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Encyclopedia > Cello
Cello
Violoncello
Cello
Classification

Bowed string instrument) Look up cello in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (465x705, 138 KB) Cello, front and side view / Violoncello, Front- und Seitenansicht description: Cello, front and side view source: private photographer: Georg Feitscher date: 17 Mar 2005 other versions: Cello Uebersicht Teile. ... A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified with the purpose of making music. ... A string instrument (also stringed instrument) is a musical instrument that produces sound by means of vibrating strings. ...

Playing range
Related instruments
Musicians
  • List of Cellists

The violoncello, usually abbreviated to cello, or 'cello, plural celli (the c is pronounced [tʃ] as in the ch in "chips") is a bowed stringed instrument. A person who plays a cello is called a cellist. The cello is used as a solo instrument, in chamber music, and as a member of the string section of an orchestra. The playing range of a musical instrument is the region of pitch in which it can play, i. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (968x458, 3 KB) Range & tuning of a cello, self made with Sibelius3 & The Gimp File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Cello User:Shaile/cellotemp ... A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified with the purpose of making music. ... The Violin family of instruments was developed in Italy in the 17th Century. ... For the Anne Rice novel, see Violin (novel). ... The viola (French, alto; German Bratsche) is a bowed string instrument. ... Various sizes of viol, from Michael Praetorius Syntagma musicum (1618) Early Italian tenor viola da gamba, detail from the painting , by Raphael Sanzio, c. ... Side and front views of a modern double bass with a French bow. ... A string instrument (also stringed instrument) is a musical instrument that produces sound by means of vibrating strings. ... Alternate meaning: Cello web browser A cropped image to show the relative size of a cello to a human (Uncropped Version) The cello (also violoncello or cello) is a stringed instrument and part of the violin family. ... Chamber music is a form of classical music, written for a small group of instruments which traditionally could be accommodated in a palace chamber. ... The string section of an orchestra is the section containing bowed string instruments. ...

Contents

Description

The name cello is an abbreviation of the Italian violoncello, which means "little violone", referring not to the double bass but to the slightly larger (and now uncommon) instrument the bass violin which was sometimes tuned a whole step lower than the cello. The violone (literally large viol in Italian, -one being the augmentative suffix) is a musical instrument of the viol family. ... Side and front views of a modern double bass with a French bow. ... A woodcut of an early five-string bass violin (Bas-Geig de bracio) from Michael Praetorius Syntagma musicum, 1619 The bass violin was the direct ancestor of the cello. ...


The cello is most closely associated with European classical music. It is part of the standard orchestra and is the bass voice of the string quartet, as well as being part of many other chamber groups. A large number of concertos and sonatas have been written for it. It is less common in popular music, but is sometimes featured in pop and rock recordings. The cello has also been modified for Indian classical music by Saskia Rao-de Haas. Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ... For the song titled Orchestra, see The Servant (band). ... The resident string quartet of the Library of Congress in 1963 A string quartet is a musical ensemble of four string instruments—usually two violins, a viola and cello—or a piece written to be performed by such a group. ... Chamber music is a form of classical music, written for a small group of instruments which traditionally could be accommodated in a palace chamber. ... A violoncello concerto is a concerto for solo violoncello with orchestra or, very occasionally, smaller groups of instruments. ... A cello sonata usually denotes a sonata written for cello and piano, though other instrumentations are used, such as solo cello. ... For the music genre, see Pop music. ... For other uses, see Pop music (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rock music (disambiguation). ... The origins of Indian classical music can be found from the oldest of scriptures, part of the Hindu tradition, the Vedas. ... Saskia Rao-de Haas is a Dutch cellist based in Delhi, India. ...


Among the most famous Baroque works for the cello are J. S. Bach's six unaccompanied Suites. In the Classical era the two concertos by Joseph Haydn in C major and D major stand out. Romantic era repertoire includes the Concerto by Antonín Dvořák, Elgar's Cello Concerto in E minor, and the two sonatas by Brahms. Compositions from the early 20th century include unaccompanied cello sonatas by Zoltán Kodály (Op.8), Paul Hindemith (Op.25) and W.H. Squire . The cello's versatility made it popular with composers in the mid- to late twentieth century, encouraged by soloists who specialized in contemporary music (such as Siegfried Palm and Mstislav Rostropovich) commissioning from and collaborating with composers. For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ... “Bach” redirects here. ... The first page from the manuscript by Anna Magdalena Bach of Suite No. ... The Classical period in Western music occurred from about 1730 through 1820, despite considerable overlap at both ends with preceding and following periods, as is true for all musical eras. ... “Haydn” redirects here. ... The Cello Concerto No. ... Joseph Haydns Concerto No. ... Romantic music is defined as the period of European classical music that runs roughly from the early 1800s to the first decade of the 20th century, as well as music written according to the norms and styles of that period. ... Antonín Dvořáks Cello Concerto in B minor, Opus 104 is one of the most well-known cello concerti. ... Antonín Leopold Dvořák ( ; September 8, 1841 – May 1, 1904) was a Czech composer of Romantic music, who employed the idioms and melodies of the folk music of his native Bohemiaand Moravia in symphonic, oratorial, chamber and operatic works. ... Sir Edward Elgar Sir Edward William Elgar, 1st Baronet, OM, GCVO (2 June 1857 – 23 February 1934) was an English Romantic composer. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Johannes Brahms Johannes Brahms (May 7, 1833 – April 3, 1897) was a German composer of the Romantic period. ... Zoltán Kodály (IPA: ), (pronunciation, Zol-tan Kod-eye) (November 16, 1882 – March 6, 1967) was a Hungarian composer, ethnomusicologist, educator, linguist and philosopher. ... Paul Hindemith aged 28. ... Mstislav Leopoldovich Rostropovich KBE (Russian: Мстисла́в Леопо́льдович Ростропо́вич, Mstislav Leopoldovič Rostropovič, IPA: ), (March 27, 1927 – April 27, 2007), known to close friends as “Slava”, was a Russian cellist and conductor. ...


Tuning and range

The pitch of the cello's open strings.

The cello has four strings referred to either by number or by their standard tuning, which is in perfect fifth intervals: the A string (I, the highest sounding), D string (II), G string (III), and C string (IV, the lowest sounding). The A string is tuned to the pitch A3 (just below middle C), the D string a fifth lower at D3, the G string a fifth below that at G2, and the C string tuned to C2 (two octaves lower than middle C). The strings are one octave lower than the viola, and one octave plus one fifth lower than the violin. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A vibration in a string is a wave. ... The perfect fifth or diapente is one of three musical intervals that span five diatonic scale degrees; the others being the diminished fifth, which is one semitone smaller, and the augmented fifth, which is one semitone larger. ... In Western music, the expression middle C refers to the note C or Do located exactly between the two staves of the grand staff, quoted as C4 in note-octave notation (also known as scientific pitch notation). ... For other uses, see Octave (disambiguation). ... In Western music, the expression middle C refers to the note C or Do located exactly between the two staves of the grand staff, quoted as C4 in note-octave notation (also known as scientific pitch notation). ...


Some pieces require an altered tuning of the strings known as scordatura, The two most well-known examples are the fifth of Bach's 6 Suites for Unaccompanied Cello (C2-G2-D3-G3) and Zoltán Kodály's Sonata opus 8 (B1-F2-D3-A3). The sixth of Bach's 6 Suites for Unaccompanied Cello was written for an instrument with five strings tuned C2-G2-D3-A3-E4. This may be the violoncello piccolo, a smaller cello with five strings that fell out of use in the mid-eighteenth century. A scordatura (literally Italian for mistuning) is an alternate tuning used for the open strings of a string instrument. ... The first page from the manuscript by Anna Magdalena Bach of Suite No. ... Zoltán Kodály (IPA: ), (pronunciation, Zol-tan Kod-eye) (November 16, 1882 – March 6, 1967) was a Hungarian composer, ethnomusicologist, educator, linguist and philosopher. ... The first page from the manuscript by Anna Magdalena Bach of Suite No. ...


