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Encyclopedia > Cellular pathology

Cellular pathology is the branch of general pathology studying the cellular basis of disease. Various normal functions of cell growth, metabolism, and division can fail or work in abnormal ways and lead to various diseases such as cancers. Pathology (from Greek pathos, feeling, pain, suffering; and logos, study of; see also -ology) is the study of the processes underlying disease and other forms of illness, harmful abnormality, or dysfunction. ... Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the structural and functional unit of all living organisms, and are sometimes called the building blocks of life. ... A disease is any abnormal condition of the body or mind that causes discomfort, dysfunction, or distress to the person affected or those in contact with the person. ... The term cell growth is used in two different ways in biology. ... A few of the metabolic pathways in a cell. ... Cell division is the process by which a cell (called the parent cell) divides into two cells (called daughter cells). ... When normal cells are damaged beyond repair, they are eliminated by apoptosis. ...

Various topics are studied by cellular pathologists:

Schematic of typical animal cell, showing subcellular components. ... Necrosis (in Greek Νεκρός = Dead) is the name given to unprogrammed death of cells/living tissue (compare with apoptosis - programmed cell death). ... Apoptosis In biology, apoptosis (from the Greek words apo = from and ptosis = falling, commonly pronounced ap-a-tow-sis[1]) is one of the main types of programmed cell death (PCD). ... Hans Baldung Grien: The Ages And Death, c. ... Autoimmune diseases arise from an overactive immune response of the body against substances and tissues normally present in the body. ...

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methods of study: - living tissue a) cell and tissue culture in an aseptic/sterile place has an incubation period of approximately 37 degrees celsius. using isotope labelling

b)there is also bacteriology using bacteria cultured in agar plates. using tissue samples that are cultured for example Tuberculosis.

- heat kills bacteria/cells it is used in the process of bacteriology and cytology (sputum)

- freeze liquid gases such as carbon dioxide and nitrogen are used to freeze bacterias, cells and tissues after freezing the process of cryotomy is used in order to cut a slice of frozen tissue.

- fix a) immersion in fluids (fixative) most common form of fixative are aldehydes for example formaldehyde and gluteraldehyde

b) perfusion is used in research for optimum quality of results

c) fixatives in a gaseous state liquids are heated to produce gas, this reduces solubilisation delocalisation and/or loss of cells or constituents.

Why Fix? - retain a life like quality(vivo like) - stop autolysis( self destruction by enzymes) - stop putrefacation(bacterial growth) - render the tissue suitable for subsuquent procedures.

there are many types of fixatives avaliable they are:- 1. coagulant's examples are Ethanol, Acetone, Piciric acid and mercuric chloride 2. non-coagulant's examples are Formaldehyde 3. Aldehyde's examples are formaldehyde and gluteraldehyde 4. Oxidising agents examples are osmium tetroxide, potassium permanganate and potassium dichronate. 5.Protein Denturing Agents examples are acetric acid, methanol and ethanol. 6. Other's piciric acid, mecuric acid.

  Results from FactBites:
UNC Molecular and Cellular Pathology Graduate Program Home Page (226 words)
Pathology is the study of disease (abnormal biology), and stands at the interface between medicine and biology.
Classical pathology focuses mainly on the diagnosis and the status of disease.
In contrast, contemporary experimental pathology is concerned with the laboratory investigation of disease mechanisms.
Highbeam Encyclopedia - Search Results for pathology (607 words)
pathology study of the cause of disease and the modifications in cellular function and changes in cellular structure produced in any cell, organ, or part of the body by disease.
He was professor of pathology (1892-1902) at the Army Medical School, Netley, and professor of experimental pathology, Univ. of London, and principal of the Institute of Pathology and Research (1902-46), St. Mary's Hospital, London.
At the Univ. of Chicago she taught pathology, becoming professor emeritus in 1945, and was a member (1911-43) of the staff of the Sprague Memorial Institute.
  More results at FactBites »



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