwenn-ha-du), formerly a Breton nationalist symbol but today used as a general civic flag in the region. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cornwall. ... Cornwall (pronounced ; Cornish: ) is a county in south-west England, United Kingdom, on the peninsula that lies to the west of the River Tamar and Devon. ... Image File history File links Four_Provinces_Flag. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_isle_of_man. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Scotland. ... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic) Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic and Scots1 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II... Image File history File links Flag_of_Wales. ... This article is about the country. ... The Celtic League can refer to either: A league of professional Rugby Union clubs involving teams from Ireland, Scotland and Wales. ... The International Celtic Congress is a cultural organisation that seeks to promote the Celtic languagues of the nations of Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Brittany, Cornwall and the Isle of Man. ... “Native Language” redirects here. ...


Some people in Galicia, Asturias and Cantabria, in north-western Spain, and Minho, Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro in northern Portugal wish to be considered Celtic because of the strong Celtic cultural identity and acknowledgement of their Celtic past. The Celtic element is seen as the key differentiator of the Galician-Portuguese identity from the Mediterranean Iberian, Roman or Moorish influences of southern and eastern Spain, and southern Portugal. Galicia (Spain) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Anthem: Asturias, patria querida Capital Oviedo Official language(s) Spanish; Asturian has special status Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 10th  10,604 km²  2. ... Anthem: Himno de Cantabria Capital Santander Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 15th  5,321 km²  1. ... Map of Entre Douro e Minho from 1846 Entre Douro e Minho is a historical province of Portugal which encompassed the countrys northern Atlantic seaboard between the Douro and Minho rivers. ... The historical province of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro (pron. ... Região Norte (pron. ... Cultural identity is the (feeling of) identity of a group or culture, or of an individual as far as she/he is influenced by her/his belonging to a group or culture. ... Galician-Portuguese (also known as galego-português or galaico-português in Portuguese and as galego-portugués or galaico-portugués in Galician) was a West Iberian Romance language spoken in the Middle Ages, in the northwest area of the Iberian Peninsula. ... Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Lady of Baza, made by Iberians The Iberians were an ancient, Pre-Indo-European people who inhabited the east and southeast of the Iberian Peninsula in prehistoric and historic times. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Moors were the medieval Muslim inhabitants of the western Mediterranean and western Sahara, including: al-Maghrib (the coastal and mountain lands of present day Morocco and Algeria, and Tunisia although Tunisia often is separately called Ifriqiya after the former Roman province of Africa); al-Andalus (the former Islamic sovereign...


Regions of England such as Cumbria and Devon likewise retain some Celtic influences, yet haven't retained a Celtic language (even Cornwall became fully English-speaking during the 18th century) and are therefore not categorised as Celtic regions or nations. Cornish aside. As in the case of Cornish, there have been recent attempts to recreate the language, based on medieval miracle plays and other surviving sources.[citation needed] Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto)1 Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total... Cumbria (IPA: ), is a shire county in the extreme North West of England. ... “Devonshire” redirects here. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Mystery plays are among the earliest formally developed plays in medieval Europe. ...


Another area of Europe associated with the Celts is France, which traces its roots to the Gauls. In Scotland, the Gaelic language traces at least some of its roots to migration and settlement by the Irish Dál Riata/Scotti. The settlement of Germanic immigrants in the lowlands—among other things—reduced the spread of the Gaelic language which was supplanting Brythonic in Scotland; this has meant that Scots-Gaelic-speaking communities survive chiefly in the country's northern and western fringes. mtDNA-based chart of large human migrations. ... Dál Riata (also Dalriada or Dalriata) was a Goidelic kingdom on the western seaboard of Scotland and the northern coasts of Ireland, situated in the traditional Scottish and Northern Irish counties of Argyll, Bute and County Antrim. ... The Gaels are an ethno-linguistic group in Ireland, Scotland and the Isle of Man, whose language is of the Gaelic (Goidelic) family, a division of Insular Celtic languages. ...


Use of the term for pre-Roman peoples of Britain and Ireland

Series on
Celtic mythology

Celtic polytheism
Celtic deities Template:Buttface mythology Celtic mythology is the mythology of Celtic polytheism annas hippo butt, apparently the religion of the Iron Age Celts. ... Image File history File links Hope-coventina01a. ... Celtic polytheism refers to the religious beliefs and practices of ancient Celts until the Christianization of Celtic-speaking lands. ... The gods and goddesses of Celtic mythology are known from a variety of sources. ...

Ancient Celtic religion

Druids · Bards · Vates
British Iron Age religion
Celtic religious patterns
Gallo-Roman religion
Romano-British religion Two druids, from an 1845 publication, based on a bas-relief found at Autun, France. ... The Bard (ca. ... Vates - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... In the British Isles, the Iron Age lasted from about the 7th century BC until the Roman conquest and until the 5th century in non-Romanised parts. ... This article is about the European people. ... Gallo-Roman religion was a fusion of Roman religious forms and modes of worship with Gaulish deities from Celtic polytheism. ... Roman Britain refers to those parts of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire between 43 and 410. ...

British mythology

Welsh mythology
Breton mythology
Mabinogion · Taliesin
Cad Goddeu
Trioedd Ynys Prydein
Matter of Britain · King Arthur Welsh mythology, the remnants of the mythology of the pre-Christian Britons, has come down to us in much altered form in medieval Welsh manuscripts such as the Red Book of Hergest, the White Book of Rhydderch, the Book of Aneirin and the Book of Taliesin. ... Breton mythology is the mythology or corpus of explanatory and herioc tales originating in Brittany, now in France. ... The Mabinogion is a collection of prose stories from medieval Welsh manuscripts. ... Taliesin or Taliessin (c. ... Cad Goddeu (Welsh: The Battle of the Trees) is a sixth-century Welsh poem from the Book of Taliesin. ... The Welsh Triads (Welsh, Trioedd Ynys Prydein) is used to describe any of the related Medieval collection of groupings of three that preserve a major portion of Welsh folklore and Welsh literature. ... The Matter of Britain or the Arthurian legend is a name given collectively to the legends that concern the Celtic and legendary history of the British Isles, especially those focused on King Arthur and the knights of the Round Table. ... A bronze Arthur in plate armour with visor raised and with jousting shield wearing Kastenbrust armour (early 15th century) by Peter Vischer, typical of later anachronistic depictions of Arthur. ...

Gaelic mythology

Irish mythology
Scottish mythology
Hebridean mythology
Tuatha Dé Danann
Mythological Cycle
Ulster Cycle
Fenian Cycle
Immrama · Echtrae The mythology of pre-Christian Ireland did not entirely survive the conversion to Christianity, but much of it was preserved, shorn of its religious meanings, in medieval Irish literature, which represents the most extensive and best preserved of all the branches of Celtic mythology. ... Scottish mythology consists of the myths and legends historically told by the people of Scotland. ... // Boy on white horse by Theodor Kittelsen. ... “Áes dána” redirects here. ... The Mythological Cycle is one of the four major cycles of Irish mythology, and is so called because it represents the remains of the pagan mythology of pre-Christian Ireland, although the gods and supernatural beings have been euhemerised by their Christian redactors into historical kings and heroes. ... The Ulster Cycle, formerly the Red Branch Cycle, is a large body of prose and verse centering around the traditional heroes of the Ulaid in what is now eastern Ulster. ... The Fenian Cycle also known as the Fionn Cycle, Finn Cycle, Fianna Cycle, Finnian Tales, Fian Tales, Féinne Cycle, Feinné Cycle, Ossianic Cycle and Fianaigecht, is a body of prose and verse centering on the exploits of the mythic hero Fionn mac Cumhaill and his warriors the Fianna Éireann. ... An Immram (pl. ... An Echtra or Echtrae (pl. ...

See also

Celt · Gaul
Galatia · Celtiberians
Early history of Ireland
Prehistoric Scotland
Prehistoric Wales
Map of Gaul circa 58 BC Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Botorrita: Bronze plate with inscription. ... Newgrange, a famous Irish passage tomb built c3,200 BC // What little is known of pre-Christian Ireland comes from a few references in Roman writings, Irish poetry and myth, and archaeology. ... Archaeology and geology continue to reveal the secrets of prehistoric Scotland, uncovering a complex and dramatic past before the Romans brought Scotland into the scope of recorded history. ... Prehistoric Wales in terms of human settlements covers the period from about 225,000 years ago, the date attributed to the earliest human remains found in what is now Wales, to the year 48 when the Roman army began a campaign against one of the Welsh tribes. ...

Index of related articles
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The first person to use the term "Celt" in relation to Britain and Ireland was George Buchanan in 1582. After its employment by Edward Lhuyd in 1707, the use of the word "Celtic" as an umbrella term for the pre-Roman peoples of Britain gained considerable popularity in the nineteenth century, and remains in common usage. However its historical basis is now seen as dubious by many historians and archaeologists, and this usage has been called into question. George Buchanan (1506 - 1582) was a Sixteenth Century Scottish, Humanist theorist, see George Buchanan (humanist) Sir George Buchanan (1854 - 1924) was a United Kingdom, Diplomat who was British ambassador to Russia during the Russian Revolution in 1917, see George Buchanan (diplomat) Sir George Buchanan was a British civil engineer active... An umbrella term is a word that provides a superset or grouping of related concepts, also called a hypernym. ...


Simon James, formerly of the British Museum, in his book The Atlantic Celts: Ancient People or Modern Invention? makes the point that the Romans never used the term "Celtic" (or, rather, a cognate in Latin) in reference to the peoples of Britain and Ireland, and points out that the modern term "Celt" was coined as a useful umbrella term in the early 18th century to distinguish the non-English inhabitants of the archipelago when England united with Scotland in 1707 to create the Kingdom of Great Britain and the later union of Great Britain and Ireland as the United Kingdom in 1800. Nationalists in Scotland, Ireland and Wales looked for a way to differentiate themselves from England and assert their right to independence. James then argues that, despite the obvious linguistic connections, archaeology does not suggest a united Celtic culture and that the term is misleading, no more (or less) meaningful than "Western". Simon James is Reader in Archaeology at the University of Leicester, England. ... The British Museum in London, England is one of the worlds greatest museums of human history and culture. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... The Mergui Archipelago An archipelago is a landform which consists of a chain or cluster of islands. ... For an explanation of terms such as Scotland, Wales, England, (Great) Britain and United Kingdom, see British Isles (terminology). ... // ON MAY 5 1853 MR.FADER HAD SEX WITH A MAN NAME MR WIEN THEN THEY HAD SON NAMEDMRS COTURE AND MR MANOOGIAN WENT INTO MRS HASKELLS OFFICE NAKED AND DANCED AROUND AND MASTERBATED ON HER CHEST AND SHE LICKED IT OFF THEN THEY HAD ORAL SEEX WITH NAPLOEAN OF... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from Greek: αρχαίος, archaios, combining form in Latin archae-, ancient; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains and environmental data, including architecture, artifacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ...


Miranda Green, author of Celtic Goddesses, describes archaeologists as finding "a certain homogeneity" in the traditions in the area of Celtic habitation including Britain and Ireland — she sees the inhabitants of Britain and Ireland as having become thoroughly Celticized by the time of the Roman arrival, mainly through spread of culture rather than a movement of people. Miranda Jane Aldhouse-Green is a professor of archaeology at the University of Wales, Newport. ...


In his book Iron Age Britain, Barry Cunliffe concludes that "...there is no evidence in the British Isles to suggest that a population group of any size migrated from the continent in the first millennium BC...". Modern archaeological thought tends to disparage the idea of large population movements without facts to back them up, a caution which appears to be vindicated by some genetic studies. In other words, Celtic culture in the Atlantic Archipelago and continental Europe could have emerged through the peaceful convergence of local tribal cultures bound together by networks of trade and kinship — not by war and conquest. This type of peaceful convergence and cooperation is actually relatively common among tribal peoples; other well known examples of the phenomenon include the Six Nations of the Iroquois League and the Nuer of East Africa. He argues that the ancient Celts are thus best depicted as a loose and highly diverse collection of indigenous tribal societies bound together by trade, a common druidic religion, related languages, and similar political institutions — but each having its own local traditions. Sir Barrington Windsor Cunliffe CBE (born December 10, 1939), known as Barry Cunliffe, has been Professor of European Archaeology at the University of Oxford since 1972. ... The British Isles in relation to mainland Europe The British Isles (French: , Irish: [1] or Oileáin Iarthair Eorpa,[2] Manx: Ellanyn Goaldagh, Scottish Gaelic: , Welsh: ), are a group of islands off the northwest coast of continental Europe comprising Great Britain, Ireland and a number of smaller islands. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Kinship is the most basic principle of organizing individuals into social groups, roles, and categories. ... In the absence of a more specific context, convergence denotes the approach toward a definite value, as time goes on; or to a definite point, a common view or opinion, or toward a fixed or equilibrium state. ... This article is about cooperation as used in the social sciences. ... The Iroquois Confederacy (also known as the League of Peace and Power) is a group of First Nations/Native Americans. ... The Nuer are a confederation of tribes located in Southern Sudan and western Ethiopia. ...  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  geographic, including above East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ... Druidry or Druidism was the religion of the ancient druids, the priestly class in ancient Celtic and Gallic societies through much of Western Europe north of the Alps and in the British Isles. ...


Michael Morse in the conclusion of his book How the Celts came to Britain concedes that the concepts of a broad Celtic linguistic area and recognizably Celtic art have their uses, but argues that the term implies a greater unity than existed. Despite such problems he suggests that the term Celt is probably too deep-rooted to be replaced and — what is more important — it has the definition that we choose to give it. The problem is that the wider public reads into the term quite anachronistic concepts of ethnic unity that no one on either side in the academic debate holds. An anachronism (from Greek ana, back, and chronos, time) is an artifact that belongs to another time, a person who seems to be displaced in time (i. ... Ethnocentrism is the tendency to look at the world primarily from the perspective of ones own culture. ...


Origins and geographical distribution

The green area suggests a possible extent of (proto-)Celtic influence around 1000 BC. The yellow area shows the region of birth of the La Tène style. The orange area indicates an idea of the possible region of Celtic influence around 400 BC.
The Celts in Europe, past and present:
     present-day Celtic-speaking areas      other parts of the six most commonly recognized 'Celtic nations' and where a Celtic language is spoken but not the dominating language      other parts of Europe once peopled by Celts; modern-day inhabitants of many of these areas often claim a Celtic heritage and/or culture

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... (Redirected from 1000 BC) Centuries: 12th century BC - 11th century BC - 10th century BC Decades: 1050s BC 1040s BC 1030s BC 1020s BC 1010s BC - 1000s BC - 990s BC 980s BC 970s BC 960s BC 950s BC Events and Trends 1006 BC - David becomes king of the ancient Israelites (traditional... The La Tène culture was an Iron Age culture named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchatel in Switzerland, where a rich trove of artifacts was discovered by Hansli Kopp in 1857. ... The Celtics claim Vienna, Austria. ... Image File history File links Celts_in_Europe. ... Image File history File links Celts_in_Europe. ...

Genetic Evidence

Most of our genes are inherited as a mixture of genetic material from both of our parents, but there are two exceptions. Mitochondrial DNA is passed down from our mothers unchanged and so can be traced back from daughter to mother. Similarly all boys inherit their Y chromosome from their father, since women do not have a Y chromosome, and so this can be traced back from son to father. Population genetics studies the patterns in the minor variations in this DNA to obtain information on the movement of populations. Mitochondrial DNA (some captions in German) Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the DNA located in organelles called mitochondria. ... The human Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes, it contains the genes that cause testis development, thus determining maleness. ... Population genetics is the study of the distribution of and change in allele frequencies under the influence of the four evolutionary forces: natural selection, genetic drift, mutation, and migration. ...


In his book Neanderthal, archaeologist Douglas Palmer refers to genetic research conducted across Europe, then states the original modern genetic group in Europe arrived between 9,000 and 5,000 years ago with the spread of farming, displacing the earlier hunter gatherer populations. Such displacement coincided with a population explosion, since farming is capable of supporting up to sixty times greater population than the hunter-gatherer lifestyle in the same area: The 3rd millennium BC spans the Early to Middle Bronze Age. ... Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in Indonesia Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock). ... This article is about the pre-agricultural practice of harvest from the wild. ...

None of Europe's subsequent historic upheavals - even catastrophic wars and famines - has seriously dented the old pattern set by the influx of farmers. The Goths, Huns and Romans have come and gone without any significant impact on the ancient gene map of Europe.

Douglas Palmer A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ... Invasion of the Goths: a late 19th century painting by O. Fritsche, is a highly romanticized portrait of the Goths as cavalrymen. ... The Huns were an early confederation of Central Asian equestrian nomads or semi-nomads. ... Douglas Palmer was the first African-American mayor of Trenton, New Jersey. ...