The range of the cello is limited at the lower end by the tuning of the lowest string; at the upper end it varies. A comfortable upper limit for professional cellists is C6 (two octaves above middle C), although up to one extra octave is available. The highest stopped pitch on the fingerboard is somewhere around F6, but some composers have written higher: for example, Zoltán Kodaly's Sonata opus 8 requires a B6 to be played in the concluding measures.


Music for the cello is written in bass clef with changes to tenor clef or treble clef when necessary to avoid too many ledger lines. Composers before about 1900 usually followed an older convention which largely avoided use of the tenor clef, writing instead in the treble clef with notes sounding an octave lower than written; except when the treble clef followed a passage in tenor clef, when it was to be played at the written pitch. A late example of this usage is the trio arrangement attributed to Hans Eisler of the Serenade from Schoenberg's Septet op. 24. For other senses of this word, see clef (disambiguation). ... For other senses of this word, see clef (disambiguation). ... For other senses of this word, see clef (disambiguation). ... Ledger lines above the staff, using eighth notes. ... Hanns Eisler (July 6, 1898 - September 6, 1962) was a German and Austrian composer. ... Arnold Schoenberg, Los Angeles, 1948 Arnold Schoenberg, (the anglicized form of Schönberg—Schoenberg changed the spelling officially when he became a U.S. citizen) (September 13, 1874 – July 13, 1951) was a composer, born in Vienna, Austria. ...

The construction of a cello

Image File history File links Violincello_anotations. ... Image File history File links Violincello_anotations. ...

Construction

Body

The cello is typically made from wood. A traditional cello has a spruce top, with maple for the back, sides, and neck. Other woods, such as poplar or willow, are sometimes used for the back and sides. Less expensive celli frequently have tops and backs made of laminated wood. Species About 35; see text. ... For other uses, see Maple (disambiguation). ... This article is about woody plants of the genus Populus. ... Species About 350, including: Salix acutifolia - Violet Willow Salix alaxensis - Alaska Willow Salix alba - White Willow Salix alpina - Alpine Willow Salix amygdaloides - Peachleaf Willow Salix arbuscula - Mountain Willow Salix arbusculoides - Littletree Willow Salix arctica - Arctic Willow Salix atrocinerea Salix aurita - Eared Willow Salix babylonica - Peking Willow Salix bakko Salix barrattiana... Towers of Hanoi constructed from plywood. ...


The top and back are traditionally hand-carved, though less expensive celli are often machine-produced. The sides, or ribs, are made by heating the wood and bending it around forms. The cello body has a wide top bout, narrow middle formed by two C-bouts, and wide bottom bout, with the bridge and sound holes just below the middle. A Violin Bridge blank and finished bridge A bridge is a device for supporting the strings on a stringed instrument and transmitting the vibration of those strings to some other structural component of the instrument in order to transfer the sound to the surrounding air balls. ... A cello with f-holes A guitar with a round hole A sound hole is a hole in the upper sounding board of a string musical instrument. ...


The top and back of the cello has decorative border inlay known as purfling. Purfling is a narrow decorative wooden strip inlaid into the top and (often) bottom plates of stringed instruments. ...


Cello manufacturer Luis & Clark constructs celli from carbon fiber. Carbon fiber cellos are particularly suitable for outdoor playing because of the strength of the material and its resistance to humidity and temperature fluctuations. Luis and Clark is a line of carbon fiber stringed instruments designed by cellist Luis Leguía of the Boston Symphony Orchestra. ... Carbon fiber composite is a strong, light and very expensive material. ...


Neck, pegbox, and scroll

Above the main body is the carved neck, which leads to a pegbox and the scroll. The neck, pegbox, and scroll are normally carved out of a single piece of wood. Attached to the neck and extending over the body of the instrument is the fingerboard. The nut is a raised piece of wood, where the fingerboard meets the pegbox, which the strings rest on. The pegbox houses four tuning pegs, one for each string. The pegs are used to tune the cello by either tightening or loosening the string. The scroll is a traditional part of the cello and all other members of the violin family. Ebony is usually used for the tuning pegs, fingerboard, and nut, but other hard woods, such as boxwood or rosewood, can be used. A pegbox is the part of certain stringed musical instruments (violin, viola, cello, double bass) that houses the tuning pegs. ... The scroll of a double bass A scroll is the decoratively carved end of the pegbox on certain stringed instruments, mainly members of the violin family. ... The nut of a string instrument is a small strip or block of hard material forming a transition between the strings playing length and the tuning machines on the headstock, or the tuning pegs in the pegbox at the upper end of the fingerboard. ... Tuning Peg is a small peg that is used to hold a string for a stringed instrument. ... The Violin family of instruments was developed in Italy in the 17th Century. ... For other uses, see Ebony (disambiguation). ... This article is about the box tree. ... Rosewood refers to a number of richly hued timbers, brownish with darker veining. ...


Strings

Strings on a cello have cores made out of gut, metal, or synthetic materials, such as Perlon. Cellists may mix different types of strings on their instruments. A string is a vibrating element used on many musical instruments, such as the violin, guitar, harp, and piano. ... Catgut is the name applied to cord of great toughness and tenacity prepared from the intestines of sheep/goat, or occasionally from those of the hog, horse, mule, pig, and donkey. ... For other uses of this word, see nylon (disambiguation). ...


Tailpiece and endpin

The tailpiece and endpin are found in the lower part of the cello. The tailpiece is traditionally made of ebony or another hard wood, but can also be made of plastic or steel. It attaches the strings to the lower end of the cello, and can have one or more fine tuners. The endpin or spike is made of wood, metal or rigid carbon fiber and supports the cello in playing position. Modern endpins are retractable and adjustable; older ones were removed when not in use. (The word endpin also means the button of wood located at this place in all instruments in the violin family.) The sharp tip of the cello's endpin is sometimes capped with a rubber tip that prevents the cello from slipping on the floor. The tailpiece is an element found in all musical instruments of the violin family. ... For other uses, see Ebony (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ...


Bridge and f-holes

The bridge of a cello, with a mute
The bridge of a cello, with a mute

The bridge elevates the strings above the cello and transfers their vibrations to the top of the instrument and the soundpost inside (see below). The bridge is not glued, but rather held in place by the tension of the strings. The f-holes (named for their shape) are located on either side of the bridge, and allow air to move in and out of the instrument to produce sound. Additionally, the f-holes act as access points to the interior of the cello for repairs or maintenance. Sometimes a small hose called a Dampit, containing a water-soaked sponge, is inserted through the f-holes, and serves as a humidifier. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1991x1728, 380 KB) Description A close-up of the bridge area on a cello Author Turidoth File uploaded by Phyzome for w:en:User:Turidoth through the File upload service. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1991x1728, 380 KB) Description A close-up of the bridge area on a cello Author Turidoth File uploaded by Phyzome for w:en:User:Turidoth through the File upload service. ... A Violin Bridge blank and finished bridge A bridge is a device for supporting the strings on a stringed instrument and transmitting the vibration of those strings to some other structural component of the instrument in order to transfer the sound to the surrounding air balls. ... A cello with f-holes A guitar with a round hole A sound hole is a hole in the upper sounding board of a string musical instrument. ... A dampit is a humidifier which can be placed inside a musical instrument to avoid possible damage caused by dehumidification. ...


Internal features

Internally, the cello has two important features: a bass bar, which is glued to the underside of the top of the instrument, and a round wooden sound post, which is wedged between the top and bottom plates. The bass bar, found under the bass foot of the bridge, serves to support the cello's top and distribute the vibrations. The sound post, found under the treble side of the bridge, connects the back and front of the cello. Like the bridge, the sound post is not glued, but is kept in place by the tensions of the bridge and strings. Together, the bass bar and sound post transfer the strings' vibrations to the top (front) of the instrument (and to a lesser extent the back), acting as a diaphragm to produce the instrument's sound. In a string instrument, the bass bar is a brace running from the foot of the neck to a position under the bridge, which bears much of the tension of the strings. ... In a string instrument, the sound post is a small dowel inside the instrument directly under the treble end of the bridge, spanning the space between the top and back plates and held in place by friction. ... In a loudspeaker, a diaphragm is the thin, semi-rigid membrane attached to the central magnet. ...


