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Encyclopedia > Celluloid

Celluloid is the name of a class of compounds created from nitrocellulose and camphor, plus dyes and other agents. Generally regarded to be the first thermoplastic, it was first created as Parkesine in 1856 and as Xylonite in 1869 before being registered as Celluloid in 1870. Celluloid is easily molded and shaped, and it was first widely used as an ivory replacement. Celluloid is highly flammable and also easily decomposes, and is no longer widely used. Its most common uses today are the table tennis ball and guitar picks.[original research?] A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more different elements chemically bonded together in a fixed proportion by mass. ... Skeletal formula of nitrocellulose Ball-and-stick model of a section of nitrocellulose Nitrocellulose (also: cellulose nitrate, flash paper) is a highly flammable compound formed by nitrating cellulose through exposure to nitric acid or another powerful nitrating agent. ... R-phrases 11-20/21/22-36/37/38 S-phrases 16-26-36 RTECS number EX1260000 (R) EX1250000 (S) Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ... Parkesine is the trade-name for the first man-made plastic. ... One half of a bronze mold for casting a socketed spear head dated to the period 1400-1000 BC. There are no known parallels for this mold. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Ping Pong redirects here. ... Various guitar picks. ...

Contents

Nitrocellulose

Nitrocellulose-based plastics slightly predate celluloid: collodion, invented in 1848 and used as a wound dressing and emulsion for photographic plates, dried to a celluloid-like film. // Collodion is a solution of nitrocellulose in ether or acetone, sometimes with the addition of alcohols. ...


Alexander Parkes

The first celluloid as a bulk material for forming objects was made in 1856 in Birmingham, England, by Alexander Parkes, who was never able to see his invention reach full fruition. Parkes patented his discovery after realising that a solid residue remained after evaporation of the solvent from photographic collodion, he described it as a "hard, horny elastic and waterproof substance". This article is about the British city. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The first Celluloids were invented in Birmingham England by Alexander Parkes although he did not live to see their full impact on film. ...


Parkes patented it as a clothing waterproof for woven fabrics in the same year. Later in 1862, Parkes showcased Parkesine at the Great Exhibition in London where he was awarded a bronze medal for his efforts. Cellulose nitrate was dissolved in a small measure of solvent, this was then heated and rolled on a purpose built machine which extracted a proportion of the solvent. Finally, the use of pressure or dyes completed the manufacturing process. In 1866, Parkes tried again with his invention and he created a company to manufacture and market Parkesine but this failed in 1868 after trying to cut costs to enable further manufacture. This article is about 1862 . ... Parkesine is the trade-name for the first man-made plastic. ... A dye can generally be described as a coloured substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ...


Daniel Spill

One year after Parkesine failed, Daniel Spill created the Xylonite Company, to design and market a similar product to Parkesine. This failed and in 1874 Spill went bankrupt. Spill then reorganized and set up the Daniel Spill Company to continue production. He later pursued the Hyatt brothers over their patenting of celluloid. Daniel Spill was born in Winterbourne in Gloucestershire, England on 11 February 1832. ... For other uses, see Celluloid (disambiguation). ...


John Wesley and Isaiah Hyatt

In the 1860s, an American by the name of John Wesley Hyatt began experimenting with cellulose nitrate, with the intention of manufacturing billiard balls, which until that time were made from ivory. He used cloth, ivory dust, and shellac and in 1869 patented a method of covering billiard balls with the important addition of collodion, and formed the Albany Billiard Ball Company in Albany, New York to manufacture the product. In 1870, John, and his brother Isaiah, patented a process of making a "horn-like material" with the inclusion of cellulose nitrate and camphor. Alexander Parkes and Spill listed camphor during their earlier experiments, but it was the Hyatt brothers who recognized the value of camphor and its use as a plasticizer for cellulose nitrate. Isaiah coined the commercially viable material “celluloid” in 1872 as a specifically Hyatt product. John Wesley Hyatt (November 28, 1837 – 1920) was a U.S. inventor. ... Nitrocellulose (Cellulose nitrate, guncotton) is a highly flammable compound formed by nitrating cellulose (e. ... A close-up picture of American-style pool balls Billiard balls are used in cue sports, such as carom billiards, pool, and snooker. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that Textile be merged into this article or section. ... For the minimalist rock trio, see Shellac (band). ... Year 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ... // Collodion is a solution of nitrocellulose in ether or acetone, sometimes with the addition of alcohols. ... For other uses, see Albany. ... R-phrases 11-20/21/22-36/37/38 S-phrases 16-26-36 RTECS number EX1260000 (R) EX1250000 (S) Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ...