However, modern genetic studies have shown that the original spread of modern man across Europe took place more than 20,000 years ago and re-expanded from refuges after the last Ice Age about 10,000 years ago. It now seems likely that the farmers from the Middle East did not generally displace the hunter-gatherers but that farming was slowly adopted by the latter. However, the association of the Indo-European language family with farming remains unproven.


The Y-chromosomes of populations of the Atlantic Celtic countries have been found in several studies to belong primarily to haplogroup R1b, which implies that they are descendants of the first people to migrate into north-western Europe after the last major ice age. According to the most recently published studies of European haplogroups, around half of the current male population of that portion of Eurasia is a descendant of the R1b haplogroup(subgroup of Central Asian haplogroup K). Haplotype R1b exceeds 90% of Y-chromosomes in parts of Wales, Ireland, Portugal and Spain.[6][7][8] ... In the study of molecular evolution, a haplogroup is a large group of haplotypes, which are series of alleles at specific locations on a chromosome. ... Distribution of R1a (purple) and R1b (red) In human genetics, Haplogroup R1b (M343) (previously called Hg1 and Eu18) is the most frequent Y-chromosome haplogroup in Western Europe. ... North-West Europe is not a well defined term. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... Eurasia Eurasia African-Eurasian aspect of Earth Eurasia is an immense landmass covering about 54,000,000 km² (or about 10. ...


Two published books - The Blood of the Isles by Bryan Sykes and The Origins of the British: a Genetic Detective Story by Stephen Oppenheimer - are based upon recent genetic studies, and show that the majority of Britons have ancestors from the Iberian Peninsula, as a result of a series of migrations that took place during the Mesolithic and, to a lesser extent, the Neolithic eras.[9][10] Bryan Sykes is Professor of Human Genetics at the University of Oxford, and a Fellow of Wolfson College, Oxford. ... Stephen Oppenheimer is a well-known expert in the field of synthesizing DNA studies with archaeological, anthropological, linguistic and other field studies. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... The Mesolithic (Greek mesos=middle and lithos=stone or the Middle Stone Age[1]) was a period in the development of human technology between the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods of the Stone Age. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ...


Sykes says that the maternal and paternal origin of the British and Irish are different, with the former going back to Palaeolithic and Mesolithic times. He identifies close matches between the maternal clans of Iberia and those of the western half of the Isles. Once in the Isles the maternal lines mutated and diversified. He sees little genetic evidence relating to people from the heartland of the Hallstatt and La Tene cultures. On the paternal side he finds that the "Oisin" (R1b) clan is in the majority which has strong affinities to Iberia, with no evidence of a large scale arrival from Central Europe. He considers that the genetic structure of Britain and Ireland is "Celtic":

if by this we mean descent from people who were here before the Romans and who spoke a Celtic language.

Bryan Sykes Bryan Sykes is Professor of Human Genetics at the University of Oxford, and a Fellow of Wolfson College, Oxford. ...

Oppenheimer's theory is that the modern day people of Wales, Ireland and Cornwall are mainly descended from Iberians who did not speak a Celtic language. In Origins of the British (2006), Stephen Oppenheimer states (pages 375 and 378):

By far the majority of male gene types in Britain and Ireland derive from Iberia (modern Spain and Portugal), ranging from a low of 59% in Fakenham, Norfolk to highs of 96% in Llangefni, north Wales and 93% Castlerea, Ireland. On average only 30% of gene types in England derive from north-west Europe. Even without dating the earlier waves of north-west European immigration, this invalidates the Anglo-Saxon wipeout theory...

...75-95% of Britain and Ireland (genetic) matches derive from Iberia...Ireland, coastal Wales, and central and west-coast Scotland are almost entirely made up from Iberian founders, while the rest of the non-English parts of Britain and Ireland have similarly high rates. England has rather lower rates of Iberian types with marked heterogeneity, but no English sample has less than 58% of Iberian samples... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... The famous parade helmet found at Sutton Hoo, probably belonging Raedwald of East Anglia circa 625. ...

Stephen Oppenheimer Stephen Oppenheimer is a well-known expert in the field of synthesizing DNA studies with archaeological, anthropological, linguistic and other field studies. ...

Linguistic evidence

There are few written records of the ancient Celtic languages produced by the Celts themselves. Generally these are names on coins and stone inscriptions. Mostly the evidence is of personal names and place names in works by Greek and Roman authors. The date at which the proto-Celtic language split from Indo-European is disputed but may be as early as 6000 BC, with it reaching Britain and Ireland by 3200 BC, according to Forster and Toth. However, generally a later date is considered more likely by most scholars. Gray and Atkinson put the splitting off of Celtic languages at around 5000 BC. In both cases there is a large estimating uncertainty.


Several studies have been carried out of the Celtic place names of Europe. A recent one is that by Sims-Williams. The map of this data in Oppenheimer shows that the remaining placenames are mainly in Britain and northern France but extend from Iberia to the Danube.


A direct clue that the different names used by the Greek (who normally called any Celts Κελται or Γαλαται) and the Latin authors (preferring Galli) actually referred to speakers of the same or similar languages is given by the Christian author Hieronymos (AD 342-419). In his commentary on St Paul's epistle to the Galatians, he notes that the language of the Anatolian Galatians in his day was still very similar to the language of the Treveri.[11] St Jerome probably had first-hand knowledge of these Celtic languages, as he had both visited Augusta Treverorum and Galatia.[12] “Saint Jerome” redirects here. ... Paul of Tarsus (b. ... The Epistle to the Galatians is a book of the New Testament. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Treveri tribe of Gaul inhabited the lower valley of the Moselle, within the southern fringes of the vast Arduenna Silva (Ardennes Forest). ... Trier (French: ; Luxembourgish Tréier) is a city in Germany on the banks of the Moselle River. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Archaeological evidence

The only direct archaeological evidence for Celtic speaking peoples comes from coins and inscriptions. However it has been assumed that the Hallstatt (c. 1200-475 BC) and La Tene (c. 500-50 BC) cultures are associated with the Celts. Only in the final phase of La Tene are coins found. It has been suggested that the Hallstatt culture may have been adopted by speakers of different languages whereas the La Tene culture is more definitely associated with the Celts.


Historical evidence

Polybius published a history of Rome about 150 BC in which he describes the Gauls of Italy and their conflict with Rome. Pausianias in the second century BC says that the Gauls "originally called Celts live on the remotest region of Europe on the coast of an enormous tidal sea". Posidonius described the southern Gauls about 100 BC. Though his original work is lost it was used by later writers such as Strabo. The later, writing in the early first century AD, deals with Britain and Gaul as well as Spain, Italy and Galatia. Caesar wrote extensively about his Gallic Wars in 58-51 BC. Diodorus Siculus wrote about the Celts of Gaul and Britain in his first century History. Polybius (c. ... The bust of Posidonius as an older man depicts his character as a Stoic philosopher. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Caesar may refer to the following: Related to Ancient Roman times Caesar (title), a title used by Roman Emperors Julius Caesar (100 BC–44 BC), a famous politician and military leader He used the Caesar cipher in his military campaigns. ... An 18th century edition of Commentarii de Bello Gallico Commentarii de Bello Gallico (literally Commentaries on the Gallic War in Latin) is an account written by Julius Caesar about his nine years of war in Gaul. ... Diodorus Siculus (c. ...


Homeland

The question of the original homeland of the Celts has caused much controversy, with at least six competing theories.


1) The Celtic language family is a branch of the larger Indo-European family, which leads some scholars to a hypothesis that the original speakers of the Celtic proto-language may have arisen in the Pontic-Caspian steppes (see Kurgan). It is not generally accepted, however, that Celtic became differentiated from other branches of Indo-European at such an early stage. By the time speakers of Celtic languages enter history around 600 BC, they were already split into several language groups, and spread over much of Central Europe, the Iberian peninsula, Ireland and Britain. Current distribution of Human Language Families A language family is a group of related languages said to have descended from a common proto-language. ... Proto-language may refer to either: a language that is the common ancestor of a set of related languages (a language family), or a system of communication during a stage in glottogony that may not yet be properly called a language. ... NASA satellite image of the Black Sea Map of the Black Sea The Black Sea is an inland sea between southeastern Europe and Anatolia that is actually a distant arm of the Atlantic Ocean by way of the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Caspian Sea (Russian: Каспийское море; Kazakh: Каспий теңізі; Turkmen: Hazar deňizi; Azeri: XÉ™zÉ™r dÉ™nizi; Persian: دریای خزر Daryā-ye Khazar) is the largest lake on Earth by area[2], with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometers (143,244 sq mi) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometers (18... The steppe of Western Kazakhstan in early spring In physical geography, steppe (from Slavic step) is a plain without trees (apart from those near rivers and lakes); it is similar to a prairie, although a prairie is generally reckoned as being dominated by tall grasses, while short grasses are said... Sarmatian Kurgan 4th c. ... Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 650s BC 640s BC 630s BC 620s BC 610s BC - 600s BC - 590s BC 580s BC 570s BC 560s BC 550s BC Events and Trends Fall of the Assyrian Empire and Rise of Babylon 609 BC _ King Josiah... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ...


2) Some scholars think that the Urnfield culture of northern Germany and the Netherlands represents an origin for the Celts as a distinct cultural branch of the Indo-European family. This culture was preeminent in central Europe during the late Bronze Age, from ca. 1200 BC until 700 BC, itself following the Unetice and Tumulus cultures. The Urnfield period saw a dramatic increase in population in the region, probably due to innovations in technology and agricultural practices. The Greek historian Ephoros of Cyme in Asia Minor, writing in the fourth century BC, believed that the Celts came from the islands off the mouth of the Rhine who were "driven from their homes by the frequency of wars and the violent rising of the sea". The Urnfield culture of central European culture is dated roughly between 1300 BC and 750 BC. The name describes the custom of cremating the dead and placing them in cemeteries. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... (Redirected from 1200 BC) Centuries: 14th century BC - 13th century BC - 12th century BC Decades: 1250s BC 1240s BC 1230s BC 1220s BC 1210s BC - 1200s BC - 1190s BC 1180s BC 1170s BC 1160s BC 1150s BC Events and Trends 1204 BC - Theseus, legendary King of Athens is deposed after... Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 750s BC 740s BC 730s BC 720s BC 710s BC - 700s BC - 690s BC 680s BC 670s BC 660s BC 650s BC Events and Trends 708 BC - Spartan immigrants found Taras (Tarentum, the modern Taranto) colony in southern Italy. ... Unetice, or more properly Únětice, culture, (German: Aunjetitz) is the name given to an early Bronze Age culture, preceded by the Beaker culture and followed by the Tumulus culture. ... The Tumulus culture which followed the Unetice culture, and from which they descended, dominated central Europe during mca 1600 BC tp 1200 BC. As the name implies, the Tumulus culture is distinguished by the practice of burying the dead beneath burial mounds. ... Ephorus (c. ... It has been suggested that River Rhine Pollution: November 1986 be merged into this article or section. ...


The spread of iron-working led to the development of the Hallstatt culture directly from the Urnfield (c. 700 to 500 BC). Proto-Celtic, the latest common ancestor of all known Celtic languages, is considered by this school of thought to have been spoken at the time of the late Urnfield or early Hallstatt cultures, in the early first millennium BC. Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... The Hallstatt culture was the predominant Central European culture during the local Bronze Age, and introduced the Iron Age. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC - 450s BC Events and Trends 509 BC - Foundation of the Roman Republic 508 BC - Office of pontifex maximus created... The Proto-Celtic language, also called Common Celtic, is the putative ancestor of all the known Celtic languages. ... A school is a collection or group of people who share common characteristics of opinion or outlook of a philosophy, discipline, belief, social movement, cultural movement, or art movement. ... (2nd millennium BC &#8211; 1st millennium BC &#8211; 1st millennium AD &#8211; other millennia) Events The Iron Age began in Western Europe Egypt declined as a major power The Tanakh was written Buddhism was founded Cyrus the Great conquered Babylon and created the Persian Empire (6th century BC) Sparta and...


The spread of the Celtic languages to Iberia, Ireland and Britain would have occurred during the first half of the 1st millennium, the earliest chariot burials in Britain dating to ca. 500 BC. Over the centuries they developed into the separate Celtiberian, Goidelic and Brythonic languages. Whether Goidelic and Brythonic are descended from a common Insular-Celtic language, or reflect two separate waves of migration, is disputed. In the Gregorian calendar, the 1st millennium is the period of one thousand years that commenced with the year 1 Anno Domini. ... Chariot burials are tombs in which the deceased was buried together with his chariot, usually including his horses and other possessions. ... Celtiberian (also Hispano-Celtic) is an extinct Celtic language spoken by the Celtiberians in northern Spain before and during the Roman Empire. ... The Brythonic languages (or Brittonic languages) form one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic language family. ...


3) The Hallstatt culture was succeeded by the La Tène culture of central Europe, and during the final stages of the Iron Age gradually transformed into the explicitly Celtic culture of early historical times. Celtic river-names are found in great numbers around the upper reaches of the Danube and Rhine, which led many Celtic scholars to place the ethnogenesis of the Celts in this area. Others however believe that the fact that the La Tène culture is too late to explain the original Celtic homeland; rather its extent demonstrates the subsequent spread of a pre-existing Celtic culture throughout Switzerland, Austria, southern and central Germany, northern regions of Italy, eastern France, Bohemia, Moravia, Portugal, Slovakia and parts of Hungary and Ukraine. The technologies, decorative practices and metal-working styles of the La Tène were certainly influential on the continental Celts, but they were highly derivative from the Greek, Etruscan and Scythian decorative styles with whom the La Tène settlers frequently traded. Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... The Danube (ancient Danuvius, Iranian *dānu, meaning river or stream, ancient Greek Istros) is the longest river in the European Union and Europes second longest river. ... Ethnogenesis is the process by which a group of human beings comes to be understood or to understand themselves as ethnically distinct from the wider social landscape from which their grouping emerges. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... Flag of Moravia Moravia (Czech and Slovak: Morava; German: ; Hungarian: ; Polish: ) is a historical region in the east of the Czech RepublicCzechia. ... Turned chess pieces Metalworking is the craft and practice of working with metals to create structures or machine parts. ... Extent of Etruscan civilization and the twelve Etruscan League cities. ... Scythia was an area in Eurasia inhabited in ancient times by an Indo-Aryans known as the Scythians. ...


4) Today's Celtic nations are of course clustered along the Atlantic coast of Europe. Genetic studies now suggest (see above) that certain Celtic-speaking peoples share genetic ancestry with the Basque people on the Atlantic coast of Spain and France.[13] J. F. del Giorgio in The Oldest Europeans mentions that mythologists like Robert Graves reached a similar conclusion through comparative mythology and the study of Celtic customs. Celtic scholars however believe that such similarities reflect an earlier common heritage of the indigenous populations of the Atlantic fringe, long before the arrival of the Celts. This article is about the European people. ... Languages Basque - few monoglots Spanish - 1,525,000 monoglots French - 150,000 monoglots Basque-Spanish - 600,000 speakers Basque-French - 76,000 speakers [4] other native languages Religions Traditionally Roman Catholic The Basques (Basque: ) are an indigenous people[5] who inhabit parts of northeastern Spain and southwestern France. ... Robert von Ranke Graves (24 July 1895 – 7 December 1985) was an English poet, scholar, and novelist. ... Comparative mythology, related to comparative religion, is a field of study which is technically part of anthropology but more usually regarded as part of the subject of ancient history. ...


5) Diodorus Siculus and Strabo both suggest that the Celtic heartland was in southern France. The former says that the Gauls were to the north of the Celts but that the Romans referred to both as Gauls. Before the discoveries at Hallstatt and La Tene, it was generlly considered that the Celtic heartland was southern France, see Encyclopedia Brittannica for 1813. Diodorus Siculus (c. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ...


6) At odds with all the above theories is the assertion of Pliny the Elder that Celtica (the country of origin of the Celts) was in the delta of the river Guadalquivir in the south of Portugal and Spain: "praeter haec in Celtica Acinippo, Arunda, Arunci, Turobriga, Lastigi, Salpesa, Saepone, Serippo. altera Baeturia, quam diximus Turdulorum et conventus Cordubensis, habet oppida non ignobilia Arsam, Mellariam, Mirobrigam Reginam, Sosintigi, Sisaponem."[14] This view is not shared by modern Celtic scholars, although the recent genetic research discussed above seem to support the Iberian origins of the peoples that were later called Celts. Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ...


Celts in Britain and Ireland

Principal sites in Roman Britain, with indication of the Celtic tribes.
Tribes of Wales at the time of the Roman invasion. Exact boundaries are conjectural.