Glue

Cellos are constructed and repaired using hide glue, which is strong but reversible, allowing for disassembly when needed. Tops may be glued on with diluted glue, since some repairs call for the removal of the top. Theoretically, hide glue is weaker than the body's wood, so as the top or back shrinks side-to-side, the glue holding it will let go, avoiding a crack in the plate. However, in reality this does not always happen. An animal glue is an adhesive that is created by prolonged boiling of animal connective tissue. ...


Bow

A cello bow.
A cello bow.

Traditionally, bows are made from pernambuco or brazilwood. Both come from the same species of tree (Caesalpina echinata), but pernambuco, used for higher-quality bows, is the heartwood of the tree and is darker in color than brazilwood (which is sometimes stained to compensate). Pernambuco is a heavy, resinous wood with great elasticity which makes it an ideal wood for instrument bows. Image File history File links Bow_hand_Violoncello. ... Image File history File links Bow_hand_Violoncello. ... A cello bow In music, a bow is a device pulled across the strings of a string instrument in order to make them vibrate and emit sound. ... Brazilwood is a common name for several trees of the family Leguminosae (Pulse family) whose wood yields a red dye called brazilein. ...


Bow sticks are also made from carbon-fiber, which is stronger than wood. Inexpensive, low-quality student bows are often made from fiberglass. An average cello bow is 73 cm long, 3 cm high (from the frog to the stick) and 1.5 cm wide.


The bow hair is horsehair, though synthetic hair in different colors is also available. The hair is coated with rosin by the player to make it grip the strings and cause them to vibrate. Bows need to be re-haired periodically, especially if the hairs break frequently or lose their gripping quality. The hair is kept under tension while playing by a screw which pulls the frog (the part of the bow under the hand) back. Horsehair refers to hair taken from the mane or tail of horses. ... A 20 g cake of amber violin bow rosin. ...


Development

The cello developed from the bass violin, first referred to by Jambe de Fer in 1556, which was originally a three-string instrument. The first instance of a composer specifying the bass violin may have been Gabrieli in Sacrae symphoniae, 1597[citation needed]). Monteverdi refered to the instrument as "basso de viola da braccio" in Orfeo (1607). Although the first bass violin, possibly invented by Amati as early as 1538, was most likely inpired by the viol, it was created to be used in consorts with the violin. The bass violin was actually often referred to as a "violone," or "large viola," as were the viols of the same period. Instruments that share features with both the bass violin and the viola de gamba appear in Italian art of the early 1500s. A woodcut of an early five-string bass violin (Bas-Geig de bracio) from Michael Praetorius Syntagma musicum, 1619 The bass violin was the direct ancestor of the cello. ... Philibert Jambe de Fer (fl. ... Giovanni Gabrieli Giovanni Gabrieli (c. ...


The invention of wire-wound strings (fine wire around a thin gut core), around 1660 in Bologna, allowed for a finer bass sound than was possible with purely gut strings on such a short body. Bolognese makers exploited this new technology to create the cello, a somewhat smaller instrument suitable for solo repertoire due to both the timbre of the instrument and the fact that the smaller size made it easier to play virtuosic passages. This instrument had disadvantages as well, however. The cello's light sound was not as suitable for church and ensemble playing, so it had to be doubled by basses or violones. The strings of a harp A string is the vibrating element which is the source of vibration in string instruments, such as the guitar, harp, piano, and members of the violin family. ... For the food product, see Bologna sausage. ... A virtuoso (from Italian virtuoso, late Latin virtuosus, Latin virtus meaning: skill, manliness, excellence) is an individual who possesses outstanding technical ability at singing or playing a musical instrument. ... Side and front views of a modern double bass with a French bow. ... The violone (literally large viol in Italian, -one being the augmentative suffix) is a musical instrument of the viol family. ...


Around 1700, Italian players popularized the cello in northern Europe, although the bass violin continued to be used for another two decades in France and England.[citation needed] Many existing bass violins were literally cut down in size in order to convert them into cellos The sizes, names, and tunings of the cello varied widely by geography and time.[1] The size was not standardized until around 1750.


Despite similarities to the viola da gamba, the cello is actually part of the viola da braccio family, meaning "viol of the arm", which includes, among others, the violin and viola. Though paintings like Bruegel's "The Rustic Wedding" and de Fer in his Epitome Musical suggest that the bass violin had alternate playing positions, these were short-lived and the more practical and ergonomic a gamba position eventually replaced them entirely. Various sizes of viol, from Michael Praetorius Syntagma musicum (1618) Early Italian tenor viola da gamba, detail from the painting , by Raphael Sanzio, c. ... The Violin family of instruments was developed in Italy in the 17th Century. ... For the Anne Rice novel, see Violin (novel). ... The viola (French, alto; German Bratsche) is a bowed string instrument. ... Jan Brueghel the Elder (1568-1625) was a Flemish painter, son of Pieter Brueghel the Elder and father of Jan Brueghel the Younger. ...


Baroque era cellos differed from the modern instrument in several ways. The neck has a different form and angle which matches the baroque bass-bar and stringing. Modern cellos have an endpin at the bottom to support the instrument (and transmit some of the sound through the floor), while Baroque cellos are held only by the calves of the player. Modern bows curve in and are held at the frog; Baroque bows curve out and are held closer to the bow's point of balance. Modern strings normally have a metal core, although some use a synthetic core; Baroque strings are made of gut, with the G and C strings wire-wound. Modern cellos often have fine-tuners connecting the strings to the tailpiece, which make it much easier to tune the instrument. Overall, the modern instrument has much higher string tension than the Baroque cello, resulting in a louder, more projecting tone, with fewer overtones. For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ... Catgut is the name applied to cord of great toughness and tenacity prepared from the intestines of sheep/goat, or occasionally from those of the hog, horse, mule, pig, and donkey. ...


No educational works specifically devoted to the cello existed before the 18th century, and those that do exist contain little value to the performer beyond simple accounts of instrumental technique. The earliest cello manual is Michel Corrette's Méthode, thèorique et pratique pour apprendre en peu de temps le violoncelle dans sa perfection (Paris, 1741). Michel Corrette (1709 - 1795) French composer and author of method books. ...


Playing technique

A cellist
A cellist

Image File history File links Brikcius. ... Image File history File links Brikcius. ...

Body position

The cello is played while seated. Its weight is supported mainly by its endpin or spike, which rests on the floor; it is steadied on the lower bout between the knees of the seated player, and on the upper bout against the upper chest. The neck of the cello is above the player's left shoulder. The bow is drawn horizontally across the strings. In early times, female cellists sometimes played side-saddle, since it was considered improper for a lady to part her knees in public. A player's handedness does not alter the way the cello is held or used. In exceedingly rare cases the cello has been played in a mirror-image posture: this is usually because of a physical disability of one of the player's arms or hands which makes the required technique impossible for that side of the body. In such a situation, the player must decide whether or not to reverse the set-up of the cello (the string positions, bass-bar, sound post, fingerboard shape, and bridge carving are all asymmetrical). The endpin is the component of a cello or double bass that makes contact with the floor. ... A cello bow In music, a bow is a device pulled across the strings of a string instrument in order to make them vibrate and emit sound. ... For other uses, see Handedness (disambiguation). ...