English inventor Daniel Spill took exception to the Hyatt's claim and pursued the brothers in a number of court cases between 1877 and 1884. The outcome was that Spill held no claim to the Hyatts' patents and that the true inventor of celluloid was in fact Alexander Parkes, due to his mentioning of camphor in his earlier experiments and patents. The judge ruled that all manufacturing of celluloid could continue, including the Hyatts' Celluloid Manufacturing Company. Celluloid was later used as the base for photographic film. Daniel Spill was born in Winterbourne in Gloucestershire, England on 11 February 1832. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The name Celluloid actually began as a trademark of the Celluloid Manufacturing Company first of Albany, NY, and later of Newark, New Jersey, which manufactured the celluloids patented by John Wesley Hyatt. Hyatt used heat and pressure to simplify the manufacture of these compounds. The name was registered in 1870, but after a long court battle between Spill and the Hyatt brothers a judge later ruled that the true inventor of celluloid (by process, not name) was Alexander Parkes. “(TM)” redirects here. ... Nickname: Map of Newark in Essex County Coordinates: , Country State County Essex Founded/Incorporated 1666/1836 Government  - Mayor Cory Booker, term of office 2006–2010 Area [1]  - Total 26. ...

Celluloid and sterling silver pen.
Celluloid and sterling silver pen.

Sterling silver is an alloy of silver containing 92. ...

Photography

English photographer John Carbutt founded the Keystone Dry Plate Works in 1879 with the intention of producing gelatin dry plates. The Celluloid Manufacturing Company was contracted for this work by means of thinly slicing layers out of celluloid blocks and then removing the slice marks with heated pressure plates. After this, the celluloid strips were coated with a photosensitive gelatin emulsion. It is not certain exactly how long it took for Carbutt to standardize his process, but it occurred no later than 1888. A 15 inch-wide sheet of Carbutt's film was used by William Dickson for the early Edison motion picture experiments on a cylinder drum Kinetograph. However, the celluloid film base produced by this means was still considered too stiff for the needs of motion picture photography. William Kennedy Laurie Dickson (August 3, 1860, Minihic-Sur-Rance, Brittany, France - September 28, 1935) was a Scottish inventor who is credited with the invention of the motion picture camera under the employ of Thomas Edison. ... Edison is the last name of a famous United States inventor: Thomas Edison Other people known by the name Edison: Charles Edison – son of Thomas Edison and Governor of New Jersey Edison Chen – popular Hong Kong teen idol Edison Carter, character in the television show Max Headroom A number of... For other uses see film (disambiguation) Film refers to the celluliod media on which movies are printed Film — also called movies, the cinema, the silver screen, moving pictures, photoplays, picture shows, flicks, or motion pictures, — is a field that encompasses motion pictures as an art form or as part of... Film base is a transparent substrate which acts as a support medium for the photosensitive emulsion that lies atop it. ...


By 1889, more flexible celluloids for photographic film were developed, and both Hannibal Goodwin and the Eastman Kodak Company obtained patents for a film product (Ansco, which purchased Goodwin's patent when he died, was eventually successful in an infringement suit against Kodak). This ability to produce photographic images on a flexible material (as opposed to a glass or metal plate) was a crucial step toward the advent of motion pictures. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Reverend Hannibal Goodwin (1822-1900), a Episcopal minister at the House of Prayer in Newark, New Jersey patented a method for making transparent, flexible film out of nitrocellulose. ... Eastman Kodak Company (NYSE: EK) is a large multinational public company producing photographic equipment. ... An Ansco B2 Speedex Junior Ansco was the name of a photographic company based in Binghamton, New York, which produced inexpensive cameras for most of the 20th century. ...


Formulation

A typical formulation of celluloid might contain 70 to 80 parts nitrocellulose, nitrated to 11% nitrogen, 30 parts camphor, 0 to 14 parts dye, 1 to 5 parts ethyl alcohol, plus stabilizers and other agents to increase stability and reduce flammability. Skeletal formula of nitrocellulose Ball-and-stick model of a section of nitrocellulose Nitrocellulose (also: cellulose nitrate, flash paper) is a highly flammable compound formed by nitrating cellulose through exposure to nitric acid or another powerful nitrating agent. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... R-phrases 11-20/21/22-36/37/38 S-phrases 16-26-36 RTECS number EX1260000 (R) EX1250000 (S) Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Look up dye in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ...


Products still made from celluloid include the table tennis ball, and some musical instrument accessories and parts: guitar picks and pickguards. Ping Pong redirects here. ... Various guitar picks. ... A pickguard (also known as scratchplate) is a piece of plastic or other laminated material that is placed under the strings on the body of a guitar. ...


See also

Eyeshades Green eyeshades are a type of visor that was worn most often from the late 1800s to the middle 1900s by accountants, telegraphers, copy editors and others engaged in vision-intensive, detail-oriented occupations. ...

External links

The Society of the Plastics Industry developed symbols for plastics so that they could be recycled easier. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
What is Celluloid? (526 words)
Celluloid is an early plastic that was easy to mold and shape and is generally awarded the honor of being the first thermoplastic.
Celluloid was made into a variety of products that are now considered to be collectible.
Celluloid was an important component in photographs and early film.
Celluloid (411 words)
Celluloid would go on to be extensively used in the toy and novelty industries.
Celluloid was widely used as a substitute for more expensive substances, such as ivory, amber, horn, whalebone, and tortoiseshell.
Celluloid allowed for a flexibility and brightness of pigmentation that had not been widely available before.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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