A large portion of the indigenous populations of Britain and Ireland today may be partially descended from the ancient peoples that have long inhabited these lands, before the coming of Celtic and later Germanic peoples, language and culture. Little is known of their original culture and language, but remnants may remain in the names of some geographical features, such as the rivers Clyde, Tamar and Thames, whose etymology is unclear but almost certainly derive from a pre-Celtic substrate.[citation needed] By the Roman period, however, most of the inhabitants of the isles of Ireland and Britain were speaking Goidelic or Brythonic languages, close counterparts to Gallic languages spoken on the European mainland. Download high resolution version (880x1394, 179 KB)Map of Roman Britain from Atlas of European History, Earle W Dowe, London, G Bell & Sons, 1910 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (880x1394, 179 KB)Map of Roman Britain from Atlas of European History, Earle W Dowe, London, G Bell & Sons, 1910 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Image File history File links CymruLlwythi. ... Image File history File links CymruLlwythi. ... The River Clyde, looking eastwards upstream, as it passes beneath the Kingston Bridge in Central Glasgow. ... The Tamar is a river in south western England, that forms most of the border between Devon (to the east) and Cornwall (to the west). ... Several places exist with the name Thames, and the word is also used as part of several brand and company names Most famous is the River Thames in England, on which the city of London stands Other Thames Rivers There is a Thames River in Canada There is a Thames... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Goidelic is one of two major divisions of modern-day Celtic languages (the other being Brythonic). ... Brythonic is one of two major divisions of Insular Celtic languages (the other being Goidelic). ...


Historians explained this as the result of successive invasions from the European continent by diverse Celtic-speaking peoples over the course of several centuries. The Book of Leinster, written in the twelfth century, but drawing on a much earlier Irish oral tradition, states that the first Celts to arrive in Ireland were from Spain. In 1946 the Celtic scholar T. F. O'Rahilly published his extremely influential model of the early history of Ireland which postulated four separate waves of Celtic invaders. It is still not known what languages were spoken by the peoples of Ireland and Britain before the arrival of the Celts. An invasion is a military action consisting of armed forces of one geopolitical entity entering territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of conquering territory, or altering the established government. ... The Book of Leinster (Irish Lebor Laignech), formerly known as the Book of Noughaval (Lebor na Nuachongbála), is a medieval Irish manuscript compliled ca. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Thomas Francis ORahilly, also Tomás Ó Rahille, born 1883 in Listowel, County Kerry, Ireland; died 1953 in Dublin, was an influential scholar of the Celtic languages, particularly in the fields of Historical linguistics and Irish dialects. ... Newgrange, a famous Irish passage tomb built c3,200 BC // What little is known of pre-Christian Ireland comes from a few references in Roman writings, Irish poetry and myth, and archaeology. ...

Celtic dagger found in Britain.

Later research indicated that the culture may have developed gradually and continuously between the Celts and the indigenous "basque" people of Britain.[citation needed] In Ireland little archaeological evidence was found for large intrusive groups of Celtic immigrants, suggesting to historians such as Colin Renfrew that the native late Bronze Age inhabitants gradually absorbed European Celtic influences and language. Although archaeological evidence has often been proved unreliable in the past. It should also be noted that genetic evidence proves that most Celtic people of coastal and northern Ireland have little traces of R1b genes, therefore indicating that when the Celts came to Ireland, the absorption of the indigenous inhabitants was regional (mainly central).[15] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x576, 90 KB) Summary Celtic dagger, scabbard and a buckle. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x576, 90 KB) Summary Celtic dagger, scabbard and a buckle. ... Andrew Colin Renfrew, Baron Renfrew of Kaimsthorn (born 25 July 1937), English archaeologist, notable for his work on the radiocarbon revolution, the prehistory of languages, archaeogenetics, and the prevention of looting of archaeological sites. ...


Julius Caesar wrote of people in Britain who came from Belgium (the Belgae), but archaeological evidence which was interpreted in the 1930s as confirming this was contradicted by later interpretations.[citation needed] The archaeological evidence is of substantial cultural continuity through the first millennium BCE, although with a significant overlay of selectively-adopted elements of La Tène culture. There is numismatic and other evidence of continental-style states appearing in southern England close to the end of the period, possibly reflecting in part immigration by élites from various Gallic states such as those of the Belgae.[citation needed] However, this immigration would be far too late to account for the origins of Insular Celtic languages. In the 1970s the continuity model was taken to an extreme, popularised by Colin Burgess in his book The Age of Stonehenge which theorised that Celtic culture in Great Britain "emerged" rather than resulted from invasion and that the Celts were not invading aliens, but the descendants of the people of Stonehenge. The existence of Celtic language elsewhere in Europe, however, and the dating of the Proto-Celtic culture and language to the Bronze Age, makes the most extreme claims of continuity impossible. Gaius Julius Caesar [1] (Latin pronunciation ; English pronunciation ; July 12 or July 13, 100 BC or 102 BC – March 15, 44 BC), was a Roman military and political leader and one of the most influential men in world history. ... The Belgae were a group of nations or tribes living in north-eastern Gaul, on the west bank of the Rhine, in the 1st century BC, and later also attested in Britain. ... Face The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known in Europe as the World Depression. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979. ... Colin Burgess (born November 16, 1946) was the first drummer with rock band AC/DC. From 1968-1972 he played in the successful Australian rock group The Masters Apprentices, and was recruited at the time of AC/DCs formation in 1973, joining Malcolm Young (Rhythm Guitar), Angus Young (Lead...


More recently a number of genetic studies have also supported this model of culture and language being absorbed by native populations. A study by Cristian Capelli, David Goldstein and others at University College, London showed that genes associated with Gaelic names in Ireland and Scotland are also common in certain parts of Wales (in most cases) are similar to the genes of the Basque people, who speak a non-Indo-European language. This similarity supported earlier findings in suggesting a large pre-Celtic genetic ancestry, possibly going back to the Paleolithic. They suggest that 'Celtic' culture and the Celtic language may have been imported to Britain by cultural contact, not mass invasions around 600 BC. A different possibility is that the Celtic language should differentiated from the Celtic culture. DNA, the molecular basis for inheritance. ... The Front Quad University College London, commonly known as UCL, is one of the colleges that make up the University of London. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This cranium, of Homo heidelbergensis, a Lower Paleolithic predecessor to Homo neanderthalensis, dates to between 400,000 BCE to 500,000 BCE The Paleolithic is a prehistoric era distinguished by the development of stone tools. ...


Some recent studies have suggested that, contrary to long-standing beliefs, the Germanic tribes (Angles, Saxons) did not wipe out the Romano-British of England but rather, over the course of six centuries, conquered the native Brythonic people of what is now England and south-east Scotland and imposed their culture and language upon them (this may also be the case with the Celts and basques of Ireland), much as the Irish may have spread over the west of Scotland. Still others maintain that the picture is mixed and that in some places the indigenous population was indeed wiped out while in others it was assimilated. According to this school of thought the populations of Yorkshire, East Anglia, Northumberland and the Orkney and Shetland Islands are those populations with the fewest traces of ancient (Celtic) British continuation.[16] White cliffs of Dover in England White cliffs of Rugen down the Baltic coast from Schleswig The Angles is a modern English word for a Germanic-speaking people who took their name from the cultural ancestor of Angeln, a modern district located in Schleswig, Germany. ... For other uses, see Saxon (disambiguation). ... Romano-British is a term used to refer to the Romanized Britons under the Roman Empire (and later the Western Roman Empire) and in the years after the Roman departure exposed to Roman culture and Christian religion. ... Gododdin (pronounced god-o-th-in), or Guotodin (Votadini in Latin), refers to both the people and to the region of a Dark Ages Brythonic kingdom south of the Firth of Forth, extending from the Stirling area to the Northumberland kingdom of Brynaich, and including what are now the Lothian... Norfolk and Suffolk, the core area of East Anglia. ... The Shetland Islands, also called Shetland (archaically spelled Zetland) formerly called Hjaltland, comprise one of 32 council areas of Scotland. ...


Celts in Gaul

Repartition of Gaul ca. 54 BC
Main article: Gaul

At the dawn of history in Europe, the Celts in present-day France were known as Gauls to the Romans. Gaul probably included Belgium and Switzerland. Their descendants were described by Julius Caesar in his Gallic Wars. Eastern Gaul was the centre of the western La Tene culture. In later Iron Age Gaul the social organisation was similar to that of the Romans, with large towns. From the third century BC the Gauls adopted coinage and texts with Greek characters are known in southern Gaul from the second century. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (787x799, 169 KB) Map of Gallia (58 BC) with important Tribes, Towns, Rivers etc. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (787x799, 169 KB) Map of Gallia (58 BC) with important Tribes, Towns, Rivers etc. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 59 BC 58 BC 57 BC 56 BC 55 BC 54 BC 53 BC 52 BC 51... Map of Gaul circa 58 BC Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Combatants Roman Republic Several Gallic tribes Commanders Julius Caesar Titus Labienus Mark Antony Quintus Cicero Vercingetorix, Ambiorix, Commius, among other The Gallic Wars were a series of military campaigns by several invading Roman legions under the command of Julius Caesar into Gaul, and the subsequent uprisings of the Gallic tribes. ...


Greek traders founded Massalia in about 600BC with exchange up the Rhone valley. But trade was disrupted soon after 500BC and re-oriented over the Alps to the Po valley in Italy. The Romans arrived in the Rhone valley in the second century BC and found that a large part of Gaul was Celtic speaking. Rome needed land communications with its Spanish provinces and fought a major battle with the Saluvii at Entremont in 124-123 BC. Gradually Roman control extended, the Roman Province of Gallia Transalpina being along the Mediterranean coast. The remainder was known as Gallia Comata "Hairy Gaul".


In 58 BC the Helvetii planned to migrate westward but were forced back by Julius Caesar. He then became incilved in fighting the various tribes in Gaul and by 55 BC most of Gaul had been overrun. In 52 BC Vercingetorix led a revolt gainst the Roman occupation but was defeated at the siege of Alesia and surrendered.


Following the Gallic Wars of 58-51 BC, Celticia formed the main part of Roman Gaul. Place name analysis shows that Celtic was used east of the Garonne river and south of the Seine-Marne. However, the Celtic language did not survive, being replaced by a Romance language, French.


Celts in Iberia

Main language areas in Iberia, showing Celtic and Proto-Celtic languages in green, and Iberian languages in purple, circa 250 BC.
Main language areas in Iberia circa 200 BC. showing Celtic and Proto-Celtic languages in green.
See also: Pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula, Prehistoric Iberia, Hispania, Lusitania, and Gallaecia

Traditional 18th/19th centuries scholarship surrounding the Celts virtually ignored the Iberian Peninsula, since material culture relatable to the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures that have defined Iron Age Celts was rare in Iberia, and did not provide a cultural scenario that could easily be linked to that of Central Europe. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 586 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (733 × 750 pixel, file size: 33 KB, MIME type: image/gif) Author: Davius Sanctex (wikipedist), Barcelona, Spain. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 586 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (733 × 750 pixel, file size: 33 KB, MIME type: image/gif) Author: Davius Sanctex (wikipedist), Barcelona, Spain. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... The Iberian language describes a linguistic group identified with the Iberian civilization (7th century BC – 1st century BC), formed in the eastern and south-eastern regions of the Iberian peninsula. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC - 250s BC - 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC Years: 255 BC 254 BC 253 BC 252 BC 251 BC - 250 BC - 249 BC 248 BC... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC - 200s BC - 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC Years: 205 BC 204 BC 203 BC 202 BC 201 BC - 200 BC - 199 BC 198 BC... Main language areas in Iberia circa 250 BC. This is a list of the Pre-Roman people of the Iberian peninsula (the Roman Hispania - modern Andorra, Portugal and Spain). ... This article describes the prehistory of the Iberian Peninsula from the appearance of the first human populations until the arrival of the Phoenicians and the first recorded contacts with other European cultures. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iberian Peninsula. ... In red is the province of Lusitania within the Roman Empire, 120 AD Lusitania was an ancient Roman province approximately including current Portugal, except for the area between the rivers Douro and Minho (part of Hispania Tarraconensis), and part of modern day western Spain, the present autonomous communities of Extremadura... Gallaecia or Callaecia (from Gaulish *gal-laikos smoke?-hero/warrior) was the name of a Roman province that comprised a territory in the north-west of Hispania (approximately the current Galicia of Spain and the north of Portugal). ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century &#8212; 19th century &#8212; 20th century &#8212; more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... In archaeology, culture refers to either of two separate but allied concepts: An archaeological culture is a pattern of similar artefacts and features found within a specific area over a limited period of time. ... Hallstatt (), Upper Austria is a village in the Salzkammergut, a region in Austria. ... La Tène is a village near the Neuenburger See, also called Lac du Neuchâtel, a lake in Switzerland. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ...


Modern scholarship, however, has proven that Celtic presence and influences were very substantial in Iberia. The Celts in Iberia were divided in two main archaeological and cultural groups, even if the divide is not very clear:

The origins of the Celtiberians might provide a key to unlocking the Celticization process in the rest of the Peninsula. The process of celticization of the SW by the Keltoi and NW is however not a simple celtiberian question. Recent investigation about the Callaici Bracari in NW Portugal is bringing new approaches to understand celtic culture evidences (language, art and religion) in western Iberia.[17] Galicia (Spain) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Atlantic Europe is a geographical and anthropological term for the western portion of Europe which borders the Atlantic Ocean At its widest definition, it comprises Spain, France and the British Isles. ... The Lusitanians (or Lusitani in Latin) were a tribe, or various tribes, from the western Iberian peninsula (province of Lusitania), who spoke a Lusitanian language until the conquest of their territory by the Romans. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Algarve NUTS II region, and the district of Faro in Portugal. ... The Celtici were an ancient celtic tribe akin to the Lusitanians and Calaicians or Gallaeci, living in what today is the province of Alentejo in modern Portugal. ... The Vettones were one of the pre-Roman peoples of Iberia, dwelling in the northwestern part of the meseta&#8212; the high central upland plain of the Iberian peninsula, the region where the Spanish provinces of Avila and Salamanca are today, as well as parts of Zamora, Toledo and C... Map of the area occupied by the Vaccaei. ... Gallaecia or Callaecia (from Gaulish *gal-laikos smoke?-hero/warrior) was the name of a Roman province that comprised a territory in the north-west of Hispania (approximately the current Galicia of Spain and the north of Portugal). ... ASTUR or ASTURES is a region of Northern Spain and also referes to the original inhabitants of this region. ... Cantabri was an ancient tribe which inhabited the north coast of Spain near Santander and Bilbao and the mountains behind a district hence known as Cantabria. ... Castros de Baroña, Baroña, Porto Do Son, Coruña Castro de Troña, Pías, Ponteareas, Pontevedra Castro culture (Cultura Castreja in Portuguese, Cultura Castrexa in Galician and Cultura castreña in Spanish) is the archaeologists descriptor for the culture of the northwestern part of the Iberian Peninsula... Botorrita: Bronze plate with inscription. ... The Lady of Baza, made by Iberians The Iberians were an ancient, Pre-Indo-European people who inhabited the east and southeast of the Iberian Peninsula in prehistoric and historic times. ... The Callaici or callaeci were a single or various tribes living in the North of Douro River in Northern Portugal and Galicia (Spain). ... The Bracari were an ancient celtiberian tribe akin to the Lusitanians and Calaicians or Gallaeci, living in the north of modern Portugal, in the province of Minho, between the rivers Tâmega and Cávado, around the area of the modern city of Braga. ...


Celts in Italy

There was an early Celtic presence in northern Italy since inscriptions dated to the sixth century BC have been found there. In 391BC Celts "who had their homes beyond the Alps streamed through the passes in great strength and seized the territory that lay between the Appeninne mountains and the Alps" according to Diodorus Siculus. The Po Valley and the rest of northern Italy (known to the Romans as Cisalpine Gaul) was inhabited by Celtic-speakers who founded cities such as Milan. Later the Roman army was routed at the battle of Allia and Rome was sacked in 390BC. Diodorus Siculus (c. ... Po redirects here, for alternate uses see Po (disambiguation). ... Cisalpine Gaul (Latin: Gallia Cisalpina, meaning Gaul this side of the Alps) was a province of the Roman Republic, in Emilia and Lombardy of modern-day northern Italy. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ...


At the battle of Telemon in 225 BC a large Celtic army was trapped between two Roman forces and crushed.


The defeat of the combined Samnite, Celtic and Etruscan alliance by the Romans in the Third Samnite War sounded the beginning of the end of the Celtic domination in mainland Europe, but it was not until 192 BC that the Roman armies conquered the last remaining independent Celtic kingdoms in Italy. Samnium (Oscan Safinim) was a region of the southern Apennines in Italy that was home to the Samnites, a group of Sabellic tribes that controlled the area from about 600 BC to about 290 BC. Samnium was delimited by Latium in the north, by Lucania in the south, by Campania... Combatants Roman Republic Samnium The Samnite Wars were three wars between the early Roman Republic and the tribes of Samnium. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC - 190s BC - 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC Years: 197 BC 196 BC 195 BC 194 BC 193 BC - 192 BC - 191 BC 190 BC...