Left hand technique

The position of the left hand fingers along the strings determine the pitch of the note. The closer to the bridge that the string is depressed, the higher in pitch will be the resulting sound, because the vibrating string length has been shortened. In the neck positions (which use just less than half of the fingerboard, nearest the top of the instrument), the thumb rests on the back of the neck; in thumb position (a general name for notes on the remainder of the fingerboard) the thumb usually rests alongside the fingers on the string. The fingers are normally held curved with each knuckle bent, with the fingertips in contact with the string. If a finger is required on two (or more) strings at once to play perfect fifths (in double stops or chords) it is used flat. In slower, or more expressive playing, the contact point can move slightly away from the nail to the pad of the finger, allowing a fuller vibrato.


Vibrato

Vibrato is a small oscillation in the pitch of a note, usually considered expressive. It is created by a partial rotation of the upper arm at the shoulder joint, which translates into a linear oscillation of the lower arm. The fixed point of contact of the fingertip on the string absorbs this motion by rocking back and forth. It is this change in the attitude of the fingertip to the string which causes the pitch to vary. Vibrato is a key expressive device, and a well-developed vibrato technique is an essential element of a modern cellist's skill. In some styles of music, such as that of the Romantic period, vibrato may be used on almost every note. However, in other styles, such as Baroque repertoire, vibrato is used only rarely, as an ornament. In any case, the choice of whether to use vibrato, and how much, is normally a stylistic decision on the part of the player. Typically, the lower the pitch of the note played, the wider and slower the vibrato. Vibrato is a musical effect where the pitch or frequency of a note or sound is quickly and repeatedly raised and lowered over a small distance for the duration of that note or sound. ... The era of Romantic music is defined as the period of European classical music that runs roughly from 1820 to 1900, as well as music written according to the norms and styles of that period. ... For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ...


Harmonics

Harmonics played on the cello fall into two classes; natural and artificial. Natural harmonics are produced by lightly touching (but not depressing) the string with the finger at certain places, and then bowing (or, rarely, plucking) the string. For example, the halfway point of the string will produce a harmonic that is one octave above the unfingered (open) string. Natural harmonics only produce notes that are part of the harmonic series for the string on which they occur. Artificial harmonics, in which the player depresses the string fully with one finger while touching the same string lightly with another finger, can produce any notes above middle C. They usually appear with the touching note a perfect fourth above the stopped note, which produces a sound two octaves above the stopped note, although other intervals are available. All harmonics produce a distinctive flute-like sound, and are usually performed without vibrato. In acoustics and telecommunication, the harmonic of a wave is a component frequency of the signal that is an integral multiple of the fundamental frequency. ... Pitched musical instruments are usually based on a harmonic oscillator such as a string or a column of air. ...


Glissando

Glissando ("sliding", in Italian) is an effect played by sliding the finger up or down the fingerboard without releasing the string. This causes the pitch to rise and fall smoothly, without separate, discernible steps. Glissando (plural: glissandi) is a musical term that refers to either a continuous sliding from one pitch to another (a true glissando), or an incidental scale played while moving from one melodic note to another (an effective glissando). ...


Right hand technique

In cello playing, the bow is much like the breath of a wind instrument player. Arguably, it is the major determinant in the expressiveness of the playing. The right hand holds the bow and controls the duration and character of the notes. The bow is drawn across the strings roughly halfway between the end of the fingerboard and the bridge, in a direction perpendicular to the strings. The bow is held with all five fingers of the right hand, the thumb opposite the fingers and closer to the cellist's body. The shape of the hand should resemble that of its relaxed state, with all fingers curved, including the thumb. The transmission of weight from the arm to the bow happens through the pronation (inward rotation) of the forearm, which pushes the index finger and to a lesser degree the middle finger onto the bow. The necessary counterforce is provided by the thumb. The little finger helps to control the angle of the bow to the string and is critical to control of the bow when it is off the string. (See also spiccato). A wind instrument is a musical instrument that contains some type of resonator (usually a tube), in which a column of air is set into vibration by the player blowing into (or over) a mouthpiece set at the end of the resonator. ... For other uses, see Fingerboard (disambiguation). ... In human and zoological anatomy (sometimes called zootomy), several terms are used to describe the location of organs and other structures in the body of bilateral animals. ... Spiccato is a bowing technique for stringed instruments in which the bow bounces lightly upon the string. ...


In English, the terminology for bow direction (down and up) is confusing. A downbow is drawn to the right of the player, and an upbow to the left. A downbow is drawn by first using the upper arm, then the forearm, then the wrist (turning slightly inward) in order to maintain a straight stroke. An upbow is drawn by moving first the forearm, then the upper arm, then the wrist (pushing slightly upward). The bow is mostly used perpendicular to the string being played. In order to perform string changes the whole arm is either lowered or lifted, with as little wrist movement as possible in order to maintain the angle to the string. However, flexibility of the wrist is necessary when changing the bow direction from up-bow to down-bow and vice versa. For very fast bow movements, the wrist is used to accomplish the horizontal movement of bow. For longer strokes, the arm is used as well as the wrist.


Tone production and volume of sound depend on a combination of several factors. The three most important ones are: bow speed, weight applied to the string, and point of contact of the bow hair with the string. A good player will be capable of a very even tone, and will counter the natural tendency to play with the most force with the part of the bow nearest to the frog or heel, and the least force near the tip. The closer to the bridge the string is bowed, the more projecting and brighter the tone, with the extreme (sul ponticello) producing a metallic, shimmery sound. If bowing closer to the fingerboard (sul tasto), the sound produced will be softer, more mellow, and less defined.


Double stops

Double stops involve the playing of two notes at the same time. Two strings are fingered simultaneously, and the bow is drawn so as to sound them both at once. Triple and quadruple stops may also be played (in a "broken" fashion), but are difficult to sustain because of the change in slope of the bridge. To extend the technique in this area, Frances-Marie Uitti has invented a two-bow system: one bow plays above the strings and one below, allowing for sustained triple and quadruple stops. A double stop, in music terminology, is the act of playing two notes simultaneously on a stringed instrument, for example a violin, a viola, a cello or a guitar. ... Composer-improviser-cellist Frances-Marie Uitti is renowned the world over for her interpretations of contemporary music and is famous for her extended technique using two bows simultaneously in one hand as well as her improvisational skills. ...


Pizzicato

In pizzicato playing, the string is plucked directly with the fingers or thumb. Usually this is done with the right hand, while the bow is held away from the strings by the rest of the hand or (for extended passages) set down. A single string can be played pizzicato, or double, triple, or quadruple stops can be played. Occasionally, a player must bow one string with the right hand and simultaneously pluck another with the left. This is marked by a "+" above the note. Strumming of chords is also possible, in guitar fashion. Jazz bass is played almost exclusively in pizzicato. ...


Col legno

Col legno is the technique in which the player uses the wood rather than the hair of the bow on the strings. Usually this is a percussive technique (properly called col legno battuto) with no sustaining of the sound. The much less common alternative is col legno tratto which requires that the wood is drawn across the string as the hair is in a normal bow stroke. Col legno (Italian for with the wood) is a method of playing bowed string instruments (particularly the violin, viola, cello, and double bass) whereby the strings are struck with the wood of the bow rather having the hair pulled across them. ...


Spiccato

In spiccato playing, the strings are not "drawn" by the bow hair but struck by it, while still retaining some horizontal motion, to generate a more percussive, crisp sound. It may be performed by using the wrist to "dip" the bow into the strings. Spiccato is usually associated with lively playing. On a violin, spiccato bowing comes off the string, but on a cello, the wood of the bow may rise briskly up without the hair actually leaving the string. Spiccato is a bowing technique for stringed instruments in which the bow bounces lightly upon the string. ...


Staccato

In staccato, the player moves the bow a small distance and stops it on the string, making a short sound, the rest of the written duration being taken up by silence. In musical notation, the Italian word staccato (literally detached, plural staccatos or staccati) indicates that notes are sounded in a detached and distinctly separate manner, with silence making up the latter part of the time allocated to each note. ...


Legato

Legato is a technique where the notes are smoothly connected without accents or breaks. In musical notation legato indicates that musical notes are played smoothly. ...


Sizes

Standard-sized cellos are referred to as "full-size". However, celli come in smaller (fractional) sizes, from "seven-eighths" and "three-quarter" down to "one-sixteenth" sized cellos (e.g. 7/8, 3/4, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/10, 1/16). The smaller-sized celli are identical to standard cellos in construction, range, and usage, but are simply 'scaled-down' for the benefit of children and shorter adults. A "half-size" cello is not actually half the size of a "full-size", but only slightly smaller. Many smaller cellists prefer to play a "seven-eighths" cello as the hand stretches in the lower positions are less demanding. Although rare, cellos in sizes larger than four-fourths do exist. Cellists with unusually large hands may play a slightly larger than full-sized cello. Cellos made before approximately 1700 tended to be considerably larger than those made after that date, and than those made and commonly played today. Around 1680, string-making technology made lower pitches on shorter strings possible. The cellos of Stradivari, for example, can be clearly divided into two models, with the style made before 1702 characterized by larger instruments (of which only three examples are extant in their original size and configuration), and the style made during and after 1702, when Stradivari, presumably in response to the "new" type of strings, began making cellos of a smaller size. This later model is the one most commonly used by modern luthiers.

Approximate dimensions for 4/4 size cello[2] Average size (cm) Average size (in)
Approximate width horizontally from A peg to C peg ends 16 6 - 5/16
Back length excluding half round where neck joins 75.5 29 - 12/16
Upper bouts (shoulders) 34 13 - 6/16
Lower bouts (hips) 44 17 - 5/16
Bridge height 9 3 - 9/16
Rib depth at shoulders including edges of front and back 12.5 4 - 15/16
Rib depth at hips including edges of front and back 12.8 5 - 1/16
Distance beneath fingerboard to surface of belly at neck join 2.2 14/16
Bridge to back total depth 26.7 10 - 8/16
Overall height excluding end pin 121 47 - 10/16
End pin unit and spike 5.5 2 - 3/16

Accessories

There are many accessories to the cello, (some more essential than others).

  • Cases are used to protect the cello and bow when traveling, and for safe storage.
  • Rosin, made from conifer resin, is applied to the bow hairs to increase the effectiveness of the friction, grip or bite, and allow proper sound production.
  • Endpin stops or straps (tradenames include Rockstop and Black Hole) keep the cello from sliding if the endpin does not have a rubber piece on the end (used on wood floors).
  • Wolf tone eliminators are sometimes placed on cello strings between the tailpiece and the bridge in order to eliminate acoustic anomalies known as wolf tones or "wolfs".
  • Mutes are used to change the sound of the cello by reducing overtones. Practice mutes (made of metal) significantly reduce the instrument's volume (they are also referred to as "hotel mutes").
  • Metronomes provide a steady tempo by sounding out a certain number of beats per minute. Many models can also produce a tuning pitch of A4 (440 Hz), among others.
  • Humidifiers are used to control and stabilize the humidity around and inside the cello and are popular with travelling cellist.
  • Tuners are used to tune the instrument.

Look up case in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A 20 g cake of amber violin bow rosin. ... Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † “Conifer” redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The endpin is the component of a cello or double bass that makes contact with the floor. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... A wolf tone, or simply a wolf, is a noise that is produced when a note played on a stringed instrument matches the natural resonating frequency of the instrument, producing a tone that is loud and harsh, and basically unwelcomed by most musicians. ... see also Guitar Mute A mute is a device which alters the timbre and/or reduces the volume of a musical instrument. ... A mechanical wind-up metronome in motion A digital metronome set to pulse at four beats per measure at a tempo of 130 BPM A metronome is any device that produces a regulated audible and/or visual pulse, usually used to establish a steady beat, or tempo, measured in beats... For other uses, see Tempo (disambiguation). ... In music, tuning is the process of producing or preparing to produce a certain pitch in relation to another, usually at the unison but often at some other interval. ... A humidifier is a household appliance that increases humidity (moisture) in a single room or in the entire home. ... A frequency counter is an electronic instrument, or component of one, that is used for measuring frequency. ... In music, tuning is the process of producing or preparing to produce a certain pitch in relation to another, usually at the unison but often at some other interval. ...

Current use

Orchestral

Cellos are part of the standard symphony orchestra. Usually, the orchestra includes eight to twelve cellists. The cello section, in standard orchestral seating, is located on stage left (the audience's right) in the front, opposite the first violin section. However, some orchestras and conductors prefer switching the positioning of the viola and cello sections. The principal, or "first chair" cellist is the section leader, determining bowings for the section in conjunction with other string principals, and playing solos. Principal players always sit closest to the audience. Orchestra at City Hall (Edmonton). ...


The cellos are a critical part of orchestral music; all symphonic works involve the cello section, and many pieces require cello soli or solos. Much of the time, celli provide part of the harmony for the orchestra. On many occasions, the cello section will play the melody for a brief period of time, before returning to the harmony. There are also cello concertos, which are orchestral pieces in which a featured, solo cellist is accompanied by an entire orchestra. The term Concerto (plural concertos or concerti) usually refers to a musical work in which one solo instrument is accompanied by an orchestra. ...


Solo

There are numerous cello concertos, notably 25 by Vivaldi, 3 by C.P.E. Bach, 2 by Haydn, and one each by Boccherini, Schumann, Saint-Saëns, Dvorak and Elgar, where the cello is accompanied by an orchestra. Beethoven's Triple Concerto for Cello, Violin and Piano and Brahms' Double Concerto for Cello and Violin are also part of the concertante repertoire although in both cases the cello shares solo duties with at least one other instrument. Moreover, several composers wrote large-scale pieces for cello and orchestra, which are concertos in all but name. The most important are Strauss' tone poem Don Quixote, Tchaikovsky's Variations on a Rococo Theme, Bloch's Schelomo and Bruch's Kol Nidrei. A violoncello concerto is a concerto for solo violoncello with orchestra or, very occasionally, smaller groups of instruments. ... Antonio Vivaldi Antonio Vivaldi (March 4, 1678, Venice – July 28, 1741, Vienna), nicknamed Il Prete Rosso, meaning The Red Priest, was an Italian priest and baroque music composer. ... Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach (Weimar, March 8, 1714 – December 14, 1788) was a German musician and composer, the second son of Johann Sebastian Bach. ... (Franz) Joseph Haydn (in German, Josef; he never used the Franz) (March 31, 1732 – May 31, 1809) was a leading composer of the classical period. ... Luigi Boccherini (February 19, 1743 – May 28, 1805) was a classical era composer and cellist from Italy, mostly known for one particular minuet from one of his string quintets, and the Cello Concerto in B flat major (G 482). ... Schumann is the name of several notable people: Robert Schumann (1810 - 1856), German composer (husband of composer Clara Schumann) Clara Wieck Schumann (1819 - 1896), German pianist and composer, (wife of composer Robert Schumann) Georg Schumann (1886 - 1945), German Communist and resistance fighter against the Nazis Georg Schumann (1866 - 1952), German... Charles Camille Saint-Saëns (IPA: [ʃaʁl. ... Dvořák is a common Czech surname (feminine form is Dvořáková). Spelling without diacritics is Dvorak. ... Edward Elgar Sir Edward William Elgar, Bt OM GCVO (June 2, 1857 – February 23, 1934) was a British composer, born in the small Worcestershire village of Broadheath to William Elgar, a piano tuner and music dealer, and his wife Ann. ... For the song titled Orchestra, see The Servant (band). ... “Beethoven” redirects here. ... Ludwig van Beethovens Concerto for Violin, Cello, Piano, & Orchestra in C Major, more commonly known as the Triple Concerto, was his 56th opus. ... Johannes Brahms Johannes Brahms (May 7, 1833 – April 3, 1897) was a German composer of the Romantic period. ... The Double Concerto in A minor, Op. ... This article is about the German composer of tone-poems and operas. ... A symphonic poem or tone poem is a piece of orchestral music in one movement in which some extra-musical programme provides a narrative or illustrative element. ... Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (Russian Пётр Ильи́ч Чайко́вский, sometimes transliterated as Piotr, Anglicised as Peter Ilich), (May 7, 1840 – November 6, 1893 (N.S.); April 25, 1840 – October... Ernest Bloch with children This article is about the composer. ... Max Christian Friedrich Bruch (Cologne, January 6, 1838 – Friedenau, October 20, 1920) was a German Romantic composer and conductor who wrote over 200 works, including a violin concerto which is a staple of the violin repertoire. ...