The Celts settled much further south of the Po River than many maps show. Remnants in the town of Doccia, in the province of Emilia-Romagna, showcase Celtic houses in very good condition dating from about the 4th century BC. Emilia-Romagna is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. ...


Celts in other regions

The Celts also expanded down the Danube river and its tributaries. On of the most influential tribes, the Scordisci, had established their capital at Singidunum in 3rd century BC, which is present-day Belgrade. The concentration of hill-forts and cemeteries shows a density of population in the Tisza valley of modern-day Vojvodina, Hungary and into Ukraine. Expansion into Romania was however blocked by the Dacians. The Danube (ancient Danuvius, Iranian *dānu, meaning river or stream, ancient Greek Istros) is the longest river in the European Union and Europes second longest river. ... Scordisci were, in ancient geography, a war-like tribe inhabiting the southern part of lower Pannonia, comprising parts of the present-day countries Austria, Croatia, Hungary, Serbia, Slovenia, Slovakia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, between the Savus (Sava), Dravus (Drava) and Danube rivers. ... Singidunum was an ancient Roman city, first settled by the Scordisci in the 3rd century B.C., and later garrisoned and fortified by the Romans who romanized the name. ... Location of Belgrade within Serbia Coordinates: Country Serbia District City of Belgrade Municipalities 17 Government  - Mayor Nenad Bogdanović (DS) (since 2004)  - Ruling parties DS/DSS/G17+ Area  - City 3,222. ... The Tisza or Tisa is one of the major rivers of Central Europe. ... Vojvodina (red) is one of Serbias two autonomous provinces Capital (and largest city) Novi Sad Official languages Ethnic groups  2. ... Dacian kingdom during the reign of Burebista, 82 BC The Dacians (Lat. ...


Further south, Celts settled in Thrace (Bulgaria), which they ruled for over a century, and Anatolia, where they settled as the Galatians. Despite their geographical isolation from the rest of the Celtic world, the Galatians maintained their Celtic language for at least seven hundred years. St Jerome, who visited Ancyra (modern-day Ankara in 373AD, likened their language to that of the Treveri of northern Gaul. Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Saint-Jérôme, Quebec is a town in Quebec, near Mirabel, about 40 kilometers (25 miles) northwest of Montreal along Autoroute des Laurentides. ... Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after Ä°stanbul. ... The Treveri tribe of Gaul inhabited the lower valley of the Moselle, within the southern fringes of the vast Arduenna Silva (Ardennes Forest). ...


The Boii tribe gave their name to Bohemia (Czech Republic) and Celtic artefacts and cemeteries have been discovered further east in both Poland and Slovakia. A celtic coin (Biatec) from Bratislava's mint is displayed on today's Slovak 5 crown coin. Boii (Latin plural, singular Boius; Greek Βοιοι) is the Roman name of an ancient Celtic tribe, attested at various times in Transalpine Gaul (modern France) and Cisalpine Gaul (northern Italy), as well as most anciently found in Pannonia (today Western Hungary), Bohemia, Moravia and western Slovakia. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... An original Biatec and its replica on a modern 5-koruna coin. ... Nickname: Location of Bratislava within Slovakia Coordinates: , Country Slovakia Region Bratislava Region Districts Bratislava I-V City subdivisions 17 city boroughs Cadastral areas 20 cadastral areas First mentioned 907[1] Government  - Type City council  - Mayor (Primátor) Andrej ÄŽurkovský[2]  - Headquarters Primates Palace Area [1]  - City 367. ...


As there is no archaeological evidence for large scale invasions in some of the other areas, one current school of thought holds that Celtic language and culture spread to those areas by contact rather than invasion. However, the Celtic invasions of Italy, Greece, and western Anatolia are well documented in Greek and Latin history. Examine the Map of Celtic Lands for more information.[18]


There are records of Celtic mercenaries in Egypt serving the Ptolomies. Thousands were employed in 283-246 BC and they were also in service around 186 BC. They attempted to overthrow Ptolomy II.


Romanisation

Under Caesar the Romans conquered Celtic Gaul, and from Claudius onward the Roman empire absorbed parts of Britain. Roman local government of these regions closely mirrored pre-Roman 'tribal' boundaries, and archaeological finds suggest native involvement in local government. Latin was the official language of these regions after the conquests. For other persons named Claudius, see Claudius (disambiguation). ... http://www. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ...


The native peoples under Roman rule became Romanized and keen to adopt Roman ways. Celtic art had already incorporated classical influences, and surviving Gallo-Roman pieces interpret classical subjects or keep faith with old traditions despite a Roman overlay.


The Roman occupation of Gaul, and to a lesser extent of Britain, led to Roman-Celtic syncretism (see Roman Gaul, Roman Britain). In the case of Gaul, this eventually resulted in a language shift from Gaulish to Vulgar Latin (see also Gallo-Roman culture). However, the Celts were master horsemen,[citation needed] which so impressed the Romans[citation needed] that they adopted Epona, the Celtic horse goddess, into their pantheon. During and after the fall of the Roman Empire many parts of France threw out their Roman administrators. Syncretism consists of the attempt to reconcile disparate or contradictory beliefs, often while melding practices of various schools of thought. ... Gaul in the Roman Empire Roman Gaul consisted of an area of provincial rule in what would become modern day France, Belgium, Luxembourg, and western Germany. ... Roman Britain refers to those parts of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire between 43 and 410. ... Language shift is the process whereby an entire speech community of a language shifts to speaking another language. ... Gaulish is the name given to the Celtic language that was spoken in Gaul before the Vulgar Latin of the late Roman Empire became dominant in Roman Gaul. ... Vulgar Latin, as in this political graffito at Pompeii, was the speech of ordinary people of the Roman Empire — different from the classical Latin used by the Roman elite. ... The term Gallo-Roman describes the Romanized culture of Gaul under the rule of the Roman Empire, particularly the areas of Gallia Narbonensis that developed into Occitania, and to a lesser degree, Aquitania. ... For other uses of Epona, see Epona (disambiguation) Image:Epona link. ...

Image File history File links Ccross. ... Image File history File links Ccross. ... Celtic cross For Celtic Cross, the ambient/dub band see Celtic Cross (band) A Celtic cross is a symbol that combines the cross with a ring surrounding the intersection. ...

Celtic social system and arts

To the extent that sources are available, they depict a pre-Christian Celtic social structure based formally on class and kinship. Patron-client relationships similar to those of Roman society are also described by Caesar and others in the Gaul of the first century BC. See Social structure of the United States for an explanation of concepts exsistance within US society. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 1st century BC started on January 1, 100 BC and ended on December 31, 1 BC. An alternative name for this century is the last century BC. The AD/BC notation does not use a year zero. ...


In the main, the evidence is of tribes being led by kings, although some argue that there is evidence of oligarchical republican forms of government eventually emerging in areas in close contact with Rome. Most descriptions of Celtic societies describe them as being divided into three groups: a warrior aristocracy; an intellectual class including professions such as druid, poet, and jurist; and everyone else. There are instances recorded where women participated both in warfare and in kingship, although they were in the minority in these areas. In historical times, the offices of high and low kings in Ireland and Scotland were filled by election under the system of tanistry, which eventually came into conflict with the feudal principle of primogeniture where the succession goes to the first born son. Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A form of government is a term that refers to the set of political institutions by which a state is organized in order to exert its powers over a political community. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...


Archaeological discoveries at the Vix Burial indicate that women could achieve high status and power within at least one Celtic society. As Celtic history was only carried forward by oral tradition, it has been advanced that the traditions finally recorded in the seventh century can be projected back through Celtic history.[19] If this is so then, according to the Cáin Lánamna, a woman had the right to demand divorce, take back whatever property she brought into the marriage and be free to remarry. If later Celtic tradition can be projected back, and from Ireland to Britain and the continent, then Celtic law demanded that children, the elderly, and the mentally handicapped be looked after. Oral tradition or oral culture is a way of transmitting history, literature or law from one generation to the next in a civilization without a writing system. ... The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Developmental disability is a term used to describe life-long disabilities attributable to mental and/or physical or combination of mental and physical impairments, manifested prior to age twenty-two. ...


Little is known of family structure among the Celts. Athenaeus in his Deipnosophists, 13.603, claims that "the Celts, in spite of the fact that their women are the most beautiful of all the barbarian tribes, prefer boys as sexual partners. There are some of them who will regularly go to bed – on those animal skins of theirs – with a pair of lovers", implying a woman and a boy. Such reports reflect an outsiders observation of Celtic culture.[20] It is unknown whether Athenaeus, born in Egypt of Greek origin ever visited any Celts since little is known about him beyond his surviving writings. Athenaeus (ca. ...


Patterns of settlement varied from decentralised to the urban. The popular stereotype of non-urbanised societies settled in hillforts and duns, drawn from Britain and Ireland contrasts with the urban settlements present in the core Hallstatt and La Tene areas, with the many significant oppida of Gaul late in the first millennium BC, and with the towns of Gallia Cisalpina. The term hill fort is commonly used by archeologists to describe fortified enclosures located to exploit a rise in elevation for defensive advantage. ... Dun comes from the Brythonic Din and Gaelic Dun, meaning fort, and is now used as a general term for small stone built strongholds, enclosures or roundhouses in Scotland, as a sub-group of hill forts. ... Cisalpine Gaul (Latin: Gallia Cisalpina, meaning Gaul this side of the Alps) was a province of the Roman Republic, in Emilia and Lombardy of modern-day northern Italy. ...


There is archaeological evidence to suggest that the pre-Roman Celtic societies were linked to the network of overland trade routes that spanned Eurasia. Large prehistoric trackways crossing bogs in Ireland and Germany have been found by archaeologists. They are believed to have been created for wheeled transport as part of an extensive roadway system that facilitated trade.[21] The territory held by the Celts contained tin, lead, iron, silver and gold.[22] Celtic smiths and metalworkers created weapons and jewelry for international trade, particularly with the Romans. Celtic traders were also in contact with the Phoenicians: gold works made in pre-Roman Ireland have been unearthed in archaeological digs in Palestine and trade routes between Atlantic societies and Palestine dating back to at least 1600 BC. A trade route is the sequence of pathways and stopping places used for the commercial transport of cargo. ... Centuries: 18th century BC - 17th century BC - 16th century BC Decades: 1650s BC 1640s BC 1630s BC 1620s BC 1610s BC - 1600s BC - 1590s BC 1580s BC 1570s BC 1560s BC 1550s BC Events and trends Egypt: End of Fourteenth Dynasty. ...


Local trade was largely in the form of barter, but as with most tribal societies they probably had a reciprocal economy in which goods and other services are not exchanged, but are given on the basis of mutual relationships and the obligations of kinship. Low value coinages of potin, silver and bronze, suitable for use in trade, were minted in most Celtic areas of the continent, and in South-East Britain prior to the Roman conquest of these areas.


There are only very limited records from pre-Christian times written in Celtic languages. These are mostly inscriptions in the Roman, and sometimes Greek, alphabets. The Ogham script was mostly used in early Christian times in Ireland and Scotland (but also in Wales and England), and was only used for ceremonial purposes such as inscriptions on gravestones. The available evidence is of a strong oral tradition, such as that preserved by bards in Ireland, and eventually recorded by monasteries. The oldest recorded rhyming poetry in the world is of Irish origin and is a transcription of a much older epic poem, leading some scholars to claim that the Celts invented Rhyme. They were highly skilled in visual arts and Celtic art produced a great deal of intricate and beautiful metalwork, examples of which have been preserved by their distinctive burial rites. Note: This article contains special characters. ... The epic is a broadly defined genre of narrative poetry, characterized by great length, multiple settings, large numbers of characters, or long span of time involved. ... A rhyme is a repetition of identical or similar terminal sounds in two or more different words (i. ...


In some regards the Atlantic Celts were conservative, for example they still used chariots in combat long after they had been reduced to ceremonial roles by the Greeks and Romans, though when faced with the Romans in Britain, their chariot tactics defeated the invasion attempted by Julius Caesar. Hittite chariot (drawing of an Egyptian relief) Approximate historical map of the spread of the chariot, 2000–500 BC. A chariot is a two-wheeled, horse-drawn vehicle. ... // Relief of early wagons on the Standard of Ur, ca. ...


The Celtic Calendar

The Coligny Calendar, which was found in 1897 in Coligny, Ain, was engraved on a bronze tablet, preserved in 73 fragments, that originally was 1.48 m wide and 0.9 m high (Lambert p.111). Based on the style of lettering and the accompanying objects, it probably dates to the end of the 2nd century.[23] It is written in Latin inscriptional capitals, and is in the Gaulish language. The restored tablet contains sixteen vertical columns, with sixty-two months distributed over five years. overview of the re-assembled tablet detail of Mid Samonios The Gaulish Coligny Calendar was found in Coligny, Ain, France (46°23′N 5°21′E) near Lyons in 1897, along with the head of a bronze statue of a youthful male figure. ... Coligny is a commune in the French département of Ain. ... Préfecture building of the Ain département, in Bourg-en-Bresse Ain is a département named after the Ain River on the eastern edge of France bordering Switzerland. ... Assorted ancient Bronze castings found as part of a cache, probably intended for recycling. ... The 2nd century is the period from 101 - 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Gaulish is the name given to the Celtic language that was spoken in Gaul before the Vulgar Latin of the late Roman Empire became dominant in Roman Gaul. ...


The French archaeologist J. Monard speculated that it was recorded by druids wishing to preserve their tradition of timekeeping in a time when the Julian calendar was imposed throughout the Roman Empire. However, the general form of the calendar suggests the public peg calendars (or parapegmata) found throughout the Greek and Roman world [24] Two druids, from an 1845 publication, based on a bas-relief found at Autun, France. ... The Julian calendar was introduced in 46 BC by Julius Caesar and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ...


There were four major festivals in the Celtic Calendar: "Imbolc" on the 1st of February, possibly linked to the lactation of the ewes and sacred to the Irish Goddess Brigid. "Beltain" on the 1st of May, connected to fertility and warmth, possibly linked to the Sun God Belenos. "Lughnasa" on the 1st of August, connected with the harvest and associated with the God Lugh. And finally "Samhain" on the 1st of November, possibly the start of the year.[25] Two of these festivals, Beltain and Lugnasa are shown on the Coligny Calendar by sigils, and it is not too much of a stretch of the imagination to match the first month on the Calendar (Samonios) to Samhain. Lughnasa does not seem to be shown at all however.[26]


The Celtic Calendar seems to be based on astronomy[27] but how any astrology system would have worked is harder to tell. We have to base our knowledge on Old Irish manuscripts, none of which have been published or fully translated. It seems to have been based on an indigenous Irish symbol system, and not that of any of the more commonly-known astrological systems such as Western, Chinese or Vedic astrology.[28] Old Irish is the name given to the oldest form of the Irish language which can be more or less fully reconstructed from extant sources. ... Western astrology is the system of astrology most popular in Western countries. ... Jyotisha (, in Hindi and English usage Jyotish; sometimes called Hindu astrology, Indian astrology, and/or Vedic astrology) is the Hindu system of astrology, one of the six disciplines of Vedanga, and regarded as one of the oldest schools of ancient astrology to have had an independent origin, affecting all other...


Celtic women

Sexual norms

There are instances recorded where women participated both in warfare and in kingship, although they were in the minority in these areas. Plutarch reports Celtic women acting as ambassadors to avoid a war amongst Celts chiefdoms on the Po valley during the fourth century BC.[29] Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ...


The sexual freedom of Celtic women was noted by Cassius Dio:[30] A sexual norm can refer to a personal or a social norm. ... Cassius Dio Cocceianus (ca. ...

...a very witty remark is reported to have been made by the wife of Argentocoxus, a Caledonian, to Julia Augusta. When the empress was jesting with her, after the treaty, about the free intercourse of her sex with men in Britain, she replied: "We fulfill the demands of nature in a much better way than do you Roman women; for we consort openly with the best men, whereas you let yourselves be debauched in secret by the vilest." Such was the retort of the British woman.

Cassius Dio Livia Drusilla, after 14 AD called Livia Augusta (Classical Latin: LIVIA•DRVSILLA, later LIVIA•AVGVSTA[1]) (58 BC-AD 29) was the wife of Caesar Augustus (also known as Octavian) and the most powerful woman in the early Roman Empire, acting several times as regent and being Augustus faithful advisor. ... Cassius Dio Cocceianus (ca. ...