In the 20th century, the cello repertoire grew. This was due to the influence of virtuoso cellist Mstislav Rostropovich who inspired, commissioned and/or premiered dozens of new works. Among these, Prokofiev's Symphonia Concertante, Britten's Cello Symphony and the concertos of Shostakovich, Lutosławski and Dutilleux have already become part of the standard repertoire. In addition, Hindemith, Barber, Honegger, Villa-Lobos, Myaskovsky, Walton, Glass, Rodrigo, Arnold, Penderecki and Ligeti also wrote major concertos for other cellists (notably Gregor Piatigorsky, Siegfried Palm and Julian Lloyd Webber). Mstislav Leopoldovich Rostropovich KBE (Russian: Мстисла́в Леопо́льдович Ростропо́вич, Mstislav Leopoldovič Rostropovič, IPA: ), (March 27, 1927 – April 27, 2007), known to close friends as “Slava”, was a Russian cellist and conductor. ... Sergei Sergeyevich Prokofiev (Russian: , Sergej Sergejevič Prokofijev; April 27 (April 151 O.S.), 1891–March 5, 1953) was a Russian and Soviet composer who mastered numerous musical genres and came to be admired as one of the greatest composers of the 20th century. ... Edward Benjamin Britten, Baron Britten, OM CH (November 22, 1913 Lowestoft, Suffolk - December 4, 1976 Aldeburgh, Suffolk) was a British composer, conductor, and pianist. ... Dmitri Shostakovich in 1942 Dmitri Dmitriyevich Shostakovich   (Russian: , Dmitrij Dmitrievič Å ostakovič) (September 25 [O.S. September 12] 1906 – August 9, 1975) was a Russian composer of the Soviet period. ... Witold LutosÅ‚awski at his home. ... Henri Dutilleux (born January 22, 1916 in Angers, France) is one of the most important French composers of the second half of the 20th century, producing work in the tradition of Maurice Ravel, Claude Debussy, and Albert Roussel, but in a style distinctly his own. ... Paul Hindemith aged 28. ... Samuel Barber, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1944 Samuel Osborne Barber II (March 9, 1910 – January 23, 1981) was an American composer of classical music ranging from orchestral, to opera, choral, and piano music. ... Arthur Honegger in 1921. ... Heitor Villa-Lobos (March 5, 1887 - November 17, 1959) was a Brazilian composer, possibly the best-known classical composer born in South America. ... Nikolai Myaskovsky (ru: Николай Мясковский) (April 20, 1881 – August 8, 1950) was a Russian composer. ... Sir William Turner Walton, OM (March 29, 1902–March 8, 1983) was a British composer whose style was influenced by the works of Stravinsky, Sibelius and jazz. ... Philip Glass (born January 31, 1937) is a three-times Academy Award-nominated American composer. ... Joaquín Rodrigo (22 November 1901 – 6 July 1999) was a Spanish composer, and virtuoso pianist, of classical music. ... Sir Malcolm Arnold Sir Malcolm Henry Arnold, CBE (21 October 1921 – 23 September 2006) was an English composer. ... Krzysztof Penderecki. ... “Ligeti” redirects here. ... Piatigorsky in 1945 Gregor Piatigorsky (April 17, 1903 – August 6, 1976) was a Ukrainian cellist well known in his time. ... Julian Lloyd Webber (born April 14, 1951) is a British cellist. ...

There are also many sonatas for cello and piano. Those written by Beethoven, Mendelssohn, Chopin, Brahms, Grieg, Rachmaninoff, Debussy, Shostakovich, Prokofiev and Britten are the most famous. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Julian Lloyd Webber (born April 14, 1951) is a British cellist. ... Mstislav Leopoldovich Rostropovich KBE (Russian: Мстисла́в Леопо́льдович Ростропо́вич, Mstislav Leopoldovič Rostropovič, IPA: ), (March 27, 1927 – April 27, 2007), known to close friends as “Slava”, was a Russian cellist and conductor. ... A cello sonata usually denotes a sonata written for cello and piano, though other instrumentations are used, such as solo cello. ... A short grand piano, with the lid up. ... Ludwig van Beethoven Ludwig van Beethoven (baptized December 17, 1770 – March 26, 1827) was a German composer of Classical music, the predominant musical figure in the transitional period between the Classical and Romantic eras. ... Portrait of Mendelssohn by the English miniaturist James Warren Childe (1778-1862), 1839 Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, born and generally known as Felix Mendelssohn (February 3, 1809 – November 4, 1847) was a German composer and conductor of the early Romantic period. ... Chopin redirects here. ... Johannes Brahms Johannes Brahms (May 7, 1833 – April 3, 1897) was a German composer of classical music. ... Edvard Grieg Edvard Hagerup Grieg (15 June 1843 – 4 September 1907) was a Norwegian composer and pianist who composed in the romantic period. ... Sergei Vasilievich Rachmaninoff (Russian: , Sergej Vasilevič Rakhmaninov, 1 April 1873 (N.S.) or 20 March 1873 (O.S.) – 28 March 1943) was a Russian composer, pianist, and conductor, one of the last great champions of the Romantic style of European classical music. ... Claude Debussy, photo by Félix Nadar, 1908. ... Dmitri Dmitrievich Shostakovich (Russian Дмитрий Дмитриевич Шостакович) (September 25, 1906 – August 9, 1975) was a Russian composer of the Soviet period. ... Sergei Sergeyevich Prokofiev (Серге́й Серге́евич Проко́фьев) (April 271, 1891 – March 5, 1953) was one of the Soviet Unions greatest composers. ... Edward Benjamin Britten, Baron Britten, OM CH (November 22, 1913 Lowestoft, Suffolk - December 4, 1976 Aldeburgh, Suffolk) was a British composer, conductor, and pianist. ...


Finally, there are several unaccompanied pieces for cello, most importantly J.S. Bach's six Unaccompanied Suites for Cello (arguably the most important cello pieces), Zoltán Kodály's Sonata for Solo Cello and Britten's three Unaccompanied Suites for Cello. Other notable examples include Dutilleux' Trois Strophes sur le Nom de Sacher, Berio's Les Mots Sont Allés (both part of a series of twelve compositions for solo cello commissioned by Rostropovich for Swiss conductor Paul Sacher's 70th birthday), Ligeti and Carter's sonatas and Xenakis' Nomos Alpha and Kottos. A typical accompaniment pattern of a Mozart concert or aria. ... “Bach” redirects here. ... The first page from the manuscript by Anna Magdalena Bach of Suite No. ... Zoltán Kodály (IPA: ), (pronunciation, Zol-tan Kod-eye) (November 16, 1882 – March 6, 1967) was a Hungarian composer, ethnomusicologist, educator, linguist and philosopher. ... Edward Benjamin Britten, Baron Britten (November 22, 1913 – December 4, 1976) was a British composer and pianist. ... Henri Dutilleux (born January 22, 1916 in Angers, France) is one of the most important French composers of the second half of the 20th century, producing work in the tradition of Maurice Ravel, Claude Debussy, and Albert Roussel, but in a style distinctly his own. ... Luciano Berio (October 24, 1925 – May 27, 2003) was an Italian composer. ... Mstislav Leopoldovich Rostropovich (Мстисла́в Леопо́льдович Ростропо́вич) (born March 27, 1927) is a Russian cellist and conductor, considered to be... Paul Sacher (April 28, 1906 – May 26, 1999) was a Swiss conductor, patron and impresario. ... “Ligeti” redirects here. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Iannis Xenakis Iannis Xenakis (Ιάννης Ξενάκης) (May 29, 1922 Brăila – February 4, 2001 Paris) was a Greek composer and architect who spent much of his life in Paris. ...


Quartets and other ensembles

The cello is a member of the traditional string quartet as well as string quintets, sextet or trios and other mixed ensembles. There are also pieces written for two, three, four or more cellos; this type of ensemble is also called a "cello choir" and its sound is familiar from the introduction to Rossini's William Tell Overture as well as Zaccharias' prayer scene in Verdi's Nabucco. As a self-sufficient ensemble, its most famous repertoire is Villa-Lobos' first of his Bachianas Brasileiras for cello ensemble (the fifth is for soprano and 8 cellos). Another example is Boulez' Messagesquisse for 7 cellos. The Twelve Cellists of the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra (or "the Twelve" as they have since taken to being called) specialize in this repertoire and have commissioned many works, including arrangements of well-known popular songs. The resident string quartet of the Library of Congress in 1963 A string quartet is a musical ensemble of four string instruments—usually two violins, a viola and cello—or a piece written to be performed by such a group. ... A string quintet is an ensemble of five string instrument players or a piece written for such a combination. ... In classical music, a string sextet is a composition written for six string instruments, or a group of six musicians who perform such a composition. ... A string trio is a group of three string instruments or a piece written for such a group. ... Gioacchino Antonio Rossini (February 29, 1792 — November 13, 1868) was an Italian musical composer who wrote more than 30 operas as well as sacred music and chamber music. ... For other uses, see William Tell (disambiguation). ... VERDI is an acronym for the Italian unification movement, named after the composer Giuseppe Verdi (ardent supporter of the movement) VERDI stands for Vittorio Emmanuelle, Re D Italia (Victor Emmanuel, King of Italy) Categories: Historical stubs ... Nabucco is an opera in four acts by Giuseppe Verdi to an Italian libretto by Temistocle Solera, based on the biblical story and the play by Anicet-Bourgeois and Francis Cornu. ... Heitor Villa-Lobos (March 5, 1887 - November 17, 1959) was a Brazilian composer. ... The Bachianas Brasileiras is a series of nine suites by the Brazilian composer Heitor Villa-Lobos, written for various combinations of instruments between 1930 and 1935. ... Pierre Boulez Pierre Boulez (IPA: /pjɛʁ.buˈlÉ›z/) (born March 26, 1925) is a conductor and composer of classical music. ... The 12 cellists of the Berlin Philharmonic (Die 12 Cellisten der Berliner Philharmoniker) are 13 cellists, members of the Berlin Philharmonic as the name implies, who perform and record as an all-cello ensemble. ... The Berlin Philharmonic rehearsing in the Berliner Philharmonie. ...


Popular music and jazz

Though the cello is less common in popular music than in "classical" music, it is sometimes featured in pop and rock recordings. The cello is rarely part of a group's standard lineup (though like its cousin the violin it is becoming more common in mainstream pop). Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Prose is writing distinguished from poetry by its greater variety of rhythm and its closer resemblance to everyday speech. ... For the music genre, see Pop music. ... Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ... For other uses, see Pop music (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rock music (disambiguation). ... For the Anne Rice novel, see Violin (novel). ...


In the 1960s, artists such as the Beatles and Cher used the cello in popular music, in songs such as "Bang Bang (My Baby Shot Me Down)," "Eleanor Rigby" and "Strawberry Fields Forever". In the 1970s, the Electric Light Orchestra enjoyed great commercial success taking inspiration from so-called "Beatlesque" arrangements, adding the cello (and violin) to the standard rock combo line-up and in 1978 the UK based rock band, Colosseum II, collaborated with cellist Julian Lloyd Webber on the recording Variations. The White Album, see The Beatles (album). ... This article is about Cher, the entertainer. ... Bang Bang (My Baby Shot Me Down) is the name of a song written by Sonny Bono. ... For the novel by Douglas Coupland, see Eleanor Rigby (novel). ... Music sample Strawberry Fields Forever Problems? See media help. ... ELO redirects here. ... Colosseum II is a United Kingdom band that came from the ashes of the band Colosseum. ... Julian Lloyd Webber (born April 14, 1951) is a British cellist. ... Variations Andrew Lloyd Webber and Julian Lloyd Webber were always very close, but their two different careers (a classical cellist and a rock musical composer) meant that a collaboration seemed unlikely. ...


Established non-traditional cello groups include Apocalyptica, a group of Finnish cellists best known for their versions of Metallica songs, Rasputina, a group of two female cellists committed to an intricate cello style intermingled with Gothic music, Von Cello, a cello fronted rock power trio, The 440 Alliance, a cello ensemble including percussion and turntables, Break of Reality, and Primitivity. These groups are examples of a style that has become known as cello rock. The crossover string quartet bond also includes a cellist. Silenzium and Vivacello are Russian (Novosibirsk) groups playing rock and metal and having more and more popularity in Siberia. Apocalyptica is a Finnish musical group consisting of three, formerly four, classically trained cellists and, since 2005, a drummer. ... Metallica is a Grammy Award-winning American heavy metal/thrash metal band formed in 1981[1] and has become one of the most commercially successful musical acts of recent decades. ... Rasputina is a varying collection of cellists playing alternative rock. ... Aaron Minsky or Von Cello (stage name) is a rock cellist. ... The 440 Alliance is a cello band from Arlington, TX that consists of 4 cellists and a percussionist. ... Break of Reality Promotional Photo Break of Reality (BoR) is a cello rock band based in Rochester, NY, currently consisting of three cellist and drums. ... Apocalyptica in concert with Rammstein Cello metal is a subgenre of rock music characterized by the use of cellos (as well as sometimes also other bowed string instruments such as the violin and viola) as primary instruments, alongside or in place of more traditional rock instruments such as electric guitars... bond is an Australian/British string quartet that specialize in classical crossover music. ...


More recent bands using the cello are Aerosmith, Nirvana, Oasis, Murder by Death, and Cursive. So-called "chamber pop" artists like Kronos Quartet and Margot and the Nuclear So and So's have also recently made cello common in modern alternative rock. Heavy metal band System of a Down has also made use of the cello's rich sound. The indie rock band The Stiletto Formal are known for using a cello as a major staple of their sound. And Evanescence also use string sections in a number of there songs. This article is about the band Aerosmith. ... This article is about the American grunge band. ... Oasis is World-famous English rock band, formed in Manchester in 1991, led by lead guitarist and primary songwriter Noel Gallagher and his younger brother, lead vocalist and songwriter Liam Gallagher. ... Murder by Death (formerly known as Little Joe Gould) is a four-piece rock band from Bloomington, Indiana. ... Cursive is an indie rock band from Omaha, Nebraska, on Saddle Creek Records. ... Kronos Quartet in 2006. ... Margot and the Nuclear So and So’s are a collaboration of people from Indianapolis, Indiana. ... For the bands self-titled album, see System of a Down (album). ... The Stiletto Formal is a self-proclaimed eccentric rock and roll band from Phoenix, Arizona, and are one of the few rock bands featuring a cello and other exotic instruments and effects as an integral part of their sound. ... Evanescence is a Grammy Award-winning American alternative rock band founded in Little Rock, Arkansas in 1998 by singer Amy Lee and former guitarist Ben Moody. ...


The cello can also used in bluegrass and folk music.


The cello and the double bass are now also used in some modern Chinese orchestras[citation needed]. The term Chinese orchestra can refer to either: The ancient Chinese orchestra, or The modern Chinese orchestra // According to recent archaeological findings, ancient Chinese music was much more developed and sophisticated than is generally believed. ...