Celtic women as warriors

Despite the fact that Celtic Princesses and the badb were cross-dressing symbols of sex and politics, rather than historical representations of real fighting women, Posidonius and Strabo described an island of women, where men could not venture for fear of death, and women ripped each other apart.[31] Other writers such as Ammianus Marcellinus, Tacitus mentioned Celtic women inciting, participating, and leading battles.[32] Poseidonius anthropological comments on the Celts had common themes, primarily primitivism, extreme ferocity, cruel sacrificial practices, and the strength and courage of their women.[33] Contemporary historians ascribe this to the Romans and Greeks want for a upside-down world for the barbarians, who both frightened and fascinated them. It is interesting to note that the Celtic God of Martial Arts was, in all fact, a woman. In Irish mythology, the Badb ( crow in Old Irish; modern Irish Badhbh means vulture or carrion-crow) was a goddess of war who took the form of a crow, and was thus sometimes known as Badb Catha (battle crow). ... The bust of Posidonius as an older man depicts his character as a Stoic philosopher. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Ammianus Marcellinus (325/330-after 391) was a Roman historian who wrote during Late Antiquity. ... Gaius Cornelius Tacitus Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (c. ...


Notable Celtic women

  • Camma, priestess of Brigandu, wife of Sinatos.
  • Elen Luyddog, (widely known as Helen of the Hosts or Elen) was a Romano-British princess and the wife of Magnus Clemens Maximus, Emperor in Britain, Gaul and Spain, where he died seeking imperial recognition in 388 CE. She is also considered a founder of churches in Wales and remembered as a saint.

Cartimandua (or Cartismandua, ruled ca. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC 40 BC... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 74 BC 73 BC 72 BC 71 BC 70 BC 69 BC 68 BC 67 BC 66... The Brigantes were a British Celtic tribe which lived between Tyne and Humber. ... This is a list of Celtic tribes and associated celtic peoples with their geographical localization. ... The River Tyne can refer to two rivers in the United Kingdom: River Tyne, England River Tyne, Scotland This is a disambiguation page &#8212; a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... River Hull tidal barrier. ... Roman Britain refers to those parts of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire between 43 and 410. ... Gaius Cornelius Tacitus Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (c. ... In Irish mythology, Brigid or Brighid (exalted one) was the daughter of Dagda (and therefore one of the Tuatha de Danaan) and wife of Bres of the Fomorians. ... Boudica and Her Daughters near Westminster Pier, London, commissioned by Prince Albert and executed by Thomas Thornycroft Boudica (also spelt Boudicca, formerly better known as Boadicea) (d. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 65 BC 64 BC 63 BC 62 BC 61 BC 60 BC 59 BC 58 BC 57... Cleopatra is one of the most well-known queens regnant A queen regnant (plural queens regnant) is a female monarch who possesses all the monarchal powers that a king would have without regard to gender. ... Brythonic is one of two major divisions of Insular Celtic languages (the other being Goidelic). ... The Iceni or Eceni were a Brythonic tribe who inhabited an area of Britain corresponding roughly to the modern-day county of Norfolk between the 1st century BC and 1st century AD. The Cenimagni, who surrendered to Julius Caesar during his second expedition to Britain in 54 BC, may have... Norfolk (IPA: //) is a low-lying county in East Anglia in the east of southern England. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... Combatants Roman Empire Iceni, Trinovantes, and other British tribes Commanders Gaius Suetonius Paulinus Boudica † Strength About 10,000 to 12,000 Estimated at 200,000 to 400,000 Casualties At least 400 Recorded at over 150,000 The Battle of Watling Street took place in AD 61 between an alliance... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC - 180s BC - 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC Years: 194 BC 193 BC 192 BC 191 BC 190 BC - 189 BC - 188 BC 187 BC... Queen Teuta (also Queen Tefta), was an Illyrian queen and regent who reigned approximately from 231 BC to 228 BC. After the death of Agron (250 BC?-231 BC) who established the first kingdom of Illyria, extending from Dalmatia on the north to the Aous (Vjosa river) River on the... Location of Illyria Illyria (Albanian Iliria Land of the Free; Ancient Greek ; Latin Illyria [1] (see also Illyricum) was in Classical antiquity a region in the western part of todays Balkan Peninsula, founded by the tribes and clans of Illyrians, an ancient people who spoke the Illyrian languages. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC - 230s BC - 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC Years: 236 BC 235 BC 234 BC 233 BC 232 BC - 231 BC - 230 BC 229 BC... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC - 220s BC - 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC Years: 233 BC 232 BC 231 BC 230 BC 229 BC - 228 BC - 227 BC 226 BC... Macha () is a goddess in Irish mythology linked with horses, battle, and sovereignty. ... In Irish Mythology Áed Ruad or Áedh Ruadh, the red, was a High King of Ireland. ... In Irish Mythology Cimbáeth or Cimbaoth was a High King of Ireland. ... The High Kingship of Ireland was a pseudohistorical construct of the eighth century AD, a projection into the distant past of a political entity that did not become reality until the ninth century. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 380s BC - 370s BC - 360s BC - 350s BC - 340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC - 310s BC - 300s BC - 290s BC - 280s BC Years: 342 BC - 341 BC - 340 BC - 339 BC - 338 BC - 337 BC - 336 BC - 335 BC... Queen Medb depicted on the Series B Irish pound note. ... Elen (also known as Saint Helen of Caernarfon) was a late 4th century founder of churches in Wales who is remembered as a saint. ... “Maxen” redirects here. ... Scáthach (shadowy) is the female warrior who trains Cúchulainn in the arts of war in the Ulster Cycle of Irish mythology. ... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic) Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic and Scots1 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II... 17th Century Brazilian Tapuia A warrior is a person habitually engaged in warfare. ... Hawaiian State Grappling Championships. ... Statistics Area: 24,481 km² Population (2006 estimate) 1,993,918 Ulster (Irish: Cúige Uladh, IPA: ) forms one of the four traditional provinces of Ireland. ... Young Cúchulainn (as Sétanta), 1912 illustration by Stephen Reid. ... Alba is the ancient and modern Gaelic name (IPA: ) for the country of Scotland (also Alba in Irish, and in Old Gaelic Albu). ... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic) Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic and Scots1 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II... Looking towards Quiraing, Skye. ...

Celtic Men

The Dying Gaul, a Roman marble copy of a Hellenistic work of the late third century BCE Capitoline Museums, Rome

According to Didorus Siculus : Image:Dying gaul. ... Image:Dying gaul. ... The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance... Michelangelos design for Capitoline Hill, now home to the Capitoline Museums. ...

The Gauls are tall of body with rippling muscles and white of skin and their hair is blond, and not only naturally so for they also make it their practice by artificial means to increase the distinguishing colour which nature has given it. For they are always washing their hair in limewater and they pull it back from the forehead to the nape of the neck, with the result that their appearance is like that of Satyrs and Pans since the treatment of their hair makes it so heavy and coarse that it differs in no respect from the mane of horses. Some of them shave the beard but others let it grow a little; and the nobles shave their cheeks but they let the moustache grow until it covers the mouth.

Diodorus Siculus Diodorus Siculus (c. ...

During the later Iron Age the Gauls generally wore long-sleeved shirts of tunics and long trousers. Clothes were made of wool or linen, with some silk being used by the rich. Cloaks were worn in winter. Broaches and armlets were used but the most famous item of jewellery was the torc.


Notable Celtic Men

  • Bolgios Leader of the Galatii in Macedonia.
  • Brennus Leader of the Celts who sacked Rome.
  • Cassivellaunus Leader of Britons against Julius Caesar.
  • Commius Leader of the Belgae who settled in Britain.
  • Cunobelinus Leader of the Catuvellauni against Claudius.
  • Vercingetorix Led revolt in Gaul against Julius Caesar.
  • Verica Leader of the Atrebates whose flight to Rome was the pretext for the invasion of Britain.

Bolgios (Greek Βόλγιος, also Bolgius, Belgius) was a Gaulish leader who led an invasion of Macedon and Illyria in 279 BC, killing the Macedonian king Ptolemy Keraunos. ... A sculpture, depicting the Brennus who led the attack on Rome, that adorned an 18th or 19th century French naval vessel Brennus is the name of two Celtic chieftains famous in ancient history: The sack of Rome In 387 BC, in the Battle of the Allia an army of Cisalpine... Cassivellaunus was a historical British chieftain who led the defence against Julius Caesars second expedition to Britain in 54 BC. He also appears in British legend as Cassibelanus, one of Geoffrey of Monmouths kings of Britain, and in the Mabinogion and Welsh Triads as Caswallawn, son of Beli... Commius was a historical king of the Gaulish and British Atrebates tribes in the 1st century BC. When Julius Caesar conquered the Atrebates in Gaul in 57 BC he appointed Commius as king of the tribe. ... Cunobelinus (also written Kynobellinus, Cunobelin) was a historical king of the Catuvellauni tribe of pre-Roman Britain. ... Statue of Vercingetorix by Bartholdi, on Place de Jaude, in Clermont-Ferrand Vercingetorix (pronounced in Gaulish) (died 46 BC), chieftain of the Arverni, originating from the Arvernian city of Gergovia, and known as the man who led the Gauls in their ultimately unsuccessful war against Roman rule under Julius Caesar. ... Verica (early 1st century AD) was a British client king of the Roman Empire in the years preceding the Claudian invasion of 43 AD. From his coinage, he appears to have been king of the Atrebates tribe and a son of Commius. ...

Celtic warfare and weapons

Cináed mac Ailpín, king of the Picts

Tribal warfare appears to have been a regular feature of Celtic societies. While epic literature depicts this as more of a sport focused on raids and hunting rather than organised territorial conquest, the historical record is more of tribes using warfare to exert political control and harass rivals, for economic advantage, and in some instances to conquer territory. Image File history File links CináedmacAilpín. ... Image File history File links CináedmacAilpín. ... A replica of the Hilton of Cadboll Stone. ... Endemic warfare is the state of continual, low-threshold warfare in a tribal warrior society. ...


The Celts were described by classical writers such as Strabo, Livy, Pausanias, and Florus as fighting like "wild beasts", and as hordes. Dionysius said that their "manner of fighting, being in large measure that of wild beasts and frenzied, was an erratic procedure, quite lacking in military science. Thus, at one moment they would raise their swords aloft and smite after the manner of wild boars, throwing the whole weight of their bodies into the blow like hewers of wood or men digging with mattocks, and again they would deliver crosswise blows aimed at no target, as if they intended to cut to pieces the entire bodies of their adversaries, protective armour and all".[35] Such descriptions have been challenged by contemporary historians.[36] The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... A portrait of Titus Livius made long after his death. ... Pausanias is the name of several ancient people: Pausanias was a Spartan general of the 5th century BC. Pausanias of Sparta was King of Sparta from 409 BC-395 BC. Pausanias was the servant/lover who assassinated Philip II of Macedon in 336 BC Pausanias, Greek traveller and geographer of... Florus, Roman historian, flourished in the time of Trajan and Hadrian. ... Hordes is the name of the newest miniature wargame to be produced by Privateer Press. ... Dionysius Halicarnassensis (of Halicarnassus), Greek historian and teacher of rhetoric, flourished during the reign of Augustus. ... Military science concerns itself with the study of the diverse technical, psychological, and practical phenomena that encompass the events that make up warfare, especially armed combat. ... // Binomial name Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758 The Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) is the wild ancestor of the domestic pig. ...


The Celts as head-hunters

"Amongst the Celts the human head was venerated above all else, since the head was to the Celt the soul, centre of the emotions as well as of life itself, a symbol of divinity and of the powers of the other-world." —Paul Jacobsthal, Early Celtic Art. Paul Jacobsthal (born 1880, Berlin; died 27 October 1957, Oxford) was a scholar of Greek vase painting and Celtic art. ...


The Celtic cult of the severed head is documented not only in the many sculptured representations of severed heads in La Tène carvings, but in the surviving Celtic mythology, which is full of stories of the severed heads of heroes and the saints who carry their decapitated heads, right down to Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, where the Green Knight picks up his own severed head after Gawain has struck it off, just as St. Denis carried his head to the top of Montmartre. Separated from the mundane body, although still alive, the animated head acquires the ability to see into the mythic realm. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight is a late 14th century metrical romance recorded in a manuscript containing three other pieces of an altogether more Christian orientation, which are linked by a commonality of dialect usage. ... The Basilica of Saint Denis (in French, la Basilique de Saint-Denis), a famous burial site for French monarchs, is located in Saint Denis (near Paris). ... Montmartre seen from the centre Georges Pompidou (1897), a painting by Camille Pissarro of the boulevard that led to Montmartre as seen from his hotel room. ...


A further example of this regeneration after beheading lies in the tales of Connemara's St. Feichin, who after being beheaded by Viking pirates carried his head to the Holy Well on Omey Island and on dipping the head into the well placed it back upon his neck and was restored to full health. Connemara (Irish Conamara), which derives from Conmhaicne Mara (meaning: descendants of Con Mhac, of the sea), is a district in the west of Ireland (County Galway). ... // Saint Feichin (pron. ... Omey Island is a Tidal island, though rather more low lying than Mont Saint Michel. ...


Diodorus Siculus, in his 1st century History had this to say about Celtic head-hunting: Diodorus Siculus (c. ...

"They cut off the heads of enemies slain in battle and attach them to the necks of their horses. The blood-stained spoils they hand over to their attendants and carry off as booty, while striking up a paean and singing a song of victory; and they nail up these first fruits upon their houses, just as do those who lay low wild animals in certain kinds of hunting. They embalm in cedar oil the heads of the most distinguished enemies, and preserve them carefully in a chest, and display them with pride to strangers, saying that for this head one of their ancestors, or his father, or the man himself, refused the offer of a large sum of money. They say that some of them boast that they refused the weight of the head in gold."

The Celts believed that if they attached the head of their enemy to a pole or a fence near their house, the head would start crying when the enemy was near. If the head was taken from an enemy who was important enough, they would put it in a church and pray to it believing it had magic powers. Cedar oil was used as the base for paints by the ancient Sumerians. ...


The Celtic headhunters venerated the image of the severed head as a continuing source of spiritual power. If the head is the seat of the soul, possessing the severed head of an enemy, honorably reaped in battle, added prestige to any warrior's reputation. According to tradition the buried head of a god or hero named Bran the Blessed protected Britain from invasion across the English Channel. Bran the Blessed, also known as Bran Vendigaid, Bendigeidfran or Branovices, is a giant and king of Britain in Welsh mythology. ... Satellite view of the English Channel The English Channel (French: (IPA: ), the sleeve) is the part of the Atlantic Ocean that separates the island of Great Britain from northern France and joins the North Sea to the Atlantic. ...


Celtic Gods

Many Celtic gods are known from texts and inscriptions from the Roman period, such as Aquae Sulis, while others have been inferred from place names such as Lugdunum "stronghold of Lug". Rites and sacrifices were carried out by priests, some known as Druids. The Celts did not see their gods as having a human shape until late in the Iron Age. Shrines were situated in remote areas such as hilltops, groves and lakesCeltic religious patterns.

Main article: Celtic polytheism

Celtic religious patterns were regionally variable, however some patterns of deity forms, and ways of worshiping these deities, appear over a wide geographical and temporal range. The Celts worshipped both gods and goddesses. In general, the gods were deities of particular skills, such as the many-skilled Lugh and Dagda, and the goddesses associated with natural features, most particularly rivers, such as Boann, goddess of the River Boyne. This was not universal, however, as Goddesses such as Brighid and The Morrígan were associated with both natural features (holy wells and the River Unius) and skills such as blacksmithing, healing and warfare.[37] Celtic polytheism refers to the religious beliefs and practices of ancient Celts until the Christianization of Celtic-speaking lands. ... Lugh (earlier Lug, modern Irish Lú, pronounced //) is an Irish deity represented in mythological texts as a hero and High King of the distant past. ... The Dagda is an important god of Irish mythology. ... In Irish mythology, Boann or Boand (white cow) was the goddess of the River Boyne. ... Boyne-Valley from Passage tomb The River Boyne (Irish: ) is a river in Leinster, Ireland, the course of which is about 112 kilometres (70 miles) long. ... In Irish mythology, Brigid or Brighid (exalted one) was the daughter of Dagda (and therefore one of the Tuatha de Danaan) and wife of Bres of the Fomorians. ... The Morrígan (terror or phantom queen) or Mórrígan (great queen) (aka Morrígu, Mórríghan, Mór-Ríogain) is a figure from Irish mythology who appears to have once been a goddess, although she is not referred to as such in the texts. ... Clootie wells (also Cloutie or Cloughtie wells) are places of pilgrimage in Celtic areas. ...


Triplicities are a common theme in Celtic cosmology and a number of deities were seen as threefold.[38]


The Celts had literally hundreds of deities, some unknown outside of a single family or tribe, while others were popular enough to have a following that crossed boundaries of language and culture. For instance, the Irish god Lugh, associated with storms, lightning, and culture, is seen in a similar form as Lugos in Gaul and Lleu in Wales. Similar patterns are also seen with the Continental Celtic horse goddess Epona, and what may well be her Irish and Welsh counterparts, Macha and Rhiannon, respectively.[39] Lugos is a commune in the Gironde département, in France. ... In Welsh mythology, Lleu Llaw Gyffes (sometimes called Llew Llaw Gyffes) is a character appearing in the fourth of the Four Branches of the Mabinogion, the tale of Math fab Mathonwy. ... For other uses of Epona, see Epona (disambiguation) Image:Epona link. ... In Irish mythology, Macha is a goddess linked with war, horses and kingship. ... For the Stevie Nicks/Fleetwood Mac song, see Rhiannon (Will You Ever Win). ...


Roman reports of the druids mention ceremonies being held in sacred groves. La Tène Celts built temples of varying size and shape, though they also maintained shrines at sacred trees, and votive pools.[40] Sacred groves were a feature of the mythological landscape and the cult practice of Old Europe, of the most ancient levels of Scandinavian mythology, Greek mythology, Slavic mythology, Roman mythology, and in Druidic practice. ... Trees were often regarded as sacred in the ancient world, throughout Europe and Asia. ...


Druids fulfilled a variety of roles in Celtic religion, as priests and religious officiants, but also as judges, sacrificers, teachers and lore-keepers. In general, they were the "college professors" of their time. Druids organized and ran the religious ceremonies, as well as memorizing and teaching the calendar. Though generally quite accurate, the Celtic calendar required manual correction about every 40 years, therefore knowledge of mathematics was required. Other classes of druids performed ceremonial sacrifices of crops and animals for the perceived benefit of the community.[41] Celtic Religion Celtic religion refers the pre-Christian religious beliefs and practices of the Celtic speaking peoples. ... The term Celtic calendar is used to refer to a variety of calendars used by Celtic-speaking peoples at different times in history. ... A sheep is led to the altar, 6th century BC Corinthian fresco. ...


Celtic Christianity

While the regions under Roman rule adopted Christianity along with the rest of the Roman empire, unconquered areas of Scotland and Ireland moved from Celtic polytheism to Celtic Christianity in the fifth century AD under missionaries from Britain such as Patrick. Later missionaries from Ireland were a major source of missionary work in Scotland, Saxon parts of Britain and central Europe (see Hiberno-Scottish mission). This brought the early medieval renaissance of Celtic art between 390 and 1200 A.D.[citation needed], developing many of the styles now thought of as typically Celtic, and found through much of Ireland and Britain, including the north-east and far north of Scotland, Orkney and Shetland. This was brought to an end by Roman Catholic and Norman influence, though the Celtic languages, as well as some and some influences from Celtic art, continued. Celtic polytheism refers to the religious beliefs and practices of ancient Celts until the Christianization of Celtic-speaking lands. ... Two Mormon missionaries A missionary is traditionally defined as a propagator of religion who works to convert those outside that community; someone who proselytizes. ... It has been suggested that Schottenklöster be merged into this article or section. ... Justinians wife Theodora and her retinue, in a 6th century mosaic from the Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna. ... Events In response to the murder of his general Butheric, Theodosius I orders a massacre of the inhabitants of Thessalonica. ... Location Geography Area Ranked 16th  - Total 990 km²  - % Water  ? Admin HQ Kirkwall ISO 3166-2 GB-ORK ONS code 00RA Demographics Population Ranked 32nd  - Total (2005) 19,590  - Density 20 / km² Politics Orkney Islands Council http://www. ... Location Geography Area Ranked 12th  - Total 1,466 km²  - % Water  ? Admin HQ Lerwick ISO 3166-2 GB-ZET ONS code 00RD Demographics Population Ranked 31st  - Total (2005) 22,000  - Density 15 / km² Scottish Gaelic  - Total () {{{Scottish council Gaelic Speakers}}} Politics Shetland Islands Council http://www. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Norman conquests in red. ...


Names for the Celts

The origin of the various names used since classical times for the people known today as the Celts is obscure and has been controversial. In particular, there is no record of the term "Celt" being used in connection with the inhabitants of Ireland and Britain prior to the 19th century. Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD...


The name "Gauls"

English "Gaul(s)" and Latin Gallus or Galli might be from an originally Celtic ethnic or tribal name (perhaps borrowed into Latin during the early 400s BC Celtic expansions into Italy). Its root may be the Common Celtic *galno, meaning "power" or "strength". Greek Galatai (see Galatia in Anatolia) seems to be based on the same root, borrowed directly from the same hypothetical Celtic source which gave us Galli (the suffix -atai is simply an ethnic name indicator). A tribal name is a name of an ethnic tribe &#8212;usually of ancient origin, which represented its self-identity. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC - 400s BC - 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 409 BC 408 BC 407 BC 406 BC 405 BC 404 BC 403 BC 402 BC 401... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The English form Gaul comes from the French Gaule and Gaulois, which is the traditional rendering of Latin Gallia and Gallus, -icus respectively. However, the diphthong au points to a different origin, namely a Romance adaptation of the Germanic *Walha-. See Gaul: Name. Map of Gaul circa 58 BC Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ...


The word "Welsh"

The word "Welsh" is Germanic, yet it may ultimately have a Celtic source. It may be the result of an early borrowing (in the 4th century BC) of the Celtic tribal name Volcae into early Germanic (becoming the Proto-Germanic *Walh-, "foreigner of the Roman lands" and the suffixed form *-walhisk). The Volcae were one of the Celtic peoples that for two centuries barred the southward expansion of the Germanic tribes in what is now central Germany on the line of the Harz mountains and into Saxony and Silesia.[citation needed]. The 4th century BC started the first day of 400 BC and ended the last day of 301 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ... The Volcae in the 2nd century BC were a large and powerful Celtic nation of Gallia Transalpina, comprised of two branches, the Volcae Arecomici and the Volcae Tectosages. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Walh is an ancient Germanic word, meaning foreigner or stranger. Several names of non-Germanic European regions are derived from the word Walh: Walachia Wales Wallis Wallonia Categories: Language stubs ... Thor/Donar, Germanic thunder god. ... The Harz is a mountain range in northern Germany. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DED Capital Dresden Minister-President Georg Milbradt (CDU) Governing parties CDU / SPD Votes in Bundesrat 4 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  18,416 km² (7,110 sq mi) Population 4,252,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 231 /km... Silesia (Czech: ; German: ; Latin: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Åšlónsk) is a historical region in central Europe. ...


Other examples are the surnames Wallace and Walsh. During the early Germanic period, the term seems to have been applied to the peasant population of the Roman Empire, most of whom were, in the areas immediately settled by the Germanic people.


The name "Celts"

English "Celt(s)", Latin Celtus pl. Celti (Celtae), Greek Κέλτης pl. Κέλται or Κελτός pl. Κελτοί (Keltai or Keltoi) seem to be based on a native Celtic ethnic name[42] (singular *Celtos or *Celta with plurals *Celtoi or *Celtas), of uncertain origin. The root would seem to be a Primitive Indo-European *kel- or (s)kel-, but there are several such roots of various meanings to choose from (*kel- "to be prominent", *kel- "to drive or set in motion", *kel- "to strike or cut", etc.)[citation needed]. A likely meaning would be superior, so "Celt" = "member of a superior culture". Celt should be pronounced Kelt. Proto-Indo-European (PIE) may refer to: Proto-Indo-European language the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages Proto-Indo-Europeans, the hypothetical speakers of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language Proto-Indo-European roots, A list of reconstructed Proto-Indo-European roots Categories: | ...


See also

A Celtic cross. ... Muiredacha Cross. ... The term Celtic Astrology is used to refer to the tree calendar invented by Robert Graves, freely based on the historical Ogham script, described in The White Goddess (1952). ... The term Celtic calendar is used to refer to a variety of calendars used by Celtic-speaking peoples at different times in history. ... Celtic Christianity, or Insular Christianity (sometimes commonly called the Celtic Church) broadly refers to the Early Medieval Christian practice that developed around the Irish Sea in the fifth and sixth centuries, that is among “Celtic”/“British” peoples such as the Irish, Scottish, Welsh, Cornish, Manx, etc. ... A classic Celtic knot pattern Celtic knots are a variety of (endless) knots and stylized graphical representations of knots used for decoration, first known to have been used by the Celts. ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, spoken by ancient and modern Celts alike. ... Celtic Law The social structure of Iron Age Celtic society was highly developed. ... Celtic music is a term utilized by record companies, music stores and music magazines to describe a broad grouping of musical genres that evolved out of the folk musical traditions of the Celtic peoples of Western Europe. ... Template:Buttface mythology Celtic mythology is the mythology of Celtic polytheism annas hippo butt, apparently the religion of the Iron Age Celts. ... The Six Nations considered the heartland of the modern Celts Celtic nations are areas of Europe inhabited by members of Celtic cultures, specifically speakers of Celtic languages. ... Celtic polytheism refers to the religious beliefs and practices of ancient Celts until the Christianization of Celtic-speaking lands. ... Celtic Studies is the academic discipline occupied with the study of any sort of cultural output relating to a Celtic people. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The pronunciation of the words Celt and Celtic in their various meanings has been surrounded by some confusion: the initial, <c> can be realised either as /k/ or as /s/. Both can be justified philologically and both are correct in terms of English prescriptive usage. ... Pan-Celticism is the name given to a variety of movements that espouse greater contact between the various Celtic countries. ... Two druids, from an 1845 publication, based on a bas-relief found at Autun, France. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 605 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1373 × 1361 pixel, file size: 672 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Dessin celtique de forme ronde, contours tracé en noir et blanc, représentant des chiens entrelacés. ... Brythonic is one of two major divisions of Insular Celtic languages (the other being Goidelic). ... Celtiberian (also Hispano-Celtic) is an extinct Celtic language spoken by the Celtiberians in northern Spain before and during the Roman Empire. ... Galatian is an extinct Celtic language once spoken in Galatia in Asia Minor (modern Turkey) from the 3rd century BC up to the 4th century AD. Of the language only a few glosses and brief comments in classical writers and scattered names on inscriptions survive. ... Gaulish is the name given to the Celtic language that was spoken in Gaul before the Vulgar Latin of the late Roman Empire became dominant in Roman Gaul. ... Goidelic is one of two major divisions of modern-day Celtic languages (the other being Brythonic). ... Lepontic is an extinct Celtic language that was once spoken in Northern Italy between 700 BCE and 400 BCE. The language is only known from a few inscriptions discovered that were written in a variety of the Northern Italic alphabet, which was related to the Old Italic alphabet. ... Noric language was the ancient Celtic language spoken in the Roman province of Noricum. ... See: list of Scots list of Irish people list of Welsh people list of English people list of Breton people Celt Category: Lists of people by ancestry ... This is a list of Celtic tribes and associated celtic peoples with their geographical localization. ... A map of Gaul showing the relative position of the tribes. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Ireland This page aims to list articles related to the island of Ireland. ... This is a list of topics related to Cornwall, UK. The Cornwall category contains a more comprehensive selection of Cornish articles. ... The gods and goddesses of Celtic mythology are known from a variety of sources. ... Cartimandua (or Cartismandua, ruled ca. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Boudica and Her Daughters near Westminster Pier, London, commissioned by Prince Albert and executed by Thomas Thornycroft Boudica (also spelt Boudicca, formerly better known as Boadicea) (d. ... Queen Teuta (also Queen Tefta), was an Illyrian queen and regent who reigned approximately from 231 BC to 228 BC. After the death of Agron (250 BC?-231 BC) who established the first kingdom of Illyria, extending from Dalmatia on the north to the Aous (Vjosa river) River on the... Queen Medb depicted on the Series B Irish pound note. ... Elen (also known as Saint Helen of Caernarfon) was a late 4th century founder of churches in Wales who is remembered as a saint. ... Scáthach (shadowy) is the female warrior who trains Cúchulainn in the arts of war in the Ulster Cycle of Irish mythology. ... Ancient Britain was a period in the human occupation of Great Britain that extended throughout prehistory, ending with the Roman invasion of Britain in AD 43. ... Celtic cross For Celtic Cross, the ambient/dub band see Celtic Cross (band) A Celtic cross is a symbol that combines the cross with a ring surrounding the intersection. ... The International Celtic Congress is a cultural organisation that seeks to promote the Celtic languagues of the nations of Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Brittany, Cornwall and the Isle of Man. ... The Celtic League is a political and cultural organisation in the modern Celtic nations of Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Brittany, Cornwall and the Isle of Man. ... The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject. ... Template:Buttface mythology Celtic mythology is the mythology of Celtic polytheism annas hippo butt, apparently the religion of the Iron Age Celts. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In Irish and Scottish mythology, Cailleach was the Mother of All. The word Cailleac means old woman. She was a sorceress. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1004x800, 1034 KB) Gundestrupkarret (the Gundestrup Cauldron). ... Abandinus is a Celtic deity, currently known only from a single inscription from Godmanchester in Cambridgeshire, England: an inscribed bronze votive feather is dedicated to him with the text to the god Abandinus, Vatiaucus gave this from his own resources. ... In Continental Brythonic (Gallic) Celtic mythology, Abellio (also Abelio and Abelionni) was a god of apple trees, worshipped in the Garonne Valley in southwest France. ... In Celtic mythology, Abnoba was a forest and river goddess, worshipped in the Black Forest and surrounding areas. ... In Celtic mythology, Adsullata was a river goddess, associated with the River Savus in the Balkans. ... In Celtic mythology, Agrona was a goddess of strife and war worshipped in Britain. ... In Celtic mythology, Alaunus was a Gaulish god of the sun, healing and prophecy. ... In Celtic mythology, Alisanos or Alisaunus was the local god of the Cite dOr. ... In Celtic mythology, Ambisagrus was a Gaulish god of thunder and lightning. ... In Celtic mythology, Ancamna was a water goddess worshipped in Gaul and Britain. ... In Celtic mythology, Andarta was a warrior goddess, worshipped especially in Gaul. ... Andraste or Andate, according to Dio Cassius, was a Celtic goddess of victory invoked by Boudicca while fighting against the Roman occupation of Britain in AD 61. ... In Celtic mythology, Anextiomarus was a tribal god worshipped in Britain. ... In Celtic mythology, Arduinna was the eponymous goddess of the Ardennes forest. ... In Celtic mythology, (specifically known from Switzerland), Artio was a goddess of wildlife, specifically the bear, and was worshipped at Berne, which actually means bear. She was often called Artio of Muri. ... In Celtic mythology, Avernus was the god of the Gallic Averni. ... The Aufaniae were Celtic mother goddesses worshipped throughout Celtic Europe. ... In Celtic mythology and especially Gaul, Aveta or Lyregwyn was a goddess of female-fertility, childbirth and midwives, also associated with all fresh water. ... In Celtic mythology, Belatu-Cadros, or Belatucadros (fair shining one or the fair slayer), was a deity worshipped in northern Britain, particularly in Cumberland and Westmoreland. ... In Celtic mythology, Belenus (also Belinus, Belenos, Belinos, Belinu, Bellinus, Belus, Bel) was a deity worshipped in Gaul, Britain and Celtic areas of Italy and Austria. ... In Celtic mythology, Belisama (also Belesama, Belisma) was a goddess worshipped in Britain. ... In Celtic mythology, Borvo (to boil), also Bormo, Bormanus, was a deity worshipped in Gaul. ... In Gallo-Roman and Romano-British religion, Brigantia was a goddess who is attested several places in Britain and Europe. ... Britannia on a 2005 £2 coin. ... In Celtic mythology, Buxenus was the god of box trees, worshipped primarily in Gaul alongside Abellio, Fagus and Robur. ... In Celtic mythology, particularly Breton, Camma was a hunting goddess. ... In Celtic mythology, Camulus or Camulos was the god of war of the Remi, a Celtic tribe, who lived in the area of todays Belgium. ... Depiction of Cernunnos from the Pilier des nautes, Paris Cernunnos in Celtic polytheism is the deified spirit of horned male animals, especially of stags, a nature god associated with produce and fertility. ... Cissonius (also Cisonius, Cesonius) was an ancient Gaulish god. ... In Celtic mythology, Clota was the patron goddess of the River Clyde. ... In Celtic mythology, Cocidius was a deity worshipped in northern Britain. ... In Celtic mythology, Condatis (waters meet) was a deity worshipped primarily in northern Britain but also in Gaul. ... In Celtic mythology, Contrebis or Contrebus (he who dwells among us) was the patron god of Lancaster. ... In Celtic mythology, Coventina was a goddess of wells and springs. ... In Celtic mythology, Damara was a fertility goddess worshipped in Britain. ... In Celtic mythology, Damona (Divine cow) was a fertility goddess worshipped in Gaul as the consort of Borvo. ... In Celtic mythology, Dea Matrona (divine mother goddess) was the goddess of the river Marne in Gaul. ... Dis Pater, or Dispater, was a Roman and Celtic god of the underworld, later subsumed by Pluto or Jupiter. ... For other uses of Epona, see Epona (disambiguation) Image:Epona link. ... Aericura (Aerecura, Heracura, Eracura) was a goddess worshipped in ancient times, often thought to be Celtic in origin, associated with the Roman underworld god Dis Pater: she appears with him in a statue found at Oberseebach, Switzerland and in several magical texts from Austria, once in the company of Cerberus... Image of Esus on the Pillar of the Boatmen. ... In Celtic mythology, and especially in Gaul and the Pyrenees, Fagus was a god of beech trees. ... In Celtic mythology, Grannus (also Gramnos, Gramnnos) was a god of healing and mineral springs. ... In Celtic mythology, the three Hooded Spirits were healing and fertility deities. ... In Celtic mythology, Icaunus was the god of the river Yonne in Gaul. ... In Gallo-Roman religion, Loucetios (Latinized as Leucetius) was a Gaulish god invariably identified with Mars. ... Lugus was a deity widely hypothesized to have been worshipped in Gaul, Britain, Ireland, Spain and other ancient Celtic regions. ... In Celtic mythology, Luxovius was the god of the waters of Luxeuil, worshipped in Gaul. ... In Celtic mythology, Maponos or Maponus (divine son) was a god of youth known mainly in northern Britain but also in Gaul. ... The Matres or Matronae were ancient deities venerated in northwestern Europe in Roman and earlier times. ... In Continental Brythonic mythology, and especially in Gaul, Nantosuelta was a goddess of water and fertility. ... In Celtic mythology, Nemetona (shrine) was the goddess of temples and sacred groves. ... Nemausus is often said to have been the Celtic patron god of Nemausus (Nîmes). ... Nodens, or Nodons, was a Celtic deity worshipped in Britain. ... Ogmios was a Gaulish deity, usually depicted as a bald old man with a bow and club who leads an apparently happy band of men with chains attached to their ears and tongues. ... In Celtic mythology, Robur was the god of oak trees, worshipped primarily in Gaul alongside Abellio, Fagus and Buxenus. ... In Continental Celtic mythology, Rosmerta was a goddess of fire, fertility and warmth, as well as flowers and death. ... In Celtic mythology, Rudianos was a war god worshipped in Gaul. ... In Celtic mythology, Segomo (victor, mighty one) was a war god worshipped in Gaul, and possibly in Britain and Ireland. ... In ancient Celtic polytheism, the female deification of the outpouring wellspring // Centres of worship Senua (also called Senuna) was worshipped in Roman Britain. ... In Celtic and Roman mythology, Sequanna (or Sequana) was the goddess of the river Seine and its environs. ... In Celtic mythology, Sirona was a goddess worshipped predominantly in East Central Gaul and along the Danubian limes. ... Relief of Smertrius from the Pillar of the Boatmen, Paris. ... Sucellus was the god of agriculture, forests and alcoholic drinks in Lusitanian mythology. ... In Celtic mythology, Sulis is the local goddess of the thermal springs that still feed the spa baths at Bath, which the Romans called Aquae Sulis (the waters of Sulis). Her name appears on inscriptions at Bath, but nowhere else. ... In ancient Celtic polytheism, Sulis (also found as Sulevis/Sulis/Sulla) was the deification of spring-water, especially of thermal spring-water, conceived as a nourishing, life-giving Mother goddess. ... In Celtic mythology, Tamesis was goddess of water, particularly fresh water. ... In Celtic mythology Taranis was a god of thunder worshipped in Gaul and Britain and mentioned, along with Esus and Toutatis, by the Roman poet Lucan in his epic poem Pharsalia. ... Toutatis or Teutates, ancient god of Celts and Gauls, whose name means father of the tribe. ... In Insular Brythonic mythology, Verbeia was the goddess of the Wharfe River in North Yorkshire, England. ... In Continental Brythonic mythology, Vosegus was the patron god of the Vosges Forest in Gaul. ... In Irish mythology, Abartach or Abarta (performer of feats) was one of the Tuatha Dé Danann. ... In Irish mythology, Abhean was the harper of the Tuatha de Danaan. ... In Irish mythology, Aengus (Áengus, Óengus, Angus, Aonghus, Anghus) aka Aengus Óg (Aengus the Young), Mac ind Óg (son of the young), Maccan or Mac Óg (young son) was a member of the Tuatha Dé Danann and probably a god of love, youth and poetic inspiration. ... In Irish mythology, Alastir was the younger brother of Cormac. ... In Irish mythology, Aoi Mac Ollamain or Ai is the god of poetry, and is one of the Tuatha De Danaan. ... In Irish mythology, Aibell (Aoibhell, Aeval) was a goddess or fairy queen of Munster. ... In Irish mythology, Aimend was a sun goddess. ... In Irish mythology, Áine (also Aillen) was a goddess of love, growth, cattle and the sun. ... In Irish mythology, the goddess Airmed was one of the Tuatha de Danaan. ... In Irish mythology, Anann (Anu, Ana) was a mother goddess. ... In Irish mythology, the Badb ( crow in Old Irish; modern Irish Badhbh means vulture or carrion-crow) was a goddess of war who took the form of a crow, and was thus sometimes known as Badb Catha (battle crow). ... In Irish mythology, Balor (Balar, Bolar) of the Evil Eye was a king of the Fomorians, a race of giants. ... In Irish mythology, Banba, sometimes spelled Banbha, was the patron spirit of Ireland, wife of King MacCuill, and a goddess of war and fertility. ... In Irish mythology, the goddess Beag was one of the Tuatha de Danaan. ... In Early Irish mythology, Bébinn was a goddess associated with birth and the sister of the river-goddess, Boann. ... Bé Chuille is a figure from Celtic Mythology, also known as Becuille and Bé Chuma. ... In Irish mythology, Birog was a druidess who aided Cian in climbing Balors crystal tower where had imprisoned his daughter, Ethlinn. ... In Irish mythology, Boann or Boand (white cow) was the goddess of the River Boyne. ... In Irish mythology, Bodb Derg (Old Irish: Bodb the Red; Middle and Modern Irish Bodhbh Dearg ) was a son of Eochaid Garb. ... In Irish mythology, the god Brea was one of the Tuatha Dé Danann. ... In Irish mythology as it is presently constituted, Brigit or Brighit (exalted one) was the daughter of Dagda (and therefore one of the Tuatha Dé Danann) and wife of Bres of the Fomorians. ... In Irish mythology, Bres, aka Eochaid Bres, Eochu Bres (Eochaid/Eochu the Beautiful), was a king of the Tuatha Dé Danann. ... In Irish mythology as it is presently constituted, Brigit or Brighit (exalted one) was the daughter of Dagda (and therefore one of the Tuatha Dé Danann) and wife of Bres of the Fomorians. ... In Irish mythology, Bronach was a goddess of cliffs. ... In Irish mythology, Buarainech was the father of Balor, the King of the Fomorians. ... In Irish mythology, Caer Ibormeith was a daughter of Ethal and Prince Anubal of Connacht. ... In Irish mythology, Canola was the mythical inventor of the harp. ... In Irish mythology, Carman was a goddess of evil magic. ... In Celtic mythology, Crom Cruach was one of the chief gods of Ireland. ... In Irish mythology, Cessair (or Ceasair) was the leader of the first inhabitants of Ireland before the Biblical Flood, in what may be a Christianisation of a legend that pre-dates the conversion, but may alternatively be the product of post-conversion pseudohistory. ... In Irish mythology, Cethlenn was the wife of Balor and, by him, the mother of Ethlinn. ... In Irish mythology, Cian ( ancient, distant), son of Dian Cecht of the Tuatha Dé Danann, is best known as the father of Lug by the Fomorian princess Ethniu. ... In Irish mythology, Cliodhna was a goddess of beauty. ... In Irish mythology, Corb was one of the Fomorians. ... In Irish mythology, Creidhne (or Credne) was a son of Brigid and Tuireann and the artificer of the Tuatha Dé Danann, working in bronze, brass and gold. ... This article or section needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... In the Ulster Cycle of Irish mythology, Cú Roí (Cú Ruí, Cú Raoi) mac Dáire is a king of Munster and a sorcerer who can change his form at will. ... The Dagda is an important god of Irish mythology. ... In Irish mythology, Danu or Dana was the mother goddess of the Tuatha Dé Danann (peoples of the goddess Danu), although little is recorded about her as a character. ... In Irish mythology, Dian Cecht was a god of healing. ... In Irish mythology, Elatha (or Elathan) was a prince of the Fomorians and the father of Bres by Ériu of the Tuatha Dé Danann. ... In early Irish mythology, Étaín was a sun goddess. ... In Irish mythology, Ethniu (Eithne, Ethliu, Ethlinn, and a variety of other spellings - see below) was the daughter of Balor, king of the Fomorians. ... In Irish mythology, Ethne was an ancient goddess who drank milk from a sacred Indian cow. ... In Irish mythology, Ériu (), daughter of Ernmas of the Tuatha Dé Danann, was the eponymous patron goddess of Ireland. ... In Irish mythology, Fand was Queen of the Fairies, and wife of Manannan. ... In Irish mythology, Fionnuala (from fionn ghualainn or fair-shouldered) was a daughter of Lir. ... In Irish mythology, Fódla (later Fódhla, Fóla), daughter of Ernmas of the Tuatha Dé Danann, was one of the patron goddesses of Ireland. ... In Irish mythology Goibniu or Goibhniu (pronounced Goive-nu) was a son of Brigid and Tuireann and the smith of the Tuatha Dé Danann. ... In Celtic mythology, Lir (the sea) was the god of the sea, father of Manannan mac Lir, Bran, Branwen and Manawydan by Penarddun and a son of Danu and Beli. ... In Celtic mythology, Luchtaine (or Luchta) was a son of Brigid and Tuireann and a god of craftwork and smithing. ... Lugh (earlier Lug, modern Irish Lú, pronounced //) is an Irish deity represented in mythological texts as a hero and High King of the distant past. ... In Irish mythology, Macha is a goddess linked with war, horses and kingship. ... In Irish and Manx mythology, Manannán mac Lir is the god of the sea. ... In Irish mythology, Miach was a son of Dian Cecht of the Tuatha Dé Danann. ... In Irish mythology Midir (or Midhir) was a son of the Dagda of the Tuatha Dé Danann. ... In Irish mythology, Mug Ruith (or Mogh Roith, slave of the wheel) was a powerful blind druid of Munster who lived on Valentia Island, County Kerry. ... The Morrígan (terror or phantom queen) or Mórrígan (great queen) (aka Morrígu, Mórríghan, Mór-Ríogain) is a figure from Irish mythology who appears to have once been a goddess, although she is not referred to as such in the texts. ... In Irish mythology Neit was a god of war, and husband of Nemain. ... In Irish mythology Nemain (or Nemhain) was a goddess of war, and possibly an aspect of the Mórrígan. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In Irish mythology, Nuada or Nuadu (later Nuadha), known by the epithet Airgetlám (Silver Hand/Arm), was a king of the Tuatha Dé Danann. ... OGMA-Indústria Aeronáutica de Portugal, S.A., founded in 1918, is a major representative of the Portuguese Aviation Industry, dedicated to aircraft and aircraft component maintenance, repair and manufacturing. ... In Irish mythology, Plor na mban (the flower of the lady) was the beautiful daughter of Oisin and Niamh. ... Sheela-na-Gigs or Sheela Na Gigs are grotesque figurative carvings of naked females displaying an exaggerated vulva. ... Tailtiu (Tailltiu, Tailte, Teia Tephi) is the name of a presumed goddess from Irish mythology and the town in County Meath that was named after her. ... In Celtic mythology, King Tethra of the Fomorians ruled Mag Mell after dying in the First Battle of Mag Tuireadh. ... Caílte (or Caoilte) mac Rónáin was a nephew of Fionn mac Cumhail and a member of the fianna in the Fenian Cycle of Irish mythology. ... Conall Cernach (Conall the Victorious) is a heroic warrior of the Ulaid in the Ulster Cycle of Irish mythology. ... In Irish mythology, Conchobar mac Nessa (also Conchobor, Conchubar, Conchobhar, Conchubhar, Conchúr, Conchúir, Conor) was king of Ulster during the events of the Ulster Cycle. ... Conán mac Morna, also known as Conán Maol (the bald), is a member of the fianna and an ally of Fionn mac Cumhail in the Fenian Cycle of Irish mythology. ... Conn Cétchathach (Conn of the Hundred Battles) was a legendary High King of Ireland. ... Cormac Mac Airt is probably the most famous of the ancient kings of Ireland, and is now thought to have been an authentic historical king. ... Young Cúchulainn (as Sétanta), 1912 illustration by Stephen Reid. ... In Irish mythology, Cumhal (earlier Cumal, pronounced roughly Coo-al or Cool) son of Trénmór (strong-great) was a leader of the fianna and the father of Fionn mac Cumhail. ... In Irish mythology, Deichtine or Deichtire was the sister of Conchobar mac Nessa and the mother of Cúchulainn. ... Deirdre or Derdriu is the foremost tragic heroine in Irish mythology. ... In Irish mythology, Diarmuid Ua Duibhne (also known as Diarmuid of the love spot) was son of Donn and a warrior of the Fianna. ... In the Ulster Cycle of Irish mythology, Emer, it can also be spelt Eimear but it can also spelt Emer in modern Irish Emer, daughter of Forgall the Wily, was Cúchulainns wife. ... In Irish mythology, Ferdiad (also Fer Diad, Ferdia) was the son of Daire (or son of Damáin son of Daire) and the champion of the men of Domnand (Fir Domnann) from Irrus Domnann in Connacht. ... In Irish mythology, Fergus (or Fearghus) mac Róich (or mac Róeg) is the former king of Ulster during the events of the Ulster Cycle. ... Fionn mac Cumhaill (pronounced /fuN mÉ™ ku:L/, /fiN mÉ™ ku:L/, /fu:n mÉ™ ku:l/ or /foun mÉ™ ku:l/ according to dialect)(earlier Finn or Find mac Cumail or mac Umaill, later Anglicised to Finn McCool) was a hunter-warrior of the Gaelic... Lugaid (Lughaid, Lughaidh) is a popular medieval Irish name, thought to be derived from the god Lug. ... (, Medb, Medhbh, Meabh, Maeve, Maev) is queen of Connacht in the Ulster Cycle of Irish mythology. ... Ossian, by François Pascal Simon Gérard Ossians dream, Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, 1813 Oisín (Old Irish, pronounced , or roughly uh-sheen), son of Fionn mac Cumhail, is a poet and warrior of the fianna in the Fenian Cycle of Irish mythology. ... Oscar in Irish mythology was the warrior son of Oisín and a fairy woman called Niamh, who also bore his sister, Plor na mBan. ... Les Lavandières (as they are known in Brittany), Bean Nighe (as they are called in Scottish myth) or Midnight Washerwomen are Celtic myth. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In Irish and Scottish mythology, Cailleach was the Mother of All. The word Cailleac means old woman. She was a sorceress. ... Crom Dubh or Crum-dubh etc meaning black and crooked in Scottish and Irish Gaelic, was a Celtic god, for which see The Voyage of Bran, Book II, p49. ... Deò-ghrèine or Deò-grèine (with accents going either way) meaning “ray of sunshine” can refer to the following: 1 - Fionn MacCumhail/Finn MacCool’s famous banner, also known as “Deò-ghrèine MhicCumhail” after him. ... Shoaler 3 July 2005 13:04 (UTC) Categories: Possible copyright violations ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Oisín. ... Scota, in Irish mythology and pseudohistory, was an Egyptian princess to whom the Gaels traced their ancestry, explaining the name Scoti, applied by the Romans to Irish raiders. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Aífe (Modern Irish Aoife ) is the name of several characters from Irish mythology: 1. ... In Irish mythology, Connla or Conlaoch was a son of Aífe and Cuchulainn. ... Scáthach (shadowy) is the female warrior who trains Cúchulainn in the arts of war in the Ulster Cycle of Irish mythology. ... In Irish mythology Uathach was the name of Scáthachs daughter. ... In Welsh mythology, Amaethon was a god of agriculture, a son of the goddess Don. ... In Welsh mythology, Arawn was the Lord of the Underworld, which was called Annwn. ... In Welsh mythology, Arianrhod (silver wheel) was a daughter of Beli and Don. ... A bronze Arthur in plate armour with visor raised and with jousting shield wearing Kastenbrust armour (early 15th century) by Peter Vischer, typical of later anachronistic depictions of Arthur. ... According to one Welsh tradition, Afallach was the father of Modron. ... Beli Mawr (Beli the Great) was a Welsh ancestor deity. ... In Welsh mythology, Blodeuwedd is the later name of Blodeuedd, a woman made from flowers by Math and Gwydion. ... Bran the Blessed, also known as Bran Vendigaid, Bendigeidfran or Branovices, is a giant and king of Britain in Welsh mythology. ... In Welsh mythology, Branwen was a daughter of Llyr and Penarddun and has been interpreted as a goddess of love and beauty. ... Cassivellaunus was a historical British chieftain who led the defence against Julius Caesars second expedition to Britain in 54 BC. He also appears in British legend as Cassibelanus, one of Geoffrey of Monmouths kings of Britain, and in the Mabinogion and Welsh Triads as Caswallawn, son of Beli... In Welsh mythology, Ceridwen was a magician, mother of Taliesin, Morfran, and a beautiful daughter. ... In Welsh mythology, Cigva (or Cigfa) was the wife of King Pryderi of Dyfed. ... In Welsh mythology, Creiddylad was a goddess, daughter of Llyr. ... In Welsh mythology, Culhwch (pronounced Kilhooch, the ch sound being the same as the Scottish Loch) was a hero who rescued Mabon from Annwn. ... The cyhyraeth (IPA: [kahiːrɪθ]), also spelled as cyheuraeth (probably from the noun cyhyr muscle, tendon; flesh + the termination -aeth; meaning skeleton, a thing of mere flesh and bone; spectre, death-portent, wraith),[1] is a ghostly spirit in Welsh mythology, a disembodied moaning voice that sounds before a person... The name Dewi commonly refers to one of the following: In Celtic mythology, Dewi was an ancient god, worshipped primarily in Wales. ... Dôn was a Welsh mother goddess, equivalent of the Irish Danu. ... Saint Dwynwen is the Welsh patron saint of lovers. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In Welsh mythology, Efnysien or Efnisien was the son of Penarddun and Euroswydd. ... In Welsh mythology (mentioned in the Mabinogion), Elen was a heroine who magically built highways across her country so that the soldiers could more easily defend it from attackers. ... In Welsh mythology, Euroswydd is the father of Nisien and Efnysien by Penarddun, daughter of Beli Mawr. ... In the Welsh mythology, Govannon of Gofannon was a smith and the son of the goddess Don. ... In Welsh mythology, Gwenn Teir Bronn was the patron goddess of mothers. ... In Welsh mythology, Gwydion is a magician appearing prominently in the Fourth branch of the Mabinogi and the ancient poem Cad Goddeu. ... In Welsh mythology, Gwyn or Gwynn ap Nudd was the ruler of Annwn (the Underworld). ... In Welsh mythology, Hafgan was a rival of Arawns for the position of the god of the underworld. ... In Welsh mythology, Lleu Llaw Gyffes (sometimes called Llew Llaw Gyffes) is a character appearing in the fourth of the Four Branches of the Mabinogion, the tale of Math fab Mathonwy. ... In Welsh mythology, LlÅ·r is the father of Bran, Branwen and Manawydan by Penarddun. ... Lludd Llaw Eraint, Lludd of the Silver Hand, son of Beli Mawr, is a legendary hero from Welsh mythology. ... In Welsh mythology, Mabon (divine son) was the son of Modron (divine mother). He was a hunter god who was stolen from his mother three days after his birth. ... In Welsh mythology, Manawydan, son of Llyr, is the equivalent of the Irish Manannan mac Lir and a presumed sea god. ... In Welsh mythology, Math fab Mathonwy, also called Math ap Mathonwy (Math, son of Mathonwy) was a king of Gwynedd who needed to rest his feet in the lap of a virgin unless he was at war, or he would die. ... In Welsh mythology, Modron (divine mother) was a daughter of Avalloc, derived from the Gaul goddess Dea Matrona. ... In Welsh mythology, Nisien was the son of Penarddun and Eurosswydd and twin of Efnisien. ... King Leondegrance (sometimes Leodegrance, or some other minor variation) was, in Arthurian legend, the father of Queen Guinevere. ... In Welsh mythology, Olwen (white track) was a daughter of Ysbaddaden. ... In Welsh mythology, Penarddun was the wife of Llyr. ... In Welsh mythology, King Pryderi of Dyfed was the son of Pwyll and Rhiannon. ... This article is about the Welsh hero; for the impact crater on Europa, see Pwyll (crater). ... For the Stevie Nicks/Fleetwood Mac song, see Rhiannon (Will You Ever Win). ... Taliesin or Taliessin (c. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In Irish mythology, Mag Mell (plain of joy), also called Tír na nÓg (land of the young), Land of the Living, the Many-colored Land and the Promised Land, was a mythical realm achievable through death and/or glory. ... Sídhe (IPA , shee, modern Irish: sí; Scottish Gaelic: sìth) is an Irish and Scottish Gaelic word referring first to earthen mounds that were thought to be home to a supernatural race related to the fey and elves of other traditions, and later to these inhabitants themselves. ... Tír na nÓg, called in English the Land of Eternal Youth or the Land of the Ever-Young, was the most popular of the Otherworlds in Irish mythology, perhaps best known from the myth of Oisín and Niamh of the Golden Hair. ... In Irish mythology, Claíomh Solais (also known as The Sword of Light) was a sword that came from Gorias and belonged to Nuada Airgeadlámh (Nuada of the Silver hand), who was leader of the Tuatha Dé Danann and King of Ireland. ... In Irish mythology, Fragarach, known as The Answerer or The Retaliator was the sword of Manannan mac Lir and Lugh Lamfada. ... The Gáe Bulg (also Gáe Bulga, Gáe Bolg, Gáe Bolga, meaning notched spear, belly spear, bellows-dart, or possibly lightning spear) was the spear of Cúchulainn in the Ulster Cycle of Irish mythology. ... In Irish mythology the Tuatha Dé Danaan (peoples of the goddess Danu) had once lived near the Danube River but wandered to the Northern Isles where they learned many skills and magic in its four cities Fáilias, Gorias, Murias and Finias. ... This article is about the Gaelic holiday. ... The term Celtic Astrology is used to refer to the tree calendar invented by Robert Graves, freely based on the historical Ogham script, described in The White Goddess (1952). ... Imbolc is one of the four principal festivals of the Irish calendar, celebrated either at the beginning of February or at the first local signs of Spring. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Look up Samhain in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