In jazz, the bassists Oscar Pettiford and Harry Babasin were among the first to use the cello as a solo instrument; Pettiford tuned his instrument in fourths, an octave above the double bass. Contemporary jazz cellists include Abdul Wadud, Diedre Murray, Ron Carter, Dave Holland, David Darling, Akua Dixon, Ernst Reijseger, Fred Lonberg-Holm, and Erik Friedlander. Oscar Pettiford (Okmulgee, Oklahoma, 30 September 1922-Copenhagen, Denmark, 8 September 1960) was an American jazz bassist, cellist and composer known particularly for his pioneering work in bebop. ... Abdul Wadud is a Pakistani Muslim author. ... Diedre Murray is an American cellist specializing in jazz, improvised music, and contemporary classical music. ... Ron Carter (born May 4, 1937, Ferndale, Michigan) is an American jazz bassist. ... Dave Holland (born October 1, 1946) is a jazz bassist and composer. ... David Darling (born March 4, 1941) is a cellist and composer. ... Ernst Reijseger (born 13 November 1954 in Bussum, Netherlands) is an improvising cellist who started playing at 8, went on to study classical music with Anner Bylsma before turning to jazz and other improvised music in the 1970s. ... This section does not cite its references or sources. ... A virtuosic veteran of NYCs downtown scene, Friedlander has backed John Zorn, Laurie Anderson and Courtney Love. ...


Instrument makers

Main article: Luthier

A luthier is someone who builds or repairs stringed instruments, ranging from guitars to violins. The following luthiers are notable for the cellos they have produced: An engravers impression of Antonio Stradivari examining an instrument. ...

Nicolò Amati (1596 - April 12, 1684) was an Italian luthiers from Cremona, a member of the Amati family. ... Nicolo Gagliano (fl. ... Matteo Goffriller (also Mateo Gofriller) (1659 in (Brixen:German) or (Bressanone: Italian) - 1742 in Venice) was a renowned 18th century Italian luthier, who made exceptionally great cellos. ... Giovanni Battista Guadagnini (also known as J. B. Guadagnini or Giambattista Guadagnini; June 23, 1711 - September 18, 1786) was an Italian musical instrument maker, one of the greatest luthiers (makers of violins and other string instruments) in history. ... Bartolomeo Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù (August 21, 1698 - October 17, 1744), more commonly known as Joseph Guarneri, is the only violin maker to rival Antonio Stradivari in the respect accorded to his instruments. ... Domenico Montagnana (1686-1750) was an Italian Master luthier based in Venice, Italy. ... Giovanni Battista Rogeri ( 1650 — 1705) was an Italian luthier. ... Francesco Ruggieri (c. ... Stefano Scarampella, Italian violin and cello maker, by some considered among the foremost of the 20th century. ... Antonio Stradivari examining an instrument, in a Romantic 19th-century print. ... David Tecchler (1666 – 1748) was an Austrian luthier, best known for his cellos and double basses. ... Carlo Giuseppe Testore (c 1665-1716) was a Luthier, noted in particular for his double basses. ... J.B.Vuillaume photo 1860 Moulin Workshop Jean Baptiste Vuillaume (October 7, 1798 – March 19, 1875) was an illustrious French violin maker. ...

Cellists

Main article: List of cellists

A person who plays the cello is called a cellist. For a list of notable cellists, see the list of cellists. See also Category:Cellists. A person who plays the cello is called a cellist. ... A person who plays the cello is called a cellist. ...


Media

  • Bach's Cello Suite #1 (Bwv1007), 1st movement - Prelude
    Bwv1007, first movement. Performed by John Michel
    Ave Maria
    Prelude No.1 in C Major from Well-Tempered Clavier Book I by J.S. Bach, later rewritten as Gounod's Ave Maria. Performed by John Michel
  • Problems playing the files? See media help.

Image File history File links JOHN_MICHEL_CELLO-J_S_BACH_CELLO_SUITE_1_in_G_Prelude. ... The first page from the manuscript by Anna Magdalena Bach of Suite No. ... Image File history File links JOHN_MICHEL_CELLO-BACH_AVE_MARIA.ogg‎ Source http://www. ... Title-page of Das wohltemperirte Clavier A flat major (As-dur) fugue from the second part of Das wohltemperirte Clavier (manuscript) The Well-Tempered Clavier (in the original German: Das wohltemperierte Clavier[1]) is a collection of solo keyboard music composed by Johann Sebastian Bach. ... Ave Maria is a popular and much recorded mélodie. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Cyr 1982
  2. ^ Alan Stevenson. Table of 'cello measurements. Retrieved on 10/26, 2007.

References

  • Cyr, Mary. "Basses and basse continue in the Orchestra of the Paris Opéra 1700-1764". Early Music XVIII (Apr., 1982): 155-170. 
  • Holman, Peter (1982). "The English Royal Violin Consort in the Sixteenth Century". Proceedings of the Royal Musical Association Vol. 109: pp. 39-59. 
  • The King Violoncello by Andrea Amati, Cremona, after 1538. Retrieved on 11/14/2007.
  • Woodfield, Ian [1984]. in Howard Mayer Brown, Peter le Huray, John Stevens: The Early History of the Viol. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0 521 24292 4. 

The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2001 The Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians is an encyclopedic dictionary of music and musicians, considered by most scholars to be the best general reference source on the subject in the English language. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The electric cello is a type of cello that relies on electronic amplification (rather than acoustic resonance) to produce sound. ... This is a compilation of major pieces for solo cello. ... This is a compilation of pieces for cello and piano. ... This is a list of musical compositions for cello and orchestra. ... Lou Harrisons Double Concerto for Violin and Cello with Javanese Gamelan was composed in 1981-1982 upon the request of Kenneth Goldsmith of the Mirecourt Trio after the completion of Scenes from Cavafy. ... A triple concerto is a concerto for piano trio (consisting of violin, violoncello and piano) and orchestra. ... Links to pages with Repertoire for Stringed instruments Violin Solo - List of compositions for Violin Solo Violin and Piano - Violin sonata#List of Violin sonatas Violin Concertos - List of compositions for violin and orchestra Viola Solo - Viola and Piano - Viola Concertos - Cello Solo - List of solo cello pieces Cello and...

External links

  • The Cello Wiki: A online wiki devoted to celli.
  • The Internet Cello Society: an online community of cellists; includes several forums.
  • cellist.nl: An international register of professional cellists, teachers, and students.
  • Apocalyptica: European Rock Cello Quartet (play both original pieces and Metallica songs)
  • Rasputina: "A Division of the Ladies' Cello Society" Cello Rock Trio.
  • Cello History: A brief history of the cello
  • A Cello Teacher Training Manual And Syllabus
  • Experimental Electric Violoncello at oddmusic.com
  • Von Cello The stage name of Aaron Minsky, famous composing cellist of works in various popular styles.

Aaron Minsky or Von Cello (stage name) is a rock cellist. ...

Listening

  • Bowed Radio (podcast focusing on new music for bowed string instruments)
  • Von Cello Cello fronted rock power trio.
  • Elgar Cello Concerto Performance


  Results from FactBites:
 
Cello Classics - exploring the wealth of cello repertoire (308 words)
Founded in April 2001 we are dedicated to releasing CDs of unexplored repertoire for the cello, played by some of the most exciting players of the past and the present, and introducing some of the cellists of the future.
Two sonatas, dedicated to Piatti and to Casals are heard alongside the 1909 Quartet for 4 cellos, first performed by Pablo Casals, Joseph Salmon, André Hekking and Diran Alexanian.
Their discovery and subsequent recording in 2004 of the Quintet in G by Arnold Bax was received to critical acclaim.
Cello Information (4309 words)
The violoncello, almost always abbreviated to cello (the c is pronounced [tʃ] as the ch in "cheese"), is a stringed instrument and a member of the violin family.
The cello reaches the lowest pitch in the traditional string quartet and is capable of covering nearly the entire range of pitches produced by the human voice.
Cellos are usually tuned to a reference pitch of A4 at 440 Hz, though tuning to other frequencies, such as 442 Hz is also common.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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