References

  1. ^ Patrhenius, Love Stories 2, 30 [1]
  2. ^ "Celtine, daughter of Bretannus, fell in love with Heracles 1 and hid away his kine (the cattle of Geryon) refusing to give them back to him unless he would first content her. From Celtus 1 the Celtic race derived their name." (Ref.: Parth. 30.1-2). Retrieved on December 5, 2005.
  3. ^ (Lhuyd, p. 290) Lhuyd, E. "Archaeologia Britannica; An account of the languages, histories, and customs of the original inhabitants of Great Britain." (reprint ed.) Irish University Press, 1971. ISBN 0-7165-0031-0
  4. ^ *Lloyd and Jenifer Laing. Art of the Celts, Thames and Hudson, London 1992 ISBN 0-500-20256-7
  5. ^ "Although many dictionaries, including the OED, prefer the soft c pronunciation, most students of Celtic culture prefer the hard c." MacKillop, J. "Dictionary of Celtic Mythology." New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. ISBN 0-19-869157-2
  6. ^ [2]
  7. ^ [3]
  8. ^ [4]
  9. ^ [5]
  10. ^ [6]
  11. ^ Galatas excepto sermone Graeco, quo omnis oriens loquitur, propriam linguam eamdem pene habere quam Treviros ("That the Galatians, apart from the Greek language, which they speak just like the rest of the Orient, have their own language, which is almost the same as the Treverans'.") S. Eusebii Hieronymi commentariorum in epistolam ad Galatas libri tres, in Migne, Patrologia Latina 26, 382.
  12. ^ Birkan, Kelten, p. 301.
  13. ^ "In April last year, research for a BBC programme on the Vikings revealed strong genetic links between the Welsh and Irish Celts and the Basques of northern Spain and southern France. It suggested a possible link between the Celts and Basques, dating back tens of thousands of years." English and Welsh are races apart
  14. ^ [7]
  15. ^ "study shows R1b is regional (panel C) in the Isles, and that parts of Ireland (coastal and nothern) have some of the lowest R1b genes in the region. Also this study used many more subject samples than other studies in Ireland"[8]
  16. ^ "By analyzing 1772 Y chromosomes from 25 predominantly small urban locations, we found that different parts of the British Isles have sharply different paternal histories; the degree of population replacement and genetic continuity shows systematic variation across the sampled areas."A Y Chromosome Census of the British IslesPDF (208 KiB)
  17. ^ Archeological site of Tavira, official website
  18. ^ Map of Celtic Lands. Retrieved on December 5, 2005.
  19. ^ Donnchadh O Corrain (January 1981). Celtic Ireland. Academy Press. 
  20. ^ Athenaeus The Deipnosophists, or, Banquet of the Learned of Athenaeus, Book XIII, pp. 961. The Literature Collection, University of Wisconsin Digital Collections,.
  21. ^ (January, 1994) "Neolithic wooden trackways and bog hydrology". Journal of Paleolimnology 12. 
  22. ^ http://www.nationaltrust.org.uk/main/w-ar_r_wal.pdfPDF (369 KiB) Beatrice Cauuet (Université Toulouse Le Mirail, UTAH, France)
  23. ^ Lambert, Pierre-Yves (2003). La langue gauloise. Paris, Editions Errance. 2nd edition. ISBN 2-87772-224-4. Chapter 9 is titled "Un calandrier gaulois"
  24. ^ Lehoux, D. R. Parapegmata: or Astrology, Weather, and Calendars in the Ancient World, pp63-5. PhD Dissertation, University of Toronto, 2000.
  25. ^ James, Simon (1993). "Exploring the World of the Celts" Reprint, 2002. pp-155.
  26. ^ The Coligny Calendar, Roman Britain, 2/10/01: [9]
  27. ^ Celtic Astrology [10]
  28. ^ Ellis, Peter Berresford (1996). "Early Irish Astrology: An Historical Argument". Réalta vol.3 (issn.3). 
  29. ^ Ellis, Peter Berresford (1998). The Celts: A History. Caroll & Graf, pp.49-50. ISBN 0-786-71211-2. 
  30. ^ Roman History Volume IX Books 71-80, Dio Cassiuss and Earnest Carry translator (1927), Loeb Classical Library ISBN-10: 0674991966.
  31. ^ Bitel, Lisa M. (1996). Land of Women: Tales of Sex and Gender from Early Ireland. Cornell University Press, p.212. ISBN 0-801-48544-4. 
  32. ^ Tierney, J. J. (1960). The Celtic Ethnography of Posidonius, PRIA 60 C. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, pp1.89-275. 
  33. ^ Rankin, David (1996). Celts and the Classical World. Routledge, p.80. ISBN 0-415-15090-6. 
  34. ^ Ellis, Peter Berresford (1998). The Celts: A History. Caroll & Graf, pp.89-90. ISBN 0-786-71211-2. 
  35. ^ Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Roman Antiquities p259 Excerpts from Book XIV
  36. ^ Ellis, Peter Berresford (1998). The Celts: A History. Caroll & Graf, pp.60-3. ISBN 0-786-71211-2. 
  37. ^ Sjoestedt, Marie-Louise (1982) Gods and Heroes of the Celts. Translated by Myles Dillon, Berkeley, CA, Turtle Island Foundation ISBN 0-913666-52-1, pp. 24-46.
  38. ^ Sjoestedt (1982) pp.16, 24-46.
  39. ^ Sjoestedt (1982) pp.xiv-xvi, 14-46.
  40. ^ Cunliffe, Barry, (1997) The Ancient Celts. Oxford, Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-815010-5, pp.202, 204-8.
  41. ^ Sjoestedt (1982) pp.xxvi-xix.
  42. ^ Julius Caesar, Commentarii de Bello Gallico 1.1: "All Gaul is divided into three parts, one of which the Belgae live, another in which the Aquitani live, and the third are those who in their own tongue are called Celts (Celtae), in our language Gauls (Galli).

December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Portable Document Format (PDF) is the file format created by Adobe Systems, in 1993, for document exchange. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Portable Document Format (PDF) is the file format created by Adobe Systems, in 1993, for document exchange. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... Gaius Julius Caesar [1] (Latin pronunciation ; English pronunciation ; July 12 or July 13, 100 BC or 102 BC – March 15, 44 BC), was a Roman military and political leader and one of the most influential men in world history. ... An 18th century edition of Commentarii de Bello Gallico Commentarii de Bello Gallico (literally Commentaries on the Gallic War in Latin) is an account written by Julius Caesar about his nine years of war in Gaul. ...

Bibliography

  • Alberro, Manuel and Arnold, Bettina (eds.), e-Keltoi: Journal of Interdisciplinary Celtic Studies, Volume 6: The Celts in the Iberian Peninsula, University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee, Center for Celtic Studies, 2005.
  • Collis, John. The Celts: Origins, Myths and Inventions. Stroud: Tempus Publishing, 2003. ISBN 0-7524-2913-2. Historiography of Celtic studies.
  • Coutinhas, José Manuel. "Callaeci Bracari - aproximação à identidade etno-cultural". Porto: Universidade Portucalense. 2006.
  • Cunliffe, Barry. The Ancient Celts. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997. ISBN 0-19-815010-5.
  • Cunliffe, Barry. Iron Age Britain. London: Batsford, 2004. ISBN 0-7134-8839-5
  • Cunliffe, Barry. The Celts: A Very Short Introduction. 2003
  • del Giorgio, J.F. The Oldest Europeans: Who are we? Where do we come from? What made European women different?. A.J.Place, 2006. ISBN 980-6898-00-1
  • Freeman, Philip Mitchell The earliest classical sources on the Celts: A linguistic and historical study. Diss. Harvard University, 1994. (link)
  • Gamito, Teresa J. - "The Celts in Portugal". In E-Keltoi. Journal of Interdisciplinary Celtic Studies, vol. 6. 2005.
  • Green, Miranda. Celtic Goddesses British Museum Press 1998.
  • Haywood. Historical Atlas of the Celtic World. 2001.
  • James, Simon. Exploring the World of the Celts 1993.
  • James, Simon. The Atlantic Celts - Ancient People Or Modern Invention? Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, August 1999. ISBN 0-299-16674-0.
  • James, Simon & Rigby, Valerie. Britain and the Celtic Iron Age. London: British Museum Press, 1997. ISBN 0-7141-2306-4.
  • Kruta, V., O. Frey, Barry Raftery and M. Szabo. eds. The Celts. New York: Thames & Hudson, 1991. ISBN 0-8478-2193-5. A translation of Les Celtes: Histoire et Dictionnaire 2000.
  • Laing, Lloyd. The Archaeology of Late Celtic Britain and Ireland c. 400–1200 AD. London: Methuen, 1975. ISBN 0-416-82360-2
  • Laing, Lloyd and Jenifer Laing. Art of the Celts, London: Thames and Hudson, 1992 ISBN 0-500-20256-7
  • MacKillop, James. A Dictionary of Celtic Mythology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998. ISBN 0-19-280120-1
  • McEvedy, Colin. The Penguin Atlas of Ancient History. New York: Penguin, 1985. ISBN 0-14-070832-4
  • Mallory, J. P. In Search of the Indo-Europeans: Language, Archaeology and Myth. London: Thames and Hudson, 1991. ISBN 0-500-27616-1.
  • Morse, Michael. How the Celts came to Britain.
  • Oppenheimer Stephen. The Origins of the British.
  • o'Rahilly, T. F. Early Irish History Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 1946.
  • Powell, T. G. E. The Celts. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1980. third ed. 1997. ISBN 0-500-27275-1.
  • Raftery, Barry. Pagan Celtic Ireland: The Enigma of the Irish Iron Age. London: Thames & Hudson, 1994. ISBN 0-500-27983-7.
  • Renfrew, Colin. Archaeology and Language: The Puzzle of Indo-European Origins. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990. ISBN 0-521-38675-6.
  • Rosser, ZH et al. "Y-chromosomal diversity in Europe is clinal and influenced primarily by geography, rather than by language.", Am J Hum Genet. 2000 Dec;67(6):1376-81.
  • Sykes, Bryan. The Blood of the British.
  • Ward-Perkins, Bryan. "Why Did The Anglo-Saxons Not Become More British?" in English Historical Review, June 2000.
  • Weale, M., et al. "Y Chromosome Evidence For Anglo-Saxon Mass Migration." in Society For Molecular Biology And Evolution, 2002.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Celts
  • Related Nordic-Celtic DNA material, at FamilyTreeDNA.com
  • Detailed map of the Pre-Roman Peoples of Iberia (around 200 BC), showing the Celtic territories